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Psychology Exam Review: Question and Answers

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Marks: 1 The early perspective called Gestalt psychology has evolved into the current perspective called _______________. Choose one answer. a. behavioral psychology b. psychoanalysis ... c. social psychology d. cognitive psychology correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 John B. Watson believed that psychology should involve the study of _________. Choose one answer. a. the brain b. consciousness c. behavior d. the mind ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association EXCEPT __________________. Choose one answer. a. parents of infant participants must be informed about the study b. investigators must debrief participants c. participants may withdraw at any time d. debriefing may be omitted when young children are involved correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 According to present research on psychologists, thirty-four percent are in the ________________ subfield of psychology. Choose one answer. a. Industrial/Organizational b. Clinical correct c. Developmental d. Counseling Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 The placebo effect means _______________________. Choose one answer. a. the expectations of the participants influence their behavior correct b. all conditions in an experiment are the same c. that there is no control group d. experimenter bias causes the subjects to act strangely Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun control. Which research technique is being used? Choose one answer. a. case study b. survey correct c. experiment d. naturalistic observation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 Sallie noticed that when her alarm clock goes off in the morning her dog, Ruffles, is standing by her bed salivating. Every morning when Sallie wakes to the alarm, she immediately rolls out of bed and feeds Ruffles who very much enjoys his canned dog food. It is likely that ________________. Choose one answer. a. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to sleep next to her bed b. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to enjoy canned dog food c. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate to the sound of her alarm clock correct d. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate over canned dog food Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 Self-actualization was part of which of the following perspectives? Choose one answer. a. humanism correct b. cognitive perspective c. behaviorism d. functionalism Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 Pavlov's research demonstrated that ________________. Choose one answer. a. involuntary reaction (sound of a bell) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (food) b. an unrelated stimulus (food) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (barking) c. an unrelated stimulus (salivation) could occur in response to an involuntary reaction (sound of a bell) d. involuntary reaction (salivation) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (sound of a bell) correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 What did Sigmund Freud consider as the key to understanding the nervous disorders he observed? Choose one answer. a. external consequences b. free will c. brain physiology d. unconscious mind correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 The steps or procedures an experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in a study is called the ________________. Choose one answer. a. hypothesis b. double-blind study c. theory d. operational definition correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 A variable that the experimenter manipulates is called a _____________. Choose one answer. a. independent variable correct b. dependent variable c. control condition d. coefficient of correlation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 Jane Goodall's research with chimpanzees and gorillas can best be described as __________. Choose one answer. a. participant observation correct b. a case study c. experimentation d. naturalistic observation ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 ______________________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group. Choose one answer. a. Correlational research b. The double-blind study c. The single-blind study correct d. Field research ect Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment? Choose one answer. a. The best formula for random assignment is birth dates. b. In random assignment each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition. c. Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over. d. In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition. correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables such as age that could also influence one's ability to recall these events, age could be considered a __________________. Choose one answer. a. dependent variable b. random variable c. independent variable d. confounding variable correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient shows that alcohol consumption and driving accidents are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict _____________ if the direction of the relationship is known. Choose one answer. a. the number of arrests a person has will go up or down based on the type of car an individual drives b. the number of arrests will increase the fewer drinks an individual consumes c. the number of driving accidents a person has will go up or down based on the number of alcoholic drinks consumed correct d. the number of driving accidents a person has will contribute to the number of days spent in jail Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization? Choose one answer. a. behaviorism b. humanism correct c. psychoanalysis d. cognitive perspective Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the independent variable is _____________________. Choose one answer. a. the use of a driving simulator b. the use of nicotine correct c. the driving skills of each driver d. the number of collisions Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 Researchers must report their results completely whether the hypothesis was supported or not. Complete reporting is necessary for the purpose of ______________. Choose one answer. a. finding a better way to support the hypothesis b. educational knowledge c. replication correct d. publication correct Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 Experimenters can justify the use of deception because ___________. Choose one answer. a. it is not that harmful b. there is informed consent c. it may be necessary for the experiment to work correct d. research is more important than people Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 All of the following variables, except for __________ show a negative correlation. Choose one answer. a. school grades and IQ scores b. men's educational level and their income c. height and weight correct d. alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test correct Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 One of the reasons psychodynamic theories have persisted over the years is that they are ________________. Choose one answer. a. used by the majority of psychologists b. difficult to scientifically test and, thus, difficult to disprove correct c. based on facts d. supported by significant scientific research ect Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 Which research method involves watching behaviors as they occur without intervening or altering the behaviors in any way? Choose one answer. a. case study b. naturalistic observation correct c. experiment d. correlational studies Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 A perfect correlation, whether positive or negative, is _____________ in the real world. Choose one answer. a. rare correct b. common c. expected d. imperfect Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 Psychologists who give potential employees tests that determine what kind of job those employees might best perform are interested in the goal of _____________. Choose one answer. a. description b. control c. prediction correct d. explanation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association? Choose one answer. a. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision. correct b. Participants may not withdraw once they start. c. Participants cannot be subjected to shock of any kind. d. Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 Julie finds that the number of hours she sleeps each night is related to the scores she receives on quizzes the next day. As her sleep approaches 8 hours, her quiz scores improve; as her sleep drops to 5 hours, her quiz scores show a similar decline. Julie realizes that ______________________. Choose one answer. a. she should sleep about 10 hours a night to ensure 100 percent quiz grades b. her low quiz scores are caused by sleep deprivation the night before a quiz c. there is a negative correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades d. there is a positive correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades correct ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores it was decided that she would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. describing behavior b. controlling behavior c. explaining behavior d. predicting behavior correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements concerning using animals in research is correct? Choose one answer. a. Pain and suffering of animals are allowed but only when necessary. correct b. There are rules that prevent the killing of animals. c. There are no ethical guidelines when it comes to animals. d. New ethical guidelines prevent the use of primates in psychological research. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 The tendency to look for information that supports one's own belief is called _____. Choose one answer. a. confirmation bias correct b. volunteer bias c. the principle of falsifiability d. criterion validity Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 Freud stressed the importance of _________________. Choose one answer. a. adolescence b. early adulthood c. early childhood experiences correct d. middle adulthood Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 Critical thinking means making judgments based on ________________. Choose one answer. a. emotion b. keeping a closed mind c. authority and expertise d. reason and logical evaluation correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient represents two things: ______________________ and ______________________. Choose one answer. a. a representative sample; strength b. strength; direction of the relationship correct c. the experimental group; control group d. direction of the relationship; expectant functionality ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 Dr. Mosher is a psychologist who tries to understand how people select their mates. She must be a ___________________ . Choose one answer. a. evolutionary psychologist b. behavioral psychologist ect c. cognitive psychologist d. biopsychological psychologist ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 Observing behavior as it happens in real-life natural settings without imposing laboratory controls is known as the ______. Choose one answer. a. survey method b. experimental method c. naturalistic observation method correct d. psychometric approach Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 The question "When will it happen again?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology? Choose one answer. a. prediction correct b. control c. explanation d. description Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 The majority of psychologists work in ________________. Choose one answer. a. colleges and universities correct b. public school c. government d. private practice Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 Sam conducted a naturalistic observation as a project for a psychology class. He observed the interactions of parents and children at a restaurant. Many of the people he observed seemed to notice him. When Sam described his work to his teacher, she suggested he find out more about the _________________. Choose one answer. a. observer effect correct b. restaurant effect c. butterfly effect d. parent effect Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 ________________ is a system used for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data. Choose one answer. a. Statistics b. The scientific method correct c. The double-blind method d. Checks and balances Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. 1 Marks: 1 Jane Goodall's research with chimpanzees and gorillas can best be described as __________. Choose one answer. a. a case study b. naturalistic observation correct c. experimentation d. participant observation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly? Choose one answer. a. to comply with legal requirements b. to allow researchers to replicate experiments correct c. to identify all the extraneous variables d. to explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand them Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 At the close of the nineteenth century, Gerhard is excited to find that he has been accepted for training in the psychology laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt. It is likely that Gerhard will be trained to ________________. Choose one answer. a. carefully feel the bumps on a person's head in order to determine his or her character traits b. listen intently while individuals tell him of their depression or nervousness c. analyze how to break down his sensations into their most basic elements correct d. determine the function or purpose of a particular human behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is true about naturalistic observation? Choose one answer. a. It involves observing behavior in its natural context. correct b. It recreates natural conditions in the laboratory as closely as possible to make an experiment more valid. c. It involves observing behavior in the lab without taking formal notes or using technological equipment to measure the experimental findings. d. It is basically the same process as objective introspection. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 Researchers must report their results completely whether the hypothesis was supported or not. Complete reporting is necessary for the purpose of ______________. Choose one answer. a. educational knowledge b. finding a better way to support the hypothesis c. publication d. replication correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 All of the following are accurate statements regarding random assignment EXCEPT ___________. Choose one answer. a. it is a procedure in which each subject has the same possibility of being assigned to a given group b. it is a procedure in which subjects are assigned to a positive correlation or a negative correlation condition correct c. it is a procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups d. it is a procedure that allows individual characteristics to be roughly balanced between groups Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is correct? Choose one answer. a. Psychiatric social workers can prescribe medication. b. A psychologist has no medical training. correct c. A psychiatrist generally goes to graduate school, not medical school. d. An M.D. and a Ph.D. are pretty much the same thing. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 Rob was named to the first team all-American basketball team last year. However, he is academically ineligible to play this year due to failing several classes. As a result, he is ________________. Choose one answer. a. supporting the idea that negative stereotypes exist for collegiate student athletes that they are likely to perform poorly in academics compared to non-athletes correct b. supporting the idea that professors are biased in grading assignments of collegiate student athletes c. supporting the idea that athletes have higher GPAs than non-athletes d. supporting the idea that collegiate student athletes are not as smart as non-athletes Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is correct concerning critical thinking and astrology? Choose one answer. a. Research shows no connection between astrological signs and personality. b. Astrology is based on stars and, therefore, it is scientific. ect c. Astrology is used by a lot of people. d. Although there are many skeptics, astrology has strong evidence suggesting it is a valid science. ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables such as age that could also influence one's ability to recall these events, age could be considered a __________________. Choose one answer. a. confounding variable correct b. independent variable c. dependent variable d. random variable Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 Professor Holden gives a psychology exam on the origins of intelligence. She gives a short answer question based on the IQ scores of a parent-child pair. In order to answer the question correctly, her students need to remember that ________________. Choose one answer. a. given these variables, the correlation will be uncorrelated b. given these variables, the correlation will be positive c. given these variables, the correlation will be negative d. a parent's high IQ does not necessarily cause a child to have a high IQ correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 Testing a hypothesis is the third step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. understanding correct b. changing c. describing d. predicting Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 "There is no life outside this solar system and nothing you can say will change that fact!" Which criterion of critical thinking does this person lack? Choose one answer. a. Evidence is only necessary if it can be tested. b. All evidence is not equal in quality. c. Critical thinking requires an open mind. d. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany, the first psychological laboratory was developed by ______________. Choose one answer. a. William James b. Wilhelm Wundt correct c. Sigmund Freud d. William Tell Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 Which type of psychologist would be most likely to argue that a criminal engages in unlawful behavior because he grew up around older boys who engaged in criminal activities? Choose one answer. a. functionalist b. behavioralist correct c. psychodynamic d. Gestaltist Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is ____________________. Choose one answer. a. the number of collisions correct b. the use of nicotine c. the use of a driving simulator d. the driving skills of each driver Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 The emerging field of brain imagery in cognitive neuroscience has developed methods, such as MRI, to examine _________________. Choose one answer. a. biopsies of the brain of a cadaver b. acute time of death in stroke patients c. images of the living brain correct d. select biopsied portions of a brain Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization? Choose one answer. a. cognitive perspective b. humanism correct c. psychoanalysis d. behaviorism Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 The work of Freud was built around __________________. Choose one answer. a. a theory of personality that emphasizes the awareness of one's own cognitive processes b. a method of psychotherapy in which an observer carefully records and interprets behavior without interfering with the behavior c. a method of psychotherapy that emphasizes how maladaptive behaviors are learned through imitations of others and through cognitive expectations d. a theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 Forming a hypothesis is the second step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. describing b. understanding c. predicting ect d. changing ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 While on a visit to a large city, you observe several billboards in which a series of lights seems to move. Which perspective in psychology would most likely help you understand this phenomenon? Choose one answer. a. Gestalt correct b. behavioral c. humanistic d. psychodynamic Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 The goals of psychology are to _____. Choose one answer. a. