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AC 2 Final Exam Latest 2022 with complete solution

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Industrial Revolution time interval correct ans- 1760-1850 Where did the Industrial Revolution begin? correct ans- Great Britain Industrial Revolution correct ans- Period of burst of major invest... igation and economic expansion in certain industries 1760-1850 (term coined in 1830s) What made some places more "inventive" than others? correct ans- 1. Life expectancy -- live longer, more time to invent 2. Labor scarcity -- necessity is the mother of invention 3. Patent laws -- can't make profit off your invention without paying you (wouldn't invent if just got ripped off) 4. Education system -- more educated, better at inventing Individualism 5. Scientific outlook and tolerance for different ideas 6. Contact with other societies -- more diverse ideas exposed to, more likely to invent Why Britain first? correct ans- 1. Unique set of possibilities and constraints 2. Sci Rev + Enlightenment → more weight put on research and experimentation for understanding natural world 3. Intellectual culture -- embraced public sharing of knowledge 4. 17th century rural industry expansion → English woolen cloth surplus 5. Atlantic economy and trade with India and China also benefiting Britain by 18th century 6. Strong agricultural game 7. High wages, abundant food 8. Rich natural resources, well-developed infrastructure 9. High taxes → navy (strongest in the world) protecting imperial commerce and army to stop worker uprisings 10. High tariffs on imported goods → industries protected 11. Political stability 12. Stable banking system 13. Stable legal system (patents enforced) Britain's unique set of possibilities and constraints correct ans- -Abundant coal -High wages -Peaceful, centralized government -Well-developed financial systems -Powerful in empire & global trade (slavery included) Mercantilism in British colonies, power in Latin America, and the transatlantic slave trade led to what? correct ans- Abundance of raw materials (ex. cotton) and growing market for British manufactured goods Britain's strong agriculture correct ans- Continually adopting new methods of farming → increased farming efficiency → more food, smaller workforce How did high wages and abundant food help begin the Industrial Revolution in Britain? correct ans- 1. Average family did not need to spend everything just on food -- more buying of manufactured goods 2. Can pay to send kids to school → British more educated than rest of Europe Britain's geographical convienience correct ans- -Cheaper to ship goods by water than land -- no part of England further than 50 miles from navigable water +1770s canal-building boom to made this an even greater advantage -Abundance of coal, high wages in manufacturing -->Unique position that it was advantageous for manufacturers to develop new coalbased technologies to increase productivity --In regions with lower wages (ex, India, China) cost of creating new technologies outweighed gains in productivity Britain's political stability at onset of Industrial Revolution correct ans- No war fought on British soil in a long time, ppl more likely to feel comfortable investing How did Britain's stable banking system help begin the Industrial Revolution? correct ans- Trustworthy access to credit -- people more likely to invest Why did the Industrial Revolution NOT begin in Continental Europe? correct ans- 1. Violent French Revolution → many inventors left France and country recovering from turmoil 2. France also lacked natural resources -- not as much iron, coal as Britain 3. England running out of land, but France didn't have that issue -- agricultural system still doing well, not as much push into cities as in Britain 3. Much of coal in France in southern part -- hard to get there 4. Germany had lots of coal and iron, but divided into 39 separate states after Congress of Vienna and each of them had their own trade policies so to get goods (ex. coal) from one part to the other had to pay tariff each time passed thru a different state -- very costly to bring coal from one part of the country to another Scientific farming correct ans- Application of new technology such as the seed drill, crop rotation, and fertilization to the agricultural industry Crop rotation (Charles "Turnip" Townsend) correct ans- Ineffectiveness of 3 field system -If farm same land over and over again, crops wear out soil -3 field system divided field in 3 -- used 2 to farm and let other regenerate (but ⅓ completely unused) Townsend found different crops behaved differently **Wheat, corn, barley wear out soil **Turnips, clover regenerate soil By rotating different crops can produce [Show More]

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