Anthropology > Class Notes > Ancient Greek Writing Assignment Notes Chapter 8,100% CORRECT (All)

Ancient Greek Writing Assignment Notes Chapter 8,100% CORRECT

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Ancient Greek Writing Assignment Notes Chapter 8 • Plato - Ancient Greek philosopher lived in Athens in 428 BC-348 BC. Student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle. His "Republic" is famous work ... on politics, human nature and philosophy. Known for the Academy in Athens, first institution of higher learning in western world. • "Republic" - Influential work by Plato. Showed overall disapproval of democracy and oligarchy. Suggests that a "philosopher king" who is virtuous and all knowing is best form of government. • Sacred Band - 150 male pederastic couple of Thebes fought in Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC. o Second Athenian League - Following a Theban revolt in 379 BC, Sparta and Athens aligned to form new naval confederacy known as the Second Athenian League. All allies remained independent and autonomous and did not pay tribute. The league was controlled by two bodies of equal influence. System of syntaxeis set up to finance the league. Around half of league members were former members of Delian League. • Socrates - Athenian philosopher, contributed to field of ethics. Never wrote anything down, his life is known through writings by his students Plato and Xenophon and plays by Aristophanes. Sometimes known as father of western philosophy due to the "socratic method." Emphasized importance of mind. Believed governments would be more successful if run by people with best ability and knowledge. Charged with impiety and put to death. o Thirty Tyrants - 30 pro-Spartan officials put in power in Athens following their defeat in Peloponnesian War from 404-403 BC. Known for being brutal leaders, alienated many Greeks from Sparta and encouraged Thebes and Megara to take in Athenian refugees. • Aetolian League - Founded around 367 BC. Constitution of Aetolia provided model for Achaean League. Consisted of two ruling bodies: primary assembly and council. Primary assembly was all adult male citizens who elected officials and conducted business. The council supervised the primary assembly. o Alexander - Son of Philip II of Macedon, became King when he died. Unified much of Greece and Persian empire. Eliminated city-states as dominant form of political unit. Died in Babylon in 323 BC at age 33. • Archimedes - Mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor and astronomer of Syracuse 287-212 BC. Sphere inside cylinder equation to calculate area. • Battle of Issus - Alexander vs. Darius III in 333 BC. Macedonian victory resulted in 100,000 Persian deaths vs 500 Macedonian deaths. Alexander captures Darius's wife and mother and treats them with respect, added further insult to Darius's injury. o Chaeronea - Battle between Philip II and Athens and Thebes in 338 BC. Athens and Thebes defeated. Philip II created Hellenic League, unifying Greek city-states. • Companions - Elite cavalry of Macedonian army from time of King Philip II of Macedon. Achieved prestige under Alexander. Each rider carried xyston, wore bronze muscle cuirass or linothorax, shoulder guards and Boeotian helmets, no shield. A Kopis (curved slashing sword) or xiphos (cut and thrust sword) carried for close combat. o Corinthian League - Established under Philip II after his conquest of Greece. United previously independent poleis. Created under a contract that stated alliance to Philip as hegemon. o Darius III - King of Persia conquered by Macedonians led by Alexander in Battle of Issus 333 BC. Alexander replaces him as King. • Demosthenes - Greek statesman and orator of Athens. Played leading role in city's uprisings against new King of Macedonia, Alexander. His efforts failed and the revolt was met with harsh Macedonian reaction. o Euclid - Greek mathematician- "Father of Geometry," author of Elements. o Gymnasium - Open area surrounded by porches for reading. Greek cultural and social centers. Led to codification of classics. Unified Greeks across Alexander's empire. • Hellenistic Period - After Alexander, before Roman conquest of Greece. 323 BC-31 BC. Greek culture spread through Europe, Africa, and Asia. • Isis - Egyptian goddess that was hellenized by Ptolemy. Became dominant goddess- "walmart" of goddesses. Representative of synchronism, combining of religions so that people in Egypt could live and worship same gods. o Koine Greek - "The common dialect" circulated throughout Alexander's empire. Simplified from classical Greek language. o Menander - Greek Dramatist known for representation of Athenian New Comedy 342-292 BC. Only 1 of his plays "Dyskolos" survived. • Museum - Great think tank of ancient world. Established by Ptolemy in Alexandria. Homer's epics were organized into books. • Olympias - Mother of Alexander the Great and wife of Philip II. After Alexander's death she became involved in conflict to find his successor and eventually killed by Cassandra for supporting Alexander's son with Roxane. o Peltasts - Piece of King Philip II's reforms in army. Replacement of hoplites, focused on offensive strategy. Peltasts carried 18 ft long spikes called sarissa with both hands. Shield (pelta) strapped to left arm instead of being held. Phalanx was 16 lines deep, with first 3 lines engaging their spears with the enemy. o Persepolis - Ancient Persian city located in Iran. Served as capital of province of Persian empire until it was captured and looted by Alexander. Many architectural achievements. • Philip II - Reigned 360-336 BC. Made many tactical reforms to army by replacing hoplites with peltasts, cavalry, and offensive fighting. Defeated Athens and Thebes at Battle of Chaeronea and created Hellenic League. Later assassinated. o Philippi - Founded in 356 BC in order to secure Macedonia's frontier and securing of goldmines that produced 1000 talents of gold/ year. o Ptolemy I - General under Alexander who claimed Egypt after Alexander's death. Began Ptolemaic dynasty (last dynasty of Egypt). Established and created hellenized gods to unify religion. • Roxane - Bactrian princess who married Alexander during his campaign and gave birth to his son Alexander IV. At Alexander's death they were imprisoned by Cassander and later poisoned. o Sarapis - New god with characteristics of Egyptian and Greek gods. Created to serve as one of Alexandria's new patron deity. o Sarissa - Long spear or pike 13-20 ft long. Introduced by Philip II and used in Macedonian phalanxes as replacement for earlier dory. o Seleucus - One of Alexander's generals who divided territory up into satrapies, where he received Babylon. Throughout his reign he added parts of Asia and Asia minor to his kingdom. • Theoric Fund - Financial fund that provided free seating for public events. Eubulus was commissioner of this fund and used it to gain power over Athenian finances. Under his guidance Athens was able to start recovering from crisis after war with Sparta. [Show More]

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