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior b. explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind c. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior correct d. improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 In the statement "Critical thinking requires reasoned judgments," the word reasoned means __________________. Choose one answer. a. logical and well thought out correct b. focusing on opinion c. giving it a lot of thought d. seeing one side of an argument very clearly Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 Psychologists who give potential employees tests that determine what kind of job those employees might best perform are interested in the goal of _____________. Choose one answer. a. prediction correct b. control c. explanation d. description Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 Wesleyan University researchers Jamison and colleagues conducted a study to explore the negative stereotypes of collegiate athletes as "dumb jocks." In their study, the researchers found ________________. Choose one answer. a. negative stereotypes in higher education may contribute to collegiate student athletes underperforming in academics correct b. a correlation between collegiate athletes exposure to the negative stereotypes, the better they performed on an intelligence test c. collegiate student athletes performed better in the classroom if they were made aware of the impact of negative stereotypes d. professors often excuse absences by collegiate student athletes who miss class due to attending practices Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 Unintended changes in participants' behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter are called _________________. Choose one answer. a. replications b. experimenter effects correct c. volunteer biases d. single-blind studies Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association? Choose one answer. a. Participants may not withdraw once they start. b. Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research. c. Participants cannot be subjected to shock of any kind. d. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision. correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 A psychologist evaluated Tameka, an eight-year-old child who has experienced difficulty in school. The psychologist sent questionnaires to 100 teachers to determine if they had ever seen similar cases. Based on the teachers' responses, the psychologist hypothesized that a particular diet might cause the learning problem. Following her tabulation of the responses, she designed a study that would tell her if diet were the actual cause. Which of the following lists, in order from first to last, the research methods this psychologist used? Choose one answer. a. experiment, case study, survey b. correlation, case study, experiment c. naturalistic observation, survey, experiment d. case study, survey, experiment correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 An operational definition is ___________________. Choose one answer. a. an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships b. a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested c. the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation d. the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers want to measure correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 Which of the following terms do NOT belong together? Choose one answer. a. structuralism; observable behavior correct b. psychoanalysis; unconscious conflict c. Gestalt; whole d. natural selection; functionalism Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the cigarette without nicotine is _____________________. Choose one answer. a. the control group correct b. the experimental group c. the no-control group d. the driving simulator Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 The tendency to look for information that supports one's own belief is called _____. Choose one answer. a. confirmation bias correct b. the principle of falsifiability c. volunteer bias d. criterion validity Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 The question "What is happening?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology? Choose one answer. a. explanation ect b. description c. control d. prediction ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology? Choose one answer. a. the science of behavior b. the science of behavior and mental processes correct c. the science of human behavior and mental processes d. the science of mental processes Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 In the early part of the past century, psychologists who broke down thought processes into their basic elements and analyzed them were called structuralists. What term might we use to describe psychologists with similar interests today? Choose one answer. a. humanistic b. cognitive correct c. behavioral d. Gestalt Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 Roger went to McDonald's to observe people eating in fast-food restaurants. He brought a camera crew and bright lights, and they all wore yellow jump suits. Roger said he wanted to do a naturalistic observation but may have had some problems because of ________________. Choose one answer. a. participant observation b. room crowding c. eating McDonald's food d. observer effects correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements concerning critical thinking is ect? Choose one answer. a. There are few truths that need not be tested. b. Critical thinking requires an open mind. c. Some authorities should not be questioned. correct d. All evidence is not equal in quality. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 Professor Wenches approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces or conflicts. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches? Choose one answer. a. social-cognitive learning b. learning c. cognitive approach d. psychodynamic approach correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Specialties in Psychology for $300." The revealed answer is "These psychological professionals work with situations in which environmental conditions may have an impact on mental health." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say? Choose one answer. a. "What is a forensic psychologist?" b. "What is a psychiatric social worker?" correct c. "What is a neuropsychologist?" d. "What is a developmental psychologist?" Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 The CEO of a large automobile company says the cars the company makes are safe regardless of the fact that they lead the country in accidents due to faulty equipment. This discrepancy highlights which of the following critical thinking principles? Choose one answer. a. Few "truths" do not need to be tested. b. Critical thinking requires an open mind. c. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. correct d. All evidence is not equal in quality. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. 1 Marks: 1 Dr. Littman-Smith is conducting research in Kenya into the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. Given the purpose of her study, it is most likely that she is engaged in ______________________. Choose one answer. a. experimental research b. case study research c. naturalistic observation correct d. laboratory observation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 What advice might John B. Watson have offered to psychologists of his time? Choose one answer. a. "We cannot know others until we know ourselves." b. "Remember that what we accomplish is due to the composition of our genes." c. "Focus on observable behavior." correct d. "Life is an effort to overcome inferiority." Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 Perceiving the question is the first step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. describing correct b. explaining c. changing d. predicting Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 The majority of psychologists work in ________________. Choose one answer. a. public school b. private practice c. government d. colleges and universities correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 Adaris has always been drawn to the saying "Absence makes the heart grow fonder," and she decides to incorporate this saying into her research project. Adaris is trying to define absence in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. Choose one answer. a. double-blind study b. operational definition c. hypothesis d. theory ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 A teacher tells the school psychologist that Kate is late to class, does not turn in her homework, squirms around a lot in her seat, and swings her feet constantly. This is an example of which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. explaining behavior b. predicting behavior c. controlling behavior d. describing behavior correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment? Choose one answer. a. The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise. correct b. The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed. c. The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet. d. The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 You are at a basketball game and the arena is packed; the crowd is evenly split between fans of the two teams. At one point, the referee makes a call. Half of the fans yell insults; the other half of the fans shout their approval. The event reminds you of the topic of today's lecture in psychology class. What was the likely topic of the lecture? Choose one answer. a. psychoanalysis ect b. extraneous variables c. experiments d. bias ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 When you watch dogs play in the park or watch how your professors conduct their classes, you are engaging in a form of ______. Choose one answer. a. naturalistic observation correct b. psychometric study c. survey research d. case study research Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is ____________________. Choose one answer. a. the number of collisions correct b. the driving skills of each driver c. the use of a driving simulator d. the use of nicotine Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 A __________ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another. Choose one answer. a. correlation correct b. independent variable c. dependent variable d. experimental effect Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 Marcy is trying to define anxiety in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. Choose one answer. a. hypothesis b. operational definition correct c. theory d. double-blind study Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 Dr. Braunz has been treating a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. She decides to write a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braunz is a _________________. Choose one answer. a. school psychologist b. psychoanalyst c. humanistic psychologist d. psychiatrist correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 ______________________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know if participants are in the experimental or the control group until after the results are tallied. Choose one answer. a. The single-blind study b. Correlational research c. The double-blind study correct d. Field research Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 A negative correlation means that ______________________. Choose one answer. a. there is no relationship between the two variables b. high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other correct c. low values of one variable are associated with low values of the other d. high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term most accurately describes the scientist's idea? Choose one answer. a. dependent variable b. extraneous variable c. experimental estimate d. hypothesis correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called _____, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person's experiences. Choose one answer. a. introspection correct b. induction c. intervention d. insight inventory Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 While on a visit to a large city, you observe several billboards in which a series of lights seems to move. Which perspective in psychology would most likely help you understand this phenomenon? Choose one answer. a. Gestalt correct b. humanistic c. behavioral d. psychodynamic Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 All of the following variables, except for __________ show a negative correlation. Choose one answer. a. average income and the incidence of dental disease b. adult shoe size and IQ scores correct c. the value of a car and the age of a car d. hours spent watching TV and grade-point average Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 Which of the following terms do NOT belong together? Choose one answer. a. psychoanalysis; unconscious conflict b. Gestalt; whole c. structuralism; observable behavior correct d. natural selection; functionalism Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 A perfect correlation, whether positive or negative, is _____________ in the real world. Choose one answer. a. common b. imperfect c. expected d. rare correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment? Choose one answer. a. In random assignment each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition. b. Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over. c. In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition. d. The best formula for random assignment is birth dates. ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 The placebo effect means _______________________. Choose one answer. a. that there is no control group b. all conditions in an experiment are the same c. experimenter bias causes the subjects to act strangely d. the expectations of the participants influence their behavior correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient shows that alcohol consumption and driving accidents are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict _____________ if the direction of the relationship is known. Choose one answer. a. the number of driving accidents a person has will go up or down based on the number of alcoholic drinks consumed correct b. the number of driving accidents a person has will contribute to the number of days spent in jail c. the number of arrests will increase the fewer drinks an individual consumes d. the number of arrests a person has will go up or down based on the type of car an individual drives Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 Brock is the star quarterback on his college football team. When scoring his first test, his anatomy professor was surprised that he earned an "A+" because ________________. Choose one answer. a. research suggests that football stars often cheat to find academic success b. research suggests that athletes do not spend as much time studying than non-athletes c. research suggests that athletes have higher performance on tests than non-athletes ect d. research suggests that athletes have poorer performance on tests than non-athletes ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 Which pair of scientists shared the most similar views of behavior? Choose one answer. a. B. F. Skinner and Max Wertheimer b. Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson correct c. Carl Rogers and Edward Titchener d. William James and Wilhelm Wundt Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 Josh has been participating in a clinical study by a cognitive neuroscientist. It is likely that his brain is being studied to explore _________________. Choose one answer. a. thinking b. other cognitive processes c. all of the above correct d. memory Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is correct concerning critical thinking and astrology? Choose one answer. a. Research shows no connection between astrological signs and personality. correct b. Astrology is based on stars and, therefore, it is scientific. c. Although there are many skeptics, astrology has strong evidence suggesting it is a valid science. d. Astrology is used by a lot of people. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 What is one of the major reasons that psychologists use operational definitions? Choose one answer. a. so that effects can be measured correct b. to explain research results so that nonpsychologists can understand c. to identify all the extraneous variables d. to comply with legal requirements Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association EXCEPT ___________________. Choose one answer. a. data remain confidential b. participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research that would affect their willingness to participate, such as risks of unpleasant emotional experiences c. participants cannot be subjected to any physically or emotionally painful stimuli correct d. deception must be justified Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often "fails to generalize." Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion? Choose one answer. a. case study correct b. correlation c. experiment d. surveys Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 The word correlation is often used as a synonym for _____________. Choose one answer. a. variable b. validity c. relationship correct d. reliability Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 Professor Beverly approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes bodily events and chemicals, such as hormones, associated with behavior. