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NURS 6501N Advanced Pathophysiology Midterm Exam . |Walden University

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The action of platelet-derived growth factor is to stimulate the production of which cells? 2. A healthcare professional is educating a patient about asthma. The professional states that good contr... ol is necessary due to which pathophysiologic process? 3. What is an expected change in the cardiovascular system that occurs with aging? 4. What is the blood type of a person who is heterozygous, having A and B alleles as codominant? 5. A patient is having a spirometry measurement done and asks the healthcare professional to explain this test. What response by the professional is best? 6. A healthcare professional cares for older adults in a skilled nursing facility. What should the professional assess for in these individuals related to cardiovascular functioning? 7. Oxygenated blood flows through which vessel? 8. What are tumor cell markers? 9. The data reporting that sickle cell disease affects approximately 1 in 600 American blacks is an example of which concept? 10. Which gastric hormone inhibits acid and pepsinogen secretion, as well as decreases the release of gastrin? 11. What is the single most common cause of cellular injury? 12. A professor has taught the students about the sources of increased ammonia in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. What statement by a student indicates the professor should review this material? 13. Surfactant produced by type II alveolar cells facilitates alveolar distention and ventilation by which mechanism? 14. A patient is brought to the Emergency Department with a gunshot wound to the chest. The healthcare professional assesses an abnormality involving a pleural rupture that acts as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration. What action by the healthcare professional is the priority? 15. What is the only surface inside the nephron where cells are covered with microvilli to increase the reabsorptive surface area called? 16. A patient is having an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. What action by the healthcare professional is best? 17. A patient has been diagnosed with a renal stone. Based on knowledge of common stone types, what self-care measure does the healthcare professional plan to teach the patient when stone analysis has returned? 18. Which hormone is required for water to be reabsorbed in the distal tubule and collecting duct? 19. The cardiac electrical impulse normally begins spontaneously in the sinoatrial (SA) node because of what reason? 20. What is one function of the tumor cell marker? 21. When comparing the clinical manifestations of both diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNKS), which condition is associated with only DKA? 22. Which cAMP-mediated response is related to antidiuretic hormone? 23. After a partial gastrectomy, gastric bypass, or pyloroplasty, clinical manifestations that include increased pulse, hypotension, weakness, pallor, sweating, and dizziness are the results of which mechanism? 24. What is the most important cause of pulmonary artery constriction? 25. A healthcare professional tells a student that a patient has lost atrial kick. What would the student expect to see when examining this patient? 26. A healthcare professional is caring for four patients. Which patient does the professional assess for pulmonary emboli (PE) as the priority? 27. In regulating vascular mediators released from mast cells, the role of eosinophils is to release what? 28. A person has acne, easy bruising, thin extremities, and truncal obesity. The healthcare professional assesses the person for which of these? 29. What is the cause of functional dysphagia? 30. What effect is a result of inhibiting the parasympathetic nervous system with a drug such as atropine? 31. Renal failure is the most common cause of which type of hyperparathyroidism? 32. A healthcare professional is caring for a patient who has a delay in electrical activity reaching the ventricle as seen on ECG. What ECG finding would the healthcare professional associate with this problem? 33. Where is two thirds of the body's water found? 34. What is the second most commonly recognized genetic cause of intellectual disability? 35. What is the role of reverse transcriptase in HIV infection? 36. Which renal change is found in older adults? 37. A student asks why some vaccinations are given orally and some are given by injection. What response by the professor is best? 38. The Bainbridge reflex is thought to be initiated by sensory neurons in which cardiac location? 39. A healthcare professional is caring for four patients. Which patient should the professional assess for hyperkalemia? 40. What is the role of the normal intestinal bacterial flora? 41. Under anaerobic conditions, what process provides energy for the cell? 42. Free radicals play a major role in the initiation and progression of which diseases? 43. A patient is having an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. What action by the healthcare professional is best? 44. A patient is having a spirometry measurement done and asks the healthcare professional to explain this test. What response by the professional is best? 45. Which characteristic is the most important determinant of immunogenicity when considering the antigen? 46. Which renal change is found in older adults? 47. A patient had a motor vehicle crash and suffered critical injuries to the brainstem. What physiological responses would the healthcare professional expect to see? 48. Under anaerobic conditions, what process provides energy for the cell? 49. A patient suffered multiple traumatic injuries and received many blood transfusions within a few days of the injuries. For which medical condition should the healthcare professional monitor the patient for? 50. A patient had a thyroidectomy and now reports tingling around the mouth and has a positive Chvostek sign. What laboratory finding would be most helpful to the healthcare professional? 51. What is one function of the tumor cell marker? 52. A pregnant woman has Graves disease. What test/s does the healthcare professional advise the woman about? 53. A student asks the healthcare professional to describe exotoxins. Which statement by the professional is best? 54. What is one function of the tumor cell marker? 55. A healthcare professional is caring for a patient who has a delay in electrical activity reaching the ventricle as seen on ECG. What ECG finding would the healthcare professional associate with this problem? 56. How do free radicals cause cell damage? 57. What causes the edema that occurs during the inflammatory process? 58. A patient suffered multiple traumatic injuries and received many blood transfusions within a few days of the injuries. For which medical condition should the healthcare professional monitor the patient for? 59. A student asks why carbon monoxide causes tissue damage. What response by the professor is best? 60. A healthcare professional is educating a patient on asthma. The professional tells the patient that the most successful treatment for chronic asthma begins with which action? 61. A student asks the healthcare professional to explain the pathophysiologic process of alcoholic cirrhosis. What statement by the professional would not be consistent with complete knowledge about this process? 62. Why is leakage of lysosomal enzymes during chemical injuries significant? 63. An amniocentesis indicates a neural tube defect when an increase in which protein is evident? 64. A student asks the professor to explain what effect natriuretic peptides have during heart failure when the heart dilates. Which response by the professor is best? 65. The glomerular filtration rate is directly related to which factor? 66. A patient has a history of excessive use of magnesium-containing antacids and aluminum-containing antacids. What lab value does the healthcare professional correlate to this behavior? 67. A student asks the healthcare professional to explain the function of the papillary muscles. What response by the professional is best? 68. A healthcare professional is assessing a child whose parents report poor grades in school, trouble paying attention, and naughty behaviors that have become so frequent the child is always in trouble. For which health condition should the professional facilitate testing? 69. The pathophysiologic process of edema is related to which mechanism? 70. What mechanisms occur in the liver cells as a result of lipid accumulation? 71. How does progressive nephron injury affect angiotensin II activity? 72. A pregnant woman has Graves disease. What test/s does the healthcare professional advise the woman about? 73. A healthcare professional is assessing a child who has complete trisomy of the twenty-first chromosome. What findings does the professional relate to this condition? 74. What pathologic change occurs to the kidney's glomeruli as a result of hypertension? 75. A patient has a peptic ulcer related to h. pylori bacteria. What treatment does the healthcare professional educate