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches? Choose one answer. a. biopsychological correct b. learning c. cognitive d. sociocultural Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 Sandi believes that people who eat at McDonald's are overweight, so she decides to do a naturalistic observation of people who eat at McDonald's. What should most concern us about Sandi's observations? Choose one answer. a. observer bias correct b. the bystander effect c. subject bias d. the observer effect Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 Testing a hypothesis is the third step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. understanding correct b. predicting c. describing d. changing Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 ______________________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group. Choose one answer. a. Field research b. The single-blind study correct c. Correlational research d. The double-blind study Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in the __________ perspective. Choose one answer. a. sociocultural correct b. behavioral c. psychodynamic d. cognitive Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 The editors of Scientific American are able to obtain a representative sample of their readers in order to assess their attitudes toward preservation of the rain forests in Costa Rica. When interpreting the results of their survey, the editors will be able to ______________. Choose one answer. a. apply the results to Costa Rica b. apply the results to the entire U.S. population c. apply the results to subscribers of Scientific American correct d. apply the result to scientists Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 ________________ is a system used for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data. Choose one answer. a. Checks and balances b. Statistics c. The scientific method correct d. The double-blind method Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 Experimenters can justify the use of deception because ___________. Choose one answer. a. research is more important than people b. it is not that harmful c. it may be necessary for the experiment to work correct d. there is informed consent Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. 1 Marks: 1 A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated is called ______________________. Choose one answer. a. a case study correct b. a naturalistic observation c. a representative sample d. a single-blind study Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 A psychologist evaluated Tameka, an eight-year-old child who has experienced difficulty in school. The psychologist sent questionnaires to 100 teachers to determine if they had ever seen similar cases. Based on the teachers' responses, the psychologist hypothesized that a particular diet might cause the learning problem. Following her tabulation of the responses, she designed a study that would tell her if diet were the actual cause. Which of the following lists, in order from first to last, the research methods this psychologist used? Choose one answer. a. correlation, case study, experiment b. experiment, case study, survey c. case study, survey, experiment correct d. naturalistic observation, survey, experiment Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is correct? Choose one answer. a. An M.D. and a Ph.D. are pretty much the same thing. b. Psychiatric social workers can prescribe medication. c. A psychiatrist generally goes to graduate school, not medical school. d. A psychologist has no medical training. correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 When you watch dogs play in the park or watch how your professors conduct their classes, you are engaging in a form of ______. Choose one answer. a. case study research b. psychometric study c. survey research d. naturalistic observation correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 Double-blind studies control for ___________________. Choose one answer. a. extrinsic motivation b. only the experimenter effect c. only the placebo effect ect d. both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 As a project for a psychology course, a student correlated weight and intelligence scores for 250 students. The computed correlation coefficient was .00. What did the scatter plot look like? Choose one answer. a. a straight line from the lower left to the upper right-hand corner b. a straight line from the upper left to the lower right-hand corner c. a random distribution of points correct d. a line with a positive slope. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 The question "Why is it happening?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology? Choose one answer. a. description b. prediction c. understanding correct d. control Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often "fails to generalize." Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion? Choose one answer. a. experiment b. surveys ect c. correlation d. case study ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores it was decided that she would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. predicting behavior correct b. describing behavior c. controlling behavior d. explaining behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 Cognitive neuroscientists can examine the brain with _____________ and _____________. Choose one answer. a. Gama images: electrolysis b. electrolysis: PET c. PET: MRI correct d. MRI: electrolysis Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 The goals of psychology are to _____. Choose one answer. a. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior correct b. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior c. improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death d. explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment? Choose one answer. a. The best formula for random assignment is birth dates. b. In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition. c. Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over. d. In random assignment each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition. ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Pioneers in Psychology for $50." The revealed answer is "Focused on unconscious factors and relied on the case study method." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say? Choose one answer. a. "Who are the humanists?" b. "Who is Sigmund Freud?" correct c. "Who is B. F. Skinner?" d. "Who are the behaviorists?" Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association EXCEPT ___________________. Choose one answer. a. data remain confidential b. participants cannot be subjected to any physically or emotionally painful stimuli c. deception must be justified d. participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research that would affect their willingness to participate, such as risks of unpleasant emotional experiences ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 Jane Goodall's research with chimpanzees and gorillas can best be described as __________. Choose one answer. a. experimentation b. naturalistic observation correct c. participant observation d. a case study Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 On a television talk show an actor describes the symptoms of anxiety he has been experiencing. He reports that the severity of the symptoms has decreased since he has been taking a drug prescribed by his therapist back in Hollywood. You conclude that the actor's therapist is probably a _________________. Choose one answer. a. clinical psychologist b. podiatrist c. counseling psychologist d. psychiatrist correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 Marcy is trying to define anxiety in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. Choose one answer. a. operational definition correct b. theory c. hypothesis d. double-blind study Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 A perfect correlation, whether positive or negative, is _____________ in the real world. Choose one answer. a. expected b. common c. imperfect d. rare correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 "There is no life outside this solar system and nothing you can say will change that fact!" Which criterion of critical thinking does this person lack? Choose one answer. a. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. b. Evidence is only necessary if it can be tested. c. All evidence is not equal in quality. d. Critical thinking requires an open mind. correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 "Children who watch violent cartoons will become more aggressive." According to the scientific method, this statement is most likely a ____________. Choose one answer. a. result b. conclusion c. fact d. hypothesis ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 ______________________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group. Choose one answer. a. The double-blind study ect b. The single-blind study c. Field research d. Correlational research ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 The magazine Desperate Wives publishes a survey of its female readers called "The Sex Life of the American Wife." It reports that 87 percent of all wives like to make love in rubber boots. The critical flaw in this research would be ______________. Choose one answer. a. the fact that rubber boots are not equally available in all regions of the country b. the fact that the sample is not representative of American wives correct c. the fact that a psychological test, rather than a survey, should have been given d. the fact that making love has not been operationally defined Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 The majority of psychologists work in ________________. Choose one answer. a. private practice b. government c. public school d. colleges and universities correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 Suppose you were a graduate student studying for a Ph.D. in psychology in the 1920s. Your advisor was strongly influenced by John B. Watson. Which of the following might your advisor consider an acceptable choice for your research? Choose one answer. a. an analysis of the thought processes students report while answering test items ect b. a survey of sexual imagery in dreams of men and women c. a survey of daydreams d. an analysis of how specific behaviors are acquired ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology? Choose one answer. a. the science of behavior and mental processes correct b. the science of behavior c. the science of mental processes d. the science of human behavior and mental processes Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 Researchers must report their results completely whether the hypothesis was supported or not. Complete reporting is necessary for the purpose of ______________. Choose one answer. a. publication b. educational knowledge ect c. finding a better way to support the hypothesis d. replication ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 A group of randomly selected subjects for study that matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex is called __________________. Choose one answer. a. the experimental group b. a representative sample correct c. volunteer bias d. the control group Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 Freud stressed the importance of _________________. Choose one answer. a. middle adulthood b. early childhood experiences correct c. early adulthood d. adolescence Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 Julie finds that the number of hours she sleeps each night is related to the scores she receives on quizzes the next day. As her sleep approaches 8 hours, her quiz scores improve; as her sleep drops to 5 hours, her quiz scores show a similar decline. Julie realizes that ______________________. Choose one answer. a. there is a positive correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades correct b. she should sleep about 10 hours a night to ensure 100 percent quiz grades c. there is a negative correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades d. her low quiz scores are caused by sleep deprivation the night before a quiz Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization? Choose one answer. a. cognitive perspective b. psychoanalysis c. behaviorism d. humanism correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 Experimenters can justify the use of deception because ___________. Choose one answer. a. it may be necessary for the experiment to work correct b. it is not that harmful c. there is informed consent d. research is more important than people Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 Self-actualization was part of which of the following perspectives? Choose one answer. a. humanism correct b. functionalism c. behaviorism d. cognitive perspective Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 Which of the following terms do NOT belong together? Choose one answer. a. structuralism; observable behavior b. natural selection; functionalism c. Gestalt; whole ect d. psychoanalysis; unconscious conflict ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 At the close of the nineteenth century, Gerhard is excited to find that he has been accepted for training in the psychology laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt. It is likely that Gerhard will be trained to ________________. Choose one answer. a. listen intently while individuals tell him of their depression or nervousness b. determine the function or purpose of a particular human behavior ect c. analyze how to break down his sensations into their most basic elements d. carefully feel the bumps on a person's head in order to determine his or her character traits ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables such as age that could also influence one's ability to recall these events, age could be considered a __________________. Choose one answer. a. independent variable b. confounding variable correct c. dependent variable d. random variable Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of ______________. Choose one answer. a. prediction b. control c. description ect d. understanding ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the cigarette without nicotine is _____________________. Choose one answer. a. the experimental group b. the no-control group c. the control group correct d. the driving simulator Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in the __________ perspective. Choose one answer. a. sociocultural correct b. psychodynamic c. cognitive d. behavioral Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 All of the following variables, except for __________ show a negative correlation. Choose one answer. a. height and weight b. school grades and IQ scores ect c. men's educational level and their income d. alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 The work of Freud was built around __________________. Choose one answer. a. a theory of personality that emphasizes the awareness of one's own cognitive processes b. a method of psychotherapy that emphasizes how maladaptive behaviors are learned through imitations of others and through cognitive expectations c. a theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts correct d. a method of psychotherapy in which an observer carefully records and interprets behavior without interfering with the behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. 1 Marks: 1 The psychodynamic perspective was based on the work of ________________. Choose one answer. a. Wundt b. Watson c. Gestalt d. Freud correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered that ________________. Choose one answer. a. dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell due to a learned reflexive response called conditioning correct b. dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell due to habituation c. dogs would salivate to the sounds of a bell due to reflexology d. dogs would salivate to the sounds of a bell due to their fear response Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements concerning using animals in research is correct? Choose one answer. a. There are no ethical guidelines when it comes to animals. b. Pain and suffering of animals are allowed but only when necessary. correct c. New ethical guidelines prevent the use of primates in psychological research. d. There are rules that prevent the killing of animals. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient represents two things: ______________________ and ______________________. Choose one answer. a. a representative sample; strength b. direction of the relationship; expectant functionality c. the experimental group; control group d. strength; direction of the relationship correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 Which treatment approach did Sigmund Freud develop for treating his patients? Choose one answer. a. psychoanalytic therapy correct b. drug therapy c. neuropsychology d. clinical psychology Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 Josh has been participating in a clinical study by a cognitive neuroscientist. It is likely that his brain is being studied to explore _________________. Choose one answer. a. all of the above b. other cognitive processes c. thinking ect d. memory ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 Sallie noticed that when her alarm clock goes off in the morning her dog, Ruffles, is standing by her bed salivating. Every morning when Sallie wakes to the alarm, she immediately rolls out of bed and feeds Ruffles who very much enjoys his canned dog food. It is likely that ________________. Choose one answer. a. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to enjoy canned dog food b. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate to the sound of her alarm clock correct c. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate over canned dog food d. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to sleep next to her bed Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 Professor Holden gives a psychology exam on the origins of intelligence. She gives a short answer question based on the IQ scores of a parent-child pair. In order to answer the question correctly, her students need to remember that ________________. Choose one answer. a. given these variables, the correlation will be positive b. a parent's high IQ does not necessarily cause a child to have a high IQ correct c. given these variables, the correlation will be uncorrelated d. given these variables, the correlation will be negative Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 All of the following variables, except for __________ show a negative correlation. Choose one answer. a. the value of a car and the age of a car b. hours spent watching TV and grade-point average c. adult shoe size and IQ scores correct d. average income and the incidence of dental disease Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 The goals of psychology are to _____. Choose one answer. a. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior correct b. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior c. explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind d. improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often "fails to generalize." Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion? Choose one answer. a. case study b. experiment c. surveys d. correlation ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 A correlation is a numerical measure of the __________________. Choose one answer. a. behaviors of participants of different ages compared at a given time ect b. unintended changes in participants' behavior due to cues from the experimenter c. strength of the relationship between two variables d. behaviors of participants followed and periodically assessed over time ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 The majority of psychologists work in ________________. Choose one answer. a. colleges and universities correct b. private practice c. government d. public school Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 What is the best analogy for Wundt's and Titchener's mission for psychology? Choose one answer. a. a list of the courses required for graduation b. a chart listing the basic chemical elements c. a computer program for word processing a term paper ect d. a list of the types of clothing sold at a retail outlet ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 Which pair of scientists shared the most similar views of behavior? Choose one answer. a. B. F. Skinner and Max Wertheimer b. Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson correct c. Carl Rogers and Edward Titchener d. William James and Wilhelm Wundt Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 16which of the following Marks: 1 "The whole is greater than the sum of the parts" is a statement associated with the perspective of ______________ . Choose one answer. a. introspection b. functionalism c. psychoanalysis d. Gestalt psychologists correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 The CEO of a large automobile company says the cars the company makes are safe regardless of the fact that they lead the country in accidents due to faulty equipment. This discrepancy highlights which of the following critical thinking principles? Choose one answer. a. Few "truths" do not need to be tested. b. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. correct c. All evidence is not equal in quality. d. Critical thinking requires an open mind. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 Dr. Braunz has been treating a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. She decides to write a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braunz is a _________________. Choose one answer. a. psychiatrist correct b. humanistic psychologist c. school psychologist d. psychoanalyst Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 Several years ago two scientists announced that they had evidence of "cold fusion" in the laboratory, but further studies failed to replicate their findings and it was later found that the original scientists had used sloppy methods. This highlights which of the following critical thinking principles? Choose one answer. a. Few "truths" do not need to be tested. b. All evidence is not equal in quality. c. Critical thinking requires an open mind. d. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment? Choose one answer. a. Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over. b. The best formula for random assignment is birth dates. c. In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition. correct d. In random assignment each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 The magazine Desperate Wives publishes a survey of its female readers called "The Sex Life of the American Wife." It reports that 87 percent of all wives like to make love in rubber boots. The critical flaw in this research would be ______________. Choose one answer. a. the fact that the sample is not representative of American wives correct b. the fact that a psychological test, rather than a survey, should have been given c. the fact that rubber boots are not equally available in all regions of the country d. the fact that making love has not been operationally defined Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 As a project for a psychology course, a student correlated weight and intelligence scores for 250 students. The computed correlation coefficient was .00. What did the scatter plot look like? Choose one answer. a. a straight line from the lower left to the upper right-hand corner b. a straight line from the upper left to the lower right-hand corner c. a line with a positive slope. d. a random distribution of points correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 A negative correlation means that ______________________. Choose one answer. a. low values of one variable are associated with low values of the other b. high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other c. there is no relationship between the two variables d. high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment? Choose one answer. a. The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed. b. The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed. ect c. The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet. d. The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise. ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 A group of randomly selected subjects for study that matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex is called __________________. Choose one answer. a. volunteer bias b. a representative sample correct c. the control group d. the experimental group Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient shows that smoking and life expectancy are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict _____________ if the direction of the relationship is known. Choose one answer. a. if a person smokes a lot of cigarettes, he or she will have less money monthly to buy gas b. the person's life expectancy will go up or down based on the number of cigarettes the person smokes daily correct c. a person's lungs will repair themselves and he or she will live a longer life d. if a person smokes cigarettes, he or she will eventually develop lung cancer Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 The first step in any scientific investigation is _______________. Choose one answer. a. developing an argument b. perceiving the question correct c. coming to a conclusion d. forming the hypothesis Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 In order to increase typing speed Minisoft has redesigned its keyboard and provided a chime that is related to typing speed. The company wants to know if its innovations affect typing speed. Identify the independent and dependent variables in this proposed study. Choose one answer. a. The dependent variable is speed of typing; the independent variables are the keyboard design and the chime. correct b. The dependent variable is keyboard design; the independent variables are the speed of typing and the chime. c. The dependent variable is the chime; the independent variables are the chime and typing speed. d. The dependent variable is the number of errors made; the independent variables are the chime and the speed of typing. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 Perceiving the question is the first step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. describing b. predicting c. changing d. explaining ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 Psychologists who give potential employees tests that determine what kind of job those employees might best perform are interested in the goal of _____________. Choose one answer. a. description b. prediction correct c. control d. explanation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly? Choose one answer. a. to allow researchers to replicate experiments b. to explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand them c. to identify all the extraneous variables d. to comply with legal requirements ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 The goals of psychology are to _____. Choose one answer. a. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior b. improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death c. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior correct d. explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 The editors of Scientific American are able to obtain a representative sample of their readers in order to assess their attitudes toward preservation of the rain forests in Costa Rica. When interpreting the results of their survey, the editors will be able to ______________. Choose one answer. a. apply the results to the entire U.S. population b. apply the results to Costa Rica c. apply the result to scientists d. apply the results to subscribers of Scientific American correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect? Choose one answer. a. You throw up after eating bad meat. b. You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve. c. You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol. correct d. You sleep because you are tired. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called _____, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person's experiences. Choose one answer. a. insight inventory b. induction c. intervention d. introspection correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 A __________ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another. Choose one answer. a. independent variable b. experimental effect c. correlation correct d. dependent variable Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 At the close of the nineteenth century, Gerhard is excited to find that he has been accepted for training in the psychology laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt. It is likely that Gerhard will be trained to ________________. Choose one answer. a. listen intently while individuals tell him of their depression or nervousness b. analyze how to break down his sensations into their most basic elements correct c. determine the function or purpose of a particular human behavior d. carefully feel the bumps on a person's head in order to determine his or her character traits Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 Double-blind studies control for ___________________. Choose one answer. a. only the experimenter effect b. only the placebo effect c. extrinsic motivation d. both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 Which goal of psychology is most closely met through naturalistic observation? Choose one answer. a. describing behavior correct b. controlling behavior c. predicting behavior d. altering behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of ______________. Choose one answer. a. understanding correct b. control c. prediction d. description Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. 1 Marks: 1 An operational definition is ___________________. Choose one answer. a. the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers want to measure correct b. the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation c. an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships d. a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly? Choose one answer. a. to allow researchers to replicate experiments b. to identify all the extraneous variables c. to comply with legal requirements d. to explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand them ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 A group of randomly selected subjects for study that matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex is called __________________. Choose one answer. a. the experimental group b. a representative sample correct c. volunteer bias d. the control group Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 Which treatment approach did Sigmund Freud develop for treating his patients? Choose one answer. a. clinical psychology b. psychoanalytic therapy correct c. neuropsychology d. drug therapy Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 Drinking orange juice is negatively correlated with the risk of cancer. Based on this information, which of the following statements is true? Choose one answer. a. The more orange juice you drink, the higher your risk of cancer. b. The more orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer. correct c. Drinking orange juice causes people to be cancer free. d. The less orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 Vido has an M.S.W. and is interested in working on the causes of poverty. What type of professional is Vido most likely to become? Choose one answer. a. school psychologist b. psychiatrist c. psychiatric social worker correct d. educational psychologist Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment? Choose one answer. a. The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed. b. The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed. c. The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet. d. The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise. correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the independent variable is _____________________. Choose one answer. a. the number of collisions b. the use of a driving simulator c. the driving skills of each driver d. the use of nicotine correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables such as age that could also influence one's ability to recall these events, age could be considered a __________________. Choose one answer. a. independent variable b. dependent variable c. random variable ect d. confounding variable ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 Dr. Braunz has been treating a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. She decides to write a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braunz is a _________________. Choose one answer. a. psychoanalyst b. psychiatrist correct c. school psychologist d. humanistic psychologist Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 Perceiving the question is the first step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. changing b. describing correct c. explaining d. predicting Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 A case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics? Choose one answer. a. the ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls b. the math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U.S. students c. physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies d. the development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 Suppose you were a graduate student studying for a Ph.D. in psychology in the 1920s. Your advisor was strongly influenced by John B. Watson. Which of the following might your advisor consider an acceptable choice for your research? Choose one answer. a. a survey of sexual imagery in dreams of men and women b. a survey of daydreams c. an analysis of the thought processes students report while answering test items d. an analysis of how specific behaviors are acquired correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 Who was an early proponent of functionalism? Choose one answer. a. William James correct b. Max Wertheimer c. Wilhelm Wundt d. Ivan Pavlov Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is correct concerning critical thinking and astrology? Choose one answer. a. Research shows no connection between astrological signs and personality. b. Astrology is used by a lot of people. c. Although there are many skeptics, astrology has strong evidence suggesting it is a valid science. ect d. Astrology is based on stars and, therefore, it is scientific. ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 The majority of psychologists work in ________________. Choose one answer. a. public school b. government c. private practice d. colleges and universities correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 Critical thinking means making judgments based on ________________. Choose one answer. a. keeping a closed mind b. emotion c. authority and expertise d. reason and logical evaluation correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 Several years ago two scientists announced that they had evidence of "cold fusion" in the laboratory, but further studies failed to replicate their findings and it was later found that the original scientists had used sloppy methods. This highlights which of the following critical thinking principles? Choose one answer. a. All evidence is not equal in quality. correct b. Few "truths" do not need to be tested. c. Critical thinking requires an open mind. d. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 Freud said phobias were ____________ whereas Watson said phobias were __________. Choose one answer. a. sexual; unconscious b. learned; inherited c. conditioned; unconditioned d. repressed conflicts; learned correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 A variable that the experimenter manipulates is called a _____________. Choose one answer. a. independent variable correct b. coefficient of correlation c. dependent variable d. control condition Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 Sam conducted a naturalistic observation as a project for a psychology class. He observed the interactions of parents and children at a restaurant. Many of the people he observed seemed to notice him. When Sam described his work to his teacher, she suggested he find out more about the _________________. Choose one answer. a. observer effect correct b. butterfly effect c. restaurant effect d. parent effect Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 Experimenters can justify the use of deception because ___________. Choose one answer. a. there is informed consent b. it is not that harmful c. research is more important than people d. it may be necessary for the experiment to work correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 According to the present research on psychologists, the three most popular work settings are ________________, ________________, and ________________. Choose one answer. a. universities and four year colleges; non-profit; federal government b. universities and four year colleges; self-employed; private for-profit correct c. self-employed; state and local government; non-profit d. state and local government; federal government; self-employed Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 When you watch dogs play in the park or watch how your professors conduct their classes, you are engaging in a form of ______. Choose one answer. a. psychometric study b. case study research c. naturalistic observation correct d. survey research Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association? Choose one answer. a. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision. correct b. Participants cannot be subjected to shock of any kind. c. Participants may not withdraw once they start. d. Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 John B. Watson believed that psychology should involve the study of _________. Choose one answer. a. consciousness ect b. behavior c. the mind d. the brain ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 Cognitive neuroscientists can examine the brain with _____________ and _____________. Choose one answer. a. electrolysis: PET b. MRI: electrolysis c. Gama images: electrolysis d. PET: MRI correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment? Choose one answer. a. In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition. correct b. The best formula for random assignment is birth dates. c. Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over. d. In random assignment each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 The tendency to look for information that supports one's own belief is called _____. Choose one answer. a. volunteer bias b. the principle of falsifiability c. confirmation bias correct d. criterion validity Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 Brock is the star quarterback on his college football team. When scoring his first test, his anatomy professor was surprised that he earned an "A+" because ________________. Choose one answer. a. research suggests that athletes have higher performance on tests than non-athletes b. research suggests that athletes do not spend as much time studying than non-athletes ect c. research suggests that football stars often cheat to find academic success d. research suggests that athletes have poorer performance on tests than non-athletes ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 Dr. Mosher is a psychologist who tries to understand how people select their mates. She must be a ___________________ . Choose one answer. a. biopsychological psychologist b. cognitive psychologist ect c. evolutionary psychologist d. behavioral psychologist ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization? Choose one answer. a. psychoanalysis b. behaviorism c. humanism correct d. cognitive perspective Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is ____________________. Choose one answer. a. the use of nicotine b. the driving skills of each driver c. the use of a driving simulator d. the number of collisions correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 Dr. Littman-Smith is conducting research in Kenya into the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. Given the purpose of her study, it is most likely that she is engaged in ______________________. Choose one answer. a. experimental research b. laboratory observation c. naturalistic observation correct d. case study research Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 Which perspective assumes that human behavior may have developed in certain directions because it served a useful function in preserving the species? Choose one answer. a. cognitive psychology b. evolutionary psychology correct c. behaviorism d. psychoanalysis Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will, humannature, and self-actualization. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the psychologist presented? Choose one answer. a. psychodynamics b. humanism correct c. functionalism d. behaviorism Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 The question "How can it be changed?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology? Choose one answer. a. explanation b. prediction c. description d. control correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 "Children who watch violent cartoons will become more aggressive." According to the scientific method, this statement is most likely a ____________. Choose one answer. a. result b. hypothesis c. conclusion ect d. fact ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 Which type of early psychologist believed that "the whole is more than the sum of its parts"? Choose one answer. a. Gestaltist correct b. structuralist c. behaviorist d. functionalist Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Pioneers in Psychology for $50." The revealed answer is "Focused on unconscious factors and relied on the case study method." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say? Choose one answer. a. "Who is B. F. Skinner?" b. "Who are the humanists?" c. "Who is Sigmund Freud?" correct d. "Who are the behaviorists?" Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. 95 out of a maximum of 100 (95%) Question 1 Marks: 1 A case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics? Choose one answer. a. the math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U.S. students b. physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies c. the ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls d. the development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 Brock is the star quarterback on his college football team. When scoring his first test, his anatomy professor was surprised that he earned an "A+" because ________________. Choose one answer. a. research suggests that athletes have higher performance on tests than non-athletes b. research suggests that athletes have poorer performance on tests than non-athletes correct c. research suggests that football stars often cheat to find academic success d. research suggests that athletes do not spend as much time studying than non-athletes Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 Which research method involves watching behaviors as they occur without intervening or altering the behaviors in any way? Choose one answer. a. case study b. naturalistic observation correct c. correlational studies d. experiment Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements about research with animals is ect? Choose one answer. a. Animals are no longer allowed to be used in research in which it would be clearly unethical to use humans. correct b. Scientists who oppose animal rights activists argue that the goals of scientific research justify some animal suffering, although they agree it should be minimized. c. Animals are only used in about 7 percent of psychological research. d. Animal researchers do not use anesthesia in surgery, causing some concern about pain. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 All of the following are accurate statements regarding random assignment EXCEPT ___________. Choose one answer. a. it is a procedure that allows individual characteristics to be roughly balanced between groups b. it is a procedure in which each subject has the same possibility of being assigned to a given group c. it is a procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups d. it is a procedure in which subjects are assigned to a positive correlation or a negative correlation condition correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 ______________________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group. Choose one answer. a. Correlational research b. The double-blind study c. Field research d. The single-blind study correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 Dr. Wiseman wants to know about the alcohol consumption patterns among college juniors in the United States. He should ________________________. Choose one answer. a. remember that sample size is the most critical factor in survey research b. draw a representative sample among college juniors c. require students' names on each survey to avoid the tendency to lie d. give the survey to every college junior in the country ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 ________________ is a system used for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data. Choose one answer. a. The scientific method correct b. Statistics c. The double-blind method d. Checks and balances Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 Description is to assessment as _________ is to prognosis. Choose one answer. a. explanation b. prediction correct c. control d. indication Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 The tendency to look for information that supports one's own belief is called _____. Choose one answer. a. volunteer bias b. criterion validity c. confirmation bias correct d. the principle of falsifiability Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 What is the best analogy for Wundt's and Titchener's mission for psychology? Choose one answer. a. a list of the types of clothing sold at a retail outlet b. a chart listing the basic chemical elements correct c. a computer program for word processing a term paper d. a list of the courses required for graduation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology? Choose one answer. a. the science of mental processes b. the science of human behavior and mental processes c. the science of behavior d. the science of behavior and mental processes correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 There are several subfields of psychology according to the present research. The three largest subfields of psychology are ________________, ________________, and ________________. Choose one answer. a. Cognitive; Clinical; and Developmental b. Industrial/Organizational; Counseling; and Clinical c. Social; Experimental; and School d. Clinical; Counseling; and Developmental correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated is called ______________________. Choose one answer. a. a single-blind study b. a case study correct c. a naturalistic observation d. a representative sample Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 The magazine Desperate Wives publishes a survey of its female readers called "The Sex Life of the American Wife." It reports that 87 percent of all wives like to make love in rubber boots. The critical flaw in this research would be ______________. Choose one answer. a. the fact that rubber boots are not equally available in all regions of the country b. the fact that making love has not been operationally defined c. the fact that the sample is not representative of American wives correct d. the fact that a psychological test, rather than a survey, should have been given Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 Rob was named to the first team all-American basketball team last year. However, he is academically ineligible to play this year due to failing several classes. As a result, he is ________________. Choose one answer. a. supporting the idea that negative stereotypes exist for collegiate student athletes that they are likely to perform poorly in academics compared to non-athletes correct b. supporting the idea that collegiate student athletes are not as smart as non-athletes c. supporting the idea that professors are biased in grading assignments of collegiate student athletes d. supporting the idea that athletes have higher GPAs than non-athletes Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Specialties in Psychology for $300." The revealed answer is "These psychological professionals work with situations in which environmental conditions may have an impact on mental health." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say? Choose one answer. a. "What is a neuropsychologist?" b. "What is a forensic psychologist?" c. "What is a developmental psychologist?" d. "What is a psychiatric social worker?" correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often "fails to generalize." Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion? Choose one answer. a. experiment b. case study correct c. surveys d. correlation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 The goals of psychology are to _____. Choose one answer. a. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior b. improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death c. explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind d. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 A variable that the experimenter manipulates is called a _____________. Choose one answer. a. coefficient of correlation b. control condition c. dependent variable d. independent variable correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 A psychologist evaluated Tameka, an eight-year-old child who has experienced difficulty in school. The psychologist sent questionnaires to 100 teachers to determine if they had ever seen similar cases. Based on the teachers' responses, the psychologist hypothesized that a particular diet might cause the learning problem. Following her tabulation of the responses, she designed a study that would tell her if diet were the actual cause. Which of the following lists, in order from first to last, the research methods this psychologist used? Choose one answer. a. correlation, case study, experiment b. case study, survey, experiment correct c. naturalistic observation, survey, experiment d. experiment, case study, survey Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores it was decided that she would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. predicting behavior correct b. describing behavior c. controlling behavior d. explaining behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 A person who has suffered a major stroke and is now experiencing severe personality problems because of the damage would BEST be advised to see a _____________ because this problem appears to have a significant medical component to it. Choose one answer. a. psychiatric social worker b. psychologist c. cognitive psychologist d. psychiatrist correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 Unintended changes in participants' behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter are called _________________. Choose one answer. a. experimenter effects correct b. volunteer biases c. replications d. single-blind studies Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 A perfect correlation, whether positive or negative, is _____________ in the real world. Choose one answer. a. expected b. common c. rare correct d. imperfect Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 Which of the following is an empirical question? Choose one answer. a. What is the meaning of life? b. Was the Civil War necessary? c. Is there life on other planets? correct d. Would Martin Luther King, Jr., have been a good president? Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 A correlation is a numerical measure of the __________________. Choose one answer. a. strength of the relationship between two variables correct b. behaviors of participants of different ages compared at a given time c. unintended changes in participants' behavior due to cues from the experimenter d. behaviors of participants followed and periodically assessed over time Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Pioneers in Psychology for $50." The revealed answer is "Focused on unconscious factors and relied on the case study method." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say? Choose one answer. a. "Who is B. F. Skinner?" b. "Who is Sigmund Freud?" correct c. "Who are the humanists?" d. "Who are the behaviorists?" Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient shows that smoking and life expectancy are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict _____________ if the direction of the relationship is known. Choose one answer. a. if a person smokes a lot of cigarettes, he or she will have less money monthly to buy gas b. a person's lungs will repair themselves and he or she will live a longer life c. the person's life expectancy will go up or down based on the number of cigarettes the person smokes daily correct d. if a person smokes cigarettes, he or she will eventually develop lung cancer Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 John B. Watson believed that psychology should involve the study of _________. Choose one answer. a. behavior correct b. the brain c. consciousness d. the mind Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 Double-blind studies control for ___________________. Choose one answer. a. extrinsic motivation b. only the placebo effect c. both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect correct d. only the experimenter effect Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 Cognitive neuroscientists can examine the brain with _____________ and _____________. Choose one answer. a. electrolysis: PET b. MRI: electrolysis c. PET: MRI correct d. Gama images: electrolysis Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 Which pair of scientists shared the most similar views of behavior? Choose one answer. a. William James and Wilhelm Wundt b. Carl Rogers and Edward Titchener c. Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson correct d. B. F. Skinner and Max Wertheimer Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 Which treatment approach did Sigmund Freud develop for treating his patients? Choose one answer. a. clinical psychology b. drug therapy c. neuropsychology d. psychoanalytic therapy correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables such as age that could also influence one's ability to recall these events, age could be considered a __________________. Choose one answer. a. independent variable b. random variable c. confounding variable correct d. dependent variable Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 Several years ago two scientists announced that they had evidence of "cold fusion" in the laboratory, but further studies failed to replicate their findings and it was later found that the original scientists had used sloppy methods. This highlights which of the following critical thinking principles? Choose one answer. a. All evidence is not equal in quality. correct b. Few "truths" do not need to be tested. c. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. d. Critical thinking requires an open mind. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 Sandi is a single mother living in a project in a poor section of the city. She has addiction issues and just lost custody of her three children. What type of psychologist is most likely to get involved in Sandi's situation? Choose one answer. a. educational psychologist b. psychiatrist c. counselor d. psychiatric social worker correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 Wesleyan University researchers Jamison and colleagues conducted a study to explore the negative stereotypes of collegiate athletes as "dumb jocks." In their study, the researchers found ________________. Choose one answer. a. collegiate student athletes performed better in the classroom if they were made aware of the impact of negative stereotypes ect b. professors often excuse absences by collegiate student athletes who miss class due to attending practices c. a correlation between collegiate athletes exposure to the negative stereotypes, the better they performed on an intelligence test d. negative stereotypes in higher education may contribute to collegiate student athletes underperforming in academics ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient shows that alcohol consumption and driving accidents are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict _____________ if the direction of the relationship is known. Choose one answer. a. the number of arrests will increase the fewer drinks an individual consumes b. the number of driving accidents a person has will go up or down based on the number of alcoholic drinks consumed correct c. the number of driving accidents a person has will contribute to the number of days spent in jail d. the number of arrests a person has will go up or down based on the type of car an individual drives Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 A teacher tells the school psychologist that Kate is late to class, does not turn in her homework, squirms around a lot in her seat, and swings her feet constantly. This is an example of which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. predicting behavior b. describing behavior correct c. controlling behavior d. explaining behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. 82.5 out of a maximum of 100 (83%) Question 1 Marks: 1 A case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics? Choose one answer. a. the math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U.S. students b. the development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis c. physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies ect d. the ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 Two groups of graduate students were given rats and were told to teach them how to run mazes. Group 1 was told that they had "very smart" rats that should learn quickly. Group 2 was told that they had "very stupid" rats that should learn slowly. In actuality, neither group was any different and the rats were randomly assigned. In spite of that, when the experiment concluded, Group 1 rats had learned the maze much more quickly. How can that be explained? Choose one answer. a. subject bias b. placebo effect c. treatment effect ect d. experimenter effect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is true about naturalistic observation? Choose one answer. a. It recreates natural conditions in the laboratory as closely as possible to make an experiment more valid. b. It involves observing behavior in its natural context. correct c. It involves observing behavior in the lab without taking formal notes or using technological equipment to measure the experimental findings. d. It is basically the same process as objective introspection. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 An operational definition is ___________________. Choose one answer. a. the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers want to measure correct b. a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested c. an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships d. the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5mi Marks: 1 Unintended changes in participants' behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter are called _________________. Choose one answer. a. replications b. experimenter effects correct c. single-blind studies d. volunteer biases Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization? Choose one answer. a. psychoanalysis b. cognitive perspective c. behaviorism d. humanism correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the independent variable is _____________________. Choose one answer. a. the use of a driving simulator b. the use of nicotine c. the number of collisions ect d. the driving skills of each driver ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 ______________________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know if participants are in the experimental or the control group until after the results are tallied. Choose one answer. a. Field research b. The double-blind study correct c. The single-blind study d. Correlational research Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term most accurately describes the scientist's idea? Choose one answer. a. hypothesis correct b. extraneous variable c. experimental estimate d. dependent variable Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 A __________ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another. Choose one answer. a. dependent variable b. experimental effect c. independent variable d. correlation correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 According to __________, nervous disorders arose in patients as a result of their repressed unconscious urges trying to surface. Choose one answer. a. B. F. Skinner b. Sigmund Freud correct c. John Watson d. Ivan Pavlov Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect? Choose one answer. a. You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol. correct b. You throw up after eating bad meat. c. You sleep because you are tired. d. You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 Steve is a fan of the Los Angeles Lakers basketball team. With little provocation, he will engage you in a debate about whether it is the greatest team in basketball. Steve may be demonstrating ___________________. Choose one answer. a. an eclectic approach b. critical thinking c. bias correct d. unconscious behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun control. Which research technique is being used? Choose one answer. a. survey correct b. experiment c. case study d. naturalistic observation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 Participants in research early in psychology's history might have been asked to view a chair and describe its color, shape, and texture and other aspects of their conscious experience. These individuals would have been using a method called _________. Choose one answer. a. introspection b. psychoanalysis ect c. hypnosis d. psychosurgery ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment? Choose one answer. a. The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet. b. The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed. c. The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed. d. The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise. correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 The CEO of a large automobile company says the cars the company makes are safe regardless of the fact that they lead the country in accidents due to faulty equipment. This discrepancy highlights which of the following critical thinking principles? Choose one answer. a. Few "truths" do not need to be tested. b. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. correct c. Critical thinking requires an open mind. d. All evidence is not equal in quality. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered that ________________. Choose one answer. a. dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell due to habituation b. dogs would salivate to the sounds of a bell due to reflexology c. dogs would salivate to the sounds of a bell due to their fear response d. dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell due to a learned reflexive response called conditioning correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the cigarette without nicotine is _____________________. Choose one answer. a. the experimental group b. the control group correct c. the driving simulator d. the no-control group Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 Which type of psychologist would be most likely to argue that a criminal engages in unlawful behavior because he grew up around older boys who engaged in criminal activities? Choose one answer. a. functionalist b. psychodynamic c. Gestaltist d. behavioralist correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Pioneers in Psychology for $50." The revealed answer is "Focused on unconscious factors and relied on the case study method." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say? Choose one answer. a. "Who is Sigmund Freud?" b. "Who is B. F. Skinner?" ect c. "Who are the behaviorists?" d. "Who are the humanists?" ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 The administration of Midwest State University wants to know if arrangement of chairs affects student participation in classrooms. What would be a good operational definition of the dependent variable in an experiment designed to measure this relationship? Choose one answer. a. frequency with which students ask questions correct b. number of students enrolled in each class c. class size: under 50 or over 50 d. chair arrangement: theater style or circular Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 "There is no life outside this solar system and nothing you can say will change that fact!" Which criterion of critical thinking does this person lack? Choose one answer. a. All evidence is not equal in quality. b. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. c. Critical thinking requires an open mind. correct d. Evidence is only necessary if it can be tested. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements concerning using animals in research is correct? Choose one answer. a. There are no ethical guidelines when it comes to animals. b. Pain and suffering of animals are allowed but only when necessary. correct c. There are rules that prevent the killing of animals. d. New ethical guidfreelines prevent the use of primates in psychological research. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 Marcy is trying to define anxiety in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. Choose one answer. a. operational definition correct b. theory c. double-blind study d. hypothesis Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables such as age that could also influence one's ability to recall these events, age could be considered a __________________. Choose one answer. a. dependent variable b. random variable c. confounding variable correct d. independent variable Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Specialties in Psychology for $300." The revealed answer is "These psychological professionals work with situations in which environmental conditions may have an impact on mental health." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say? Choose one answer. a. "What is a developmental psychologist?" b. "What is a neuropsychologist?" c. "What is a psychiatric social worker?" correct d. "What is a forensic psychologist?" Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is correct concerning critical thinking and astrology? Choose one answer. a. Research shows no connection between astrological signs and personality. correct b. Although there are many skeptics, astrology has strong evidence suggesting it is a valid science. c. Astrology is used by a lot of people. d. Astrology is based on stars and, therefore, it is scientific. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 All of the following are accurate statements regarding random assignment EXCEPT ___________. Choose one answer. a. it is a procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups b. it is a procedure in which subjects are assigned to a positive correlation or a negative correlation condition correct c. it is a procedure in which each subject has the same possibility of being assigned to a given group d. it is a procedure that allows individual characteristics to be roughly balanced between groups Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 A teacher tells the school psychologist that Kate is late to class, does not turn in her homework, squirms around a lot in her seat, and swings her feet constantly. This is an example of which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. describing behavior correct b. explaining behavior c. predicting behavior d. controlling behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 In order to increase typing speed Minisoft has redesigned its keyboard and provided a chime that is related to typing speed. The company wants to know if its innovations affect typing speed. Identify the independent and dependent variables in this proposed study. Choose one answer. a. The dependent variable is the number of errors made; the independent variables are the chime and the speed of typing. b. The dependent variable is keyboard design; the independent variables are the speed of typing and the chime. c. The dependent variable is the chime; the independent variables are the chime and typing speed. d. The dependent variable is speed of typing; the independent variables are the keyboard design and the chime. correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 Brock is the star quarterback on his college football team. When scoring his first test, his anatomy professor was surprised that he earned an "A+" because ________________. Choose one answer. a. research suggests that football stars often cheat to find academic success b. research suggests that athletes have poorer performance on tests than non-athletes correct c. research suggests that athletes do not spend as much time studying than non-athletes d. research suggests that athletes have higher performance on tests than non-athletes Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 Forming a hypothesis is the second step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. understanding b. changing c. describing ect d. predicting ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 Which goal of psychology is most closely met through naturalistic observation? Choose one answer. a. controlling behavior b. describing behavior correct c. altering behavior d. predicting behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 There are several subfields of psychology according to the present research. The three largest subfields of psychology are ________________, ________________, and ________________. Choose one answer. a. Industrial/Organizational; Counseling; and Clinical b. Clinical; Counseling; and Developmental correct c. Cognitive; Clinical; and Developmental d. Social; Experimental; and School Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 Dr. Mosher is a psychologist who tries to understand how people select their mates. She must be a ___________________ . Choose one answer. a. cognitive psychologist b. biopsychological psychologist c. evolutionary psychologist d. behavioral psychologist ect ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 Dr. Littman-Smith is conducting research in Kenya into the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. Given the purpose of her study, it is most likely that she is engaged in ______________________. Choose one answer. a. case study research b. laboratory observation c. experimental research d. naturalistic observation correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 ________________ is a system used for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data. Choose one answer. a. The scientific method correct b. The double-blind method c. Checks and balances d. Statistics Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 The goals of psychology are to _____. Choose one answer. a. improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death b. explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind c. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior d. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 All of the following variables, except for __________ show a negative correlation. Choose one answer. a. adult shoe size and IQ scores correct b. the value of a car and the age of a car c. average income and the incidence of dental disease d. hours spent watching TV and grade-point average Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. 1 Marks: 1 The work of Freud was built around __________________. Choose one answer. a. a method of psychotherapy in which an observer carefully records and interprets behavior without interfering with the behavior b. a method of psychotherapy that emphasizes how maladaptive behaviors are learned through imitations of others and through cognitive expectations c. a theory of personality that emphasizes the awareness of one's own cognitive processes d. a theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 Dr. Braunz has been treating a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. She decides to write a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braunz is a _________________. Choose one answer. a. humanistic psychologist b. school psychologist ect c. psychiatrist d. psychoanalyst ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 Which treatment approach did Sigmund Freud develop for treating his patients? Choose one answer. a. clinical psychology b. drug therapy c. neuropsychology d. psychoanalytic therapy correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will, humannature, and self-actualization. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the psychologist presented? Choose one answer. a. humanism correct b. psychodynamics c. functionalism d. behaviorism Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 As a project for a psychology course, a student correlated weight and intelligence scores for 250 students. The computed correlation coefficient was .00. What did the scatter plot look like? Choose one answer. a. a straight line from the upper left to the lower right-hand corner b. a straight line from the lower left to the upper right-hand corner c. a line with a positive slope. d. a random distribution of points correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 A person who has suffered a major stroke and is now experiencing severe personality problems because of the damage would BEST be advised to see a _____________ because this problem appears to have a significant medical component to it. Choose one answer. a. cognitive psychologist b. psychiatrist correct c. psychiatric social worker d. psychologist Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 At the close of the nineteenth century, Gerhard is excited to find that he has been accepted for training in the psychology laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt. It is likely that Gerhard will be trained to ________________. Choose one answer. a. carefully feel the bumps on a person's head in order to determine his or her character traits b. listen intently while individuals tell him of their depression or nervousness c. determine the function or purpose of a particular human behavior d. analyze how to break down his sensations into their most basic elements correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association EXCEPT __________________. Choose one answer. a. participants may withdraw at any time b. debriefing may be omitted when young children are involved c. investigators must debrief participants ect d. parents of infant participants must be informed about the study ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 Two groups of graduate students were given rats and were told to teach them how to run mazes. Group 1 was told that they had "very smart" rats that should learn quickly. Group 2 was told that they had "very stupid" rats that should learn slowly. In actuality, neither group was any different and the rats were randomly assigned. In spite of that, when the experiment concluded, Group 1 rats had learned the maze much more quickly. How can that be explained? Choose one answer. a. experimenter effect correct b. subject bias c. placebo effect d. treatment effect Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 A teacher tells the school psychologist that Kate is late to class, does not turn in her homework, squirms around a lot in her seat, and swings her feet constantly. This is an example of which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. predicting behavior b. describing behavior correct c. controlling behavior d. explaining behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term most accurately describes the scientist's idea? Choose one answer. a. extraneous variable b. experimental estimate c. dependent variable d. hypothesis correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 Psychologists who give potential employees tests that determine what kind of job those employees might best perform are interested in the goal of _____________. Choose one answer. a. explanation b. control c. description d. prediction correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 Which of the following terms do NOT belong together? Choose one answer. a. psychoanalysis; unconscious conflict b. natural selection; functionalism c. Gestalt; whole d. structuralism; observable behavior correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 The goals of psychology are to _____. Choose one answer. a. explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind b. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior c. improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death d. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 Experimenters can justify the use of deception because ___________. Choose one answer. a. it is not that harmful b. there is informed consent c. it may be necessary for the experiment to work correct d. research is more important than people Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is correct concerning critical thinking and astrology? Choose one answer. a. Astrology is used by a lot of people. b. Research shows no connection between astrological signs and personality. correct c. Although there are many skeptics, astrology has strong evidence suggesting it is a valid science. d. Astrology is based on stars and, therefore, it is scientific. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 In the early part of the past century, psychologists who broke down thought processes into their basic elements and analyzed them were called structuralists. What term might we use to describe psychologists with similar interests today? Choose one answer. a. Gestalt b. behavioral c. humanistic d. cognitive correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 In the statement "Critical thinking requires reasoned judgments," the word reasoned means __________________. Choose one answer. a. giving it a lot of thought b. logical and well thought out correct c. focusing on opinion d. seeing one side of an argument very clearly Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 Testing a hypothesis is the third step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. predicting b. describing c. understanding correct d. changing Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 "The whole is greater than the sum of the parts" is a statement associated with the perspective of ______________ . Choose one answer. a. introspection b. Gestalt psychologists correct c. functionalism d. psychoanalysis Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 Marcy is trying to define anxiety in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. Choose one answer. a. operational definition correct b. double-blind study c. hypothesis d. theory Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 Adaris has always been drawn to the saying "Absence makes the heart grow fonder," and she decides to incorporate this saying into her research project. Adaris is trying to define absence in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. Choose one answer. a. hypothesis b. theory ect c. operational definition d. double-blind study ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 Drinking orange juice is negatively correlated with the risk of cancer. Based on this information, which of the following statements is true? Choose one answer. a. Drinking orange juice causes people to be cancer free. b. The more orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer. correct c. The less orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer. d. The more orange juice you drink, the higher your risk of cancer. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in the __________ perspective. Choose one answer. a. cognitive b. sociocultural correct c. behavioral d. psychodynamic Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 A group of randomly selected subjects for study that matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex is called __________________. Choose one answer. a. volunteer bias b. the experimental group c. the control group d. a representative sample correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 The CEO of a large automobile company says the cars the company makes are safe regardless of the fact that they lead the country in accidents due to faulty equipment. This discrepancy highlights which of the following critical thinking principles? Choose one answer. a. Critical thinking requires an open mind. b. Few "truths" do not need to be tested. c. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. correct d. All evidence is not equal in quality. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Pioneers in Psychology for $50." The revealed answer is "Focused on unconscious factors and relied on the case study method." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say? Choose one answer. a. "Who are the humanists?" b. "Who is B. F. Skinner?" c. "Who is Sigmund Freud?" correct d. "Who are the behaviorists?" Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 There are several subfields of psychology according to the present research. The three largest subfields of psychology are ________________, ________________, and ________________. Choose one answer. a. Cognitive; Clinical; and Developmental b. Clinical; Counseling; and Developmental correct c. Industrial/Organizational; Counseling; and Clinical d. Social; Experimental; and School Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 On a television talk show an actor describes the symptoms of anxiety he has been experiencing. He reports that the severity of the symptoms has decreased since he has been taking a drug prescribed by his therapist back in Hollywood. You conclude that the actor's therapist is probably a _________________. Choose one answer. a. counseling psychologist b. podiatrist c. psychiatrist correct d. clinical psychologist Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 All of the following variables, except for __________ show a negative correlation. Choose one answer. a. alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test correct b. men's educational level and their income c. height and weight d. school grades and IQ scores Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 Which founding contributors to psychology helped develop behaviorism? Choose one answer. a. Watson and Pavlov correct b. Freud and Watson c. Gestalt and Wundt d. Pavlov and Wundt Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 Which of the following questions could be answered best by using the survey method? Choose one answer. a. Does wall color affect the frequency of violence in prison populations? b. Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses? correct c. What is the effect of ingesting alcohol on problem-solving ability? d. What is the relationship between number of hours of study per week and grade point average? Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores it was decided that she would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. controlling behavior b. predicting behavior correct c. explaining behavior d. describing behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 Double-blind studies control for ___________________. Choose one answer. a. both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect correct b. extrinsic motivation c. only the placebo effect d. only the experimenter effect Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 Brock is the star quarterback on his college football team. When scoring his first test, his anatomy professor was surprised that he earned an "A+" because ________________. Choose one answer. a. research suggests that athletes have poorer performance on tests than non-athletes correct b. research suggests that athletes have higher performance on tests than non-athletes c. research suggests that football stars often cheat to find academic success d. research suggests that athletes do not spend as much time studying than non-athletes Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 Rob was named to the first team all-American basketball team last year. However, he is academically ineligible to play this year due to failing several classes. As a result, he is ________________. Choose one answer. a. supporting the idea that athletes have higher GPAs than non-athletes b. supporting the idea that collegiate student athletes are not as smart as non-athletes c. supporting the idea that professors are biased in grading assignments of collegiate student athletes d. supporting the idea that negative stereotypes exist for collegiate student athletes that they are likely to perform poorly in academics compared to non-athletes correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 One of the reasons psychodynamic theories have persisted over the years is that they are ________________. Choose one answer. a. used by the majority of psychologists ect b. based on facts c. supported by significant scientific research d. difficult to scientifically test and, thus, difficult to disprove ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly? Choose one answer. a. to identify all the extraneous variables b. to allow researchers to replicate experiments correct c. to comply with legal requirements d. to explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand them Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 Several years ago two scientists announced that they had evidence of "cold fusion" in the laboratory, but further studies failed to replicate their findings and it was later found that the original scientists had used sloppy methods. This highlights which of the following critical thinking principles? Choose one answer. a. Critical thinking requires an open mind. b. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. c. All evidence is not equal in quality. correct d. Few "truths" do not need to be tested. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 A case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics? Choose one answer. a. the development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis correct b. the ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls c. the math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U.S. students d. physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies Correct Mar1 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient shows that smoking and life expectancy are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict _____________ if the direction of the relationship is known. Choose one answer. a. a person's lungs will repair themselves and he or she will live a longer life b. if a person smokes cigarettes, he or she will eventually develop lung cancer c. the person's life expectancy will go up or down based on the number of cigarettes the person smokes daily correct d. if a person smokes a lot of cigarettes, he or she will have less money monthly to buy gas Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 Wesleyan University researchers Jamison and colleagues conducted a study to explore the negative stereotypes of collegiate athletes as "dumb jocks." In their study, the researchers found ________________. Choose one answer. a. professors often excuse absences by collegiate student athletes who miss class due to attending practices b. collegiate student athletes performed better in the classroom if they were made aware of the impact of negative stereotypes c. negative stereotypes in higher education may contribute to collegiate student athletes underperforming in academics correct d. a correlation between collegiate athletes exposure to the negative stereotypes, the better they performed on an intelligence test Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term most accurately describes the scientist's idea? Choose one answer. a. dependent variable b. experimental estimate c. hypothesis correct d. extraneous variable Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology? Choose one answer. a. the science of behavior b. the science of behavior and mental processes correct c. the science of human behavior and mental processes d. the science of mental processes Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 A negative correlation means that ______________________. Choose one answer. a. high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other correct b. there is no relationship between the two variables c. high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other d. low values of one variable are associated with low values of the other Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 A correlation is a numerical measure of the __________________. Choose one answer. a. behaviors of participants of different ages compared at a given time b. unintended changes in participants' behavior due to cues from the experimenter c. behaviors of participants followed and periodically assessed over time d. strength of the relationship between two variables correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 Sandi is a single mother living in a project in a poor section of the city. She has addiction issues and just lost custody of her three children. What type of psychologist is most likely to get involved in Sandi's situation? Choose one answer. a. counselor b. psychiatrist c. educational psychologist d. psychiatric social worker correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 The administration of Midwest State University wants to know if arrangement of chairs affects student participation in classrooms. What would be a good operational definition of the dependent variable in an experiment designed to measure this relationship? Choose one answer. a. frequency with which students ask questions correct b. number of students enrolled in each class c. class size: under 50 or over 50 d. chair arrangement: theater style or circular Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 In the definition of psychology, the term mental processes refers to __________ . Choose one answer. a. internal, covert processes correct b. outward behavior c. only animal behavior d. overt actions and reactions Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 The question "When will it happen again?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology? Choose one answer. a. description b. control c. explanation d. prediction correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 The question "How can it be changed?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology? Choose one answer. a. control correct b. prediction c. explanation d. description Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 ______________________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know if participants are in the experimental or the control group until after the results are tallied. Choose one answer. a. The double-blind study b. The single-blind study ect c. Correlational research d. Field research ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 Researchers must report their results completely whether the hypothesis was supported or not. Complete reporting is necessary for the purpose of ______________. Choose one answer. a. finding a better way to support the hypothesis b. replication correct c. publication d. educational knowledge Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 In the 1970s, a 13-year-old girl was found locked up in a room, strapped to a potty chair. Since she had grown up in a world without human speech, researchers studied "Genie's" ability to acquire words, grammar, and pronunciation. This type of research is called ________________________. Choose one answer. a. a representative sample b. a naturalistic observation ect c. a single-blind study d. a case study ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 Two groups of graduate students were given rats and were told to teach them how to run mazes. Group 1 was told that they had "very smart" rats that should learn quickly. Group 2 was told that they had "very stupid" rats that should learn slowly. In actuality, neither group was any different and the rats were randomly assigned. In spite of that, when the experiment concluded, Group 1 rats had learned the maze much more quickly. How can that be explained? Choose one answer. a. subject bias b. placebo effect c. treatment effect d. experimenter effect correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 On a television talk show an actor describes the symptoms of anxiety he has been experiencing. He reports that the severity of the symptoms has decreased since he has been taking a drug prescribed by his therapist back in Hollywood. You conclude that the actor's therapist is probably a _________________. Choose one answer. a. counseling psychologist b. psychiatrist correct c. podiatrist d. clinical psychologist Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will, humannature, and self-actualization. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the psychologist presented? Choose one answer. a. psychodynamics b. behaviorism c. humanism correct d. functionalism Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 What is the best analogy for Wundt's and Titchener's mission for psychology? Choose one answer. a. a list of the types of clothing sold at a retail outlet b. a list of the courses required for graduation c. a computer program for word processing a term paper d. a chart listing the basic chemical elements correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 "The whole is greater than the sum of the parts" is a statement associated with the perspective of ______________ . Choose one answer. a. introspection b. functionalism c. psychoanalysis d. Gestalt psychologists correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 Josh has been participating in a clinical study by a cognitive neuroscientist. It is likely that his brain is being studied to explore _________________. Choose one answer. a. thinking b. other cognitive processes c. all of the above correct d. memory Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 An operational definition is ___________________. Choose one answer. a. the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers want to measure correct b. the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation c. an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships d. a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 Forming a hypothesis is the second step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? Choose one answer. a. changing b. predicting c. understanding correct d. describing Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 If a functionalist from the 1870s were alive today, where would we most likely find him? Choose one answer. a. in a laboratory, studying principles of perception b. in a sleep laboratory, trying to determine if our need for sleep is biologically based c. in a mountain retreat, contemplating the meaning of life d. in a school, working to improve teaching methods correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 According to __________, nervous disorders arose in patients as a result of their repressed unconscious urges trying to surface. Choose one answer. a. Ivan Pavlov b. B. F. Skinner c. Sigmund Freud correct d. John Watson Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the cigarette without nicotine is _____________________. Choose one answer. a. the experimental group b. the driving simulator c. the no-control group d. the control group correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 Suppose you were a graduate student studying for a Ph.D. in psychology in the 1920s. Your advisor was strongly influenced by John B. Watson. Which of the following might your advisor consider an acceptable choice for your research? Choose one answer. a. an analysis of how specific behaviors are acquired correct b. a survey of daydreams c. an analysis of the thought processes students report while answering test items d. a survey of sexual imagery in dreams of men and women Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 The editors of Scientific American are able to obtain a representative sample of their readers in order to assess their attitudes toward preservation of the rain forests in Costa Rica. When interpreting the results of their survey, the editors will be able to ______________. Choose one answer. a. apply the result to scientists b. apply the results to subscribers of Scientific American correct c. apply the results to Costa Rica d. apply the results to the entire U.S. population Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 Freud stressed the importance of _________________. Choose one answer. a. middle adulthood b. early adulthood c. adolescence d. early childhood experiences correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 Self-actualization was part of which of the following perspectives? Choose one answer. a. functionalism b. humanism correct c. behaviorism d. cognitive perspective Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment? Choose one answer. a. The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed. b. The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise. correct c. The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed. d. The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 Adaris has always been drawn to the saying "Absence makes the heart grow fonder," and she decides to incorporate this saying into her research project. Adaris is trying to define absence in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. Choose one answer. a. operational definition correct b. hypothesis c. theory d. double-blind study Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 The early perspective called Gestalt psychology has evolved into the current perspective called _______________. Choose one answer. a. behavioral psychology b. social psychology c. psychoanalysis d. cognitive psychology correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is correct? Choose one answer. a. Psychiatric social workers can prescribe medication. b. A psychologist has no medical training. correct c. A psychiatrist generally goes to graduate school, not medical school. d. An M.D. and a Ph.D. are pretty much the same thing. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 At the close of the nineteenth century, Gerhard is excited to find that he has been accepted for training in the psychology laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt. It is likely that Gerhard will be trained to ________________. Choose one answer. a. determine the function or purpose of a particular human behavior b. listen intently while individuals tell him of their depression or nervousness c. carefully feel the bumps on a person's head in order to determine his or her character traits d. analyze how to break down his sensations into their most basic elements correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 Which of the following terms do NOT belong together? Choose one answer. a. natural selection; functionalism b. psychoanalysis; unconscious conflict c. Gestalt; whole d. structuralism; observable behavior correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient represents two things: ______________________ and ______________________. Choose one answer. a. a representative sample; strength b. direction of the relationship; expectant functionality c. strength; direction of the relationship correct d. the experimental group; control group Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 The goals of psychology are to _____. Choose one answer. a. explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind b. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior correct c. improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death d. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 A psychologist evaluated Tameka, an eight-year-old child who has experienced difficulty in school. The psychologist sent questionnaires to 100 teachers to determine if they had ever seen similar cases. Based on the teachers' responses, the psychologist hypothesized that a particular diet might cause the learning problem. Following her tabulation of the responses, she designed a study that would tell her if diet were the actual cause. Which of the following lists, in order from first to last, the research methods this psychologist used? Choose one answer. a. naturalistic observation, survey, experiment b. case study, survey, experiment correct c. correlation, case study, experiment d. experiment, case study, survey Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 Julie finds that the number of hours she sleeps each night is related to the scores she receives on quizzes the next day. As her sleep approaches 8 hours, her quiz scores improve; as her sleep drops to 5 hours, her quiz scores show a similar decline. Julie realizes that ______________________. Choose one answer. a. there is a negative correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades b. her low quiz scores are caused by sleep deprivation the night before a quiz c. there is a positive correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades correct d. she should sleep about 10 hours a night to ensure 100 percent quiz grades Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 What is one of the major reasons that psychologists use operational definitions? Choose one answer. a. so that effects can be measured correct b. to comply with legal requirements c. to identify all the extraneous variables d. to explain research results so that nonpsychologists can understand Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. ks for this submission: 1/1. 1 Marks: 1 Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment? Choose one answer. a. In random assignment each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition. b. In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition. correct c. The best formula for random assignment is birth dates. d. Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 2 Marks: 1 Researchers must report their results completely whether the hypothesis was supported or not. Complete reporting is necessary for the purpose of ______________. Choose one answer. a. educational knowledge b. replication correct c. publication d. finding a better way to support the hypothesis Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 3 Marks: 1 What is the best analogy for Wundt's and Titchener's mission for psychology? Choose one answer. a. a list of the types of clothing sold at a retail outlet b. a chart listing the basic chemical elements correct c. a list of the courses required for graduation d. a computer program for word processing a term paper Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 4 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is ____________________. Choose one answer. a. the driving skills of each driver b. the use of a driving simulator c. the use of nicotine d. the number of collisions correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 5 Marks: 1 A case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics? Choose one answer. a. the development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis correct b. the ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls c. physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies d. the math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U.S. students Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 6 Marks: 1 The steps or procedures an experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in a study is called the ________________. Choose one answer. a. theory b. operational definition correct c. double-blind study d. hypothesis Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 7 Marks: 1 An operational definition is ___________________. Choose one answer. a. the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation b. an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships c. a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested d. the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers want to measure correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 8 Marks: 1 Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect? Choose one answer. a. You sleep because you are tired. b. You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve. c. You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol. correct d. You throw up after eating bad meat. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 9 Marks: 1 Critical thinking means making judgments based on ________________. Choose one answer. a. keeping a closed mind b. emotion c. authority and expertise d. reason and logical evaluation correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 10 Marks: 1 What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly? Choose one answer. a. to allow researchers to replicate experiments correct b. to identify all the extraneous variables c. to explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand them d. to comply with legal requirements Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 11 Marks: 1 Pavlov's research demonstrated that ________________. Choose one answer. a. an unrelated stimulus (salivation) could occur in response to an involuntary reaction (sound of a bell) b. involuntary reaction (salivation) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (sound of a bell) correct c. involuntary reaction (sound of a bell) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (food) d. an unrelated stimulus (food) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (barking) Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 12 Marks: 1 The early perspective called Gestalt psychology has evolved into the current perspective called _______________. Choose one answer. a. cognitive psychology correct b. psychoanalysis c. social psychology d. behavioral psychology Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 13 Marks: 1 A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun control. Which research technique is being used? Choose one answer. a. experiment b. case study c. survey correct d. naturalistic observation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 14 Marks: 1 Dr. Braunz has been treating a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. She decides to write a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braunz is a _________________. Choose one answer. a. psychiatrist correct b. school psychologist c. humanistic psychologist d. psychoanalyst Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 15 Marks: 1 In the early part of the past century, psychologists who broke down thought processes into their basic elements and analyzed them were called structuralists. What term might we use to describe psychologists with similar interests today? Choose one answer. a. humanistic b. behavioral c. cognitive correct d. Gestalt Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 16 Marks: 1 The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called _____, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person's experiences. Choose one answer. a. introspection correct b. insight inventory c. induction d. intervention Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 17 Marks: 1 Brock is the star quarterback on his college football team. When scoring his first test, his anatomy professor was surprised that he earned an "A+" because ________________. Choose one answer. a. research suggests that football stars often cheat to find academic success b. research suggests that athletes do not spend as much time studying than non-athletes c. research suggests that athletes have higher performance on tests than non-athletes d. research suggests that athletes have poorer performance on tests than non-athletes correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 18 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient represents two things: ______________________ and ______________________. Choose one answer. a. strength; direction of the relationship correct b. the experimental group; control group c. direction of the relationship; expectant functionality d. a representative sample; strength Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 19 Marks: 1 On a television talk show an actor describes the symptoms of anxiety he has been experiencing. He reports that the severity of the symptoms has decreased since he has been taking a drug prescribed by his therapist back in Hollywood. You conclude that the actor's therapist is probably a _________________. Choose one answer. a. psychiatrist correct b. podiatrist c. counseling psychologist d. clinical psychologist Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 20 Marks: 1 A variable that the experimenter manipulates is called a _____________. Choose one answer. a. dependent variable b. control condition c. independent variable correct d. coefficient of correlation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 21 Marks: 1 One of the reasons psychodynamic theories have persisted over the years is that they are ________________. Choose one answer. a. difficult to scientifically test and, thus, difficult to disprove b. supported by significant scientific research ect c. based on facts d. used by the majority of psychologists ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 22 Marks: 1 The editors of Scientific American are able to obtain a representative sample of their readers in order to assess their attitudes toward preservation of the rain forests in Costa Rica. When interpreting the results of their survey, the editors will be able to ______________. Choose one answer. a. apply the results to subscribers of Scientific American correct b. apply the result to scientists c. apply the results to Costa Rica d. apply the results to the entire U.S. population Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 23 Marks: 1 The question "When will it happen again?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology? Choose one answer. a. control b. prediction correct c. description d. explanation Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 24 Marks: 1 Cognitive neuroscientists can examine the brain with _____________ and _____________. Choose one answer. a. electrolysis: PET b. Gama images: electrolysis c. MRI: electrolysis d. PET: MRI correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 25 Marks: 1 Josh has been participating in a clinical study by a cognitive neuroscientist. It is likely that his brain is being studied to explore _________________. Choose one answer. a. thinking b. memory c. all of the above correct d. other cognitive processes Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 26 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements concerning critical thinking is ect? Choose one answer. a. There are few truths that need not be tested. b. Some authorities should not be questioned. correct c. Critical thinking requires an open mind. d. All evidence is not equal in quality. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 27 Marks: 1 Which of the following statements is correct concerning critical thinking and astrology? Choose one answer. a. Astrology is based on stars and, therefore, it is scientific. b. Although there are many skeptics, astrology has strong evidence suggesting it is a valid science. c. Research shows no connection between astrological signs and personality. correct d. Astrology is used by a lot of people. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 28 Marks: 1 ________________ is a system used for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data. Choose one answer. a. The scientific method correct b. The double-blind method c. Statistics d. Checks and balances Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 29 Marks: 1 In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the cigarette without nicotine is _____________________. Choose one answer. a. the no-control group b. the experimental group c. the driving simulator d. the control group correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 30 Marks: 1 Wesleyan University researchers Jamison and colleagues conducted a study to explore the negative stereotypes of collegiate athletes as "dumb jocks." In their study, the researchers found ________________. Choose one answer. a. collegiate student athletes performed better in the classroom if they were made aware of the impact of negative stereotypes b. negative stereotypes in higher education may contribute to collegiate student athletes underperforming in academics correct c. a correlation between collegiate athletes exposure to the negative stereotypes, the better they performed on an intelligence test d. professors often excuse absences by collegiate student athletes who miss class due to attending practices Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 31 Marks: 1 Dr. Mosher is a psychologist who tries to understand how people select their mates. She must be a ___________________ . Choose one answer. a. behavioral psychologist ect b. biopsychological psychologist c. evolutionary psychologist d. cognitive psychologist ect Marks for this submission: 0/1. Question 32 Marks: 1 In preparation for his master's thesis, Tan spends some time in the local mall observing the behavior of shoppers. His notes reveal a tendency for people to smile when someone, even a stranger, smiles at them. Later in the semester, he designs a questionnaire that asks questions of participants concerning their typical reactions when someone smiles. He wonders if the face of a person who smiles has any influence on returned smiles, so he designs a study to answer this question. Which of the following lists in order, from first to last, the research methods Tan has used? Choose one answer. a. naturalistic observation, survey, experiment correct b. correlation, case study, experiment c. experiment, case study, survey d. case study, survey, experiment Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 33 Marks: 1 You are at a basketball game and the arena is packed; the crowd is evenly split between fans of the two teams. At one point, the referee makes a call. Half of the fans yell insults; the other half of the fans shout their approval. The event reminds you of the topic of today's lecture in psychology class. What was the likely topic of the lecture? Choose one answer. a. bias correct b. extraneous variables c. experiments d. psychoanalysis Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 34 Marks: 1 Which treatment approach did Sigmund Freud develop for treating his patients? Choose one answer. a. neuropsychology b. drug therapy c. clinical psychology d. psychoanalytic therapy correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 35 Marks: 1 A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment? Choose one answer. a. The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet. b. The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed. c. The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise. correct d. The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 36 Marks: 1 A correlation coefficient is represented by the symbol _____________. Choose one answer. a. large letter "C" b. small letter "c" c. large letter "R" d. small letter "r" correct Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 37 Marks: 1 The work of Freud was built around __________________. Choose one answer. a. a theory of personality that emphasizes the awareness of one's own cognitive processes b. a theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts correct c. a method of psychotherapy that emphasizes how maladaptive behaviors are learned through imitations of others and through cognitive expectations d. a method of psychotherapy in which an observer carefully records and interprets behavior without interfering with the behavior Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 38 Marks: 1 Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association? Choose one answer. a. Participants may not withdraw once they start. b. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision. correct c. Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research. d. Participants cannot be subjected to shock of any kind. Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 39 Marks: 1 What advice might John B. Watson have offered to psychologists of his time? Choose one answer. a. "Life is an effort to overcome inferiority." b. "We cannot know others until we know ourselves." c. "Focus on observable behavior." correct d. "Remember that what we accomplish is due to the composition of our genes." Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. Question 40 Marks: 1 Unintended changes in participants' behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter are called _________________. Choose one answer. a. replications b. single-blind studies c. experimenter effects correct d. volunteer biases Correct Marks for this submission: 1/1. [Show More]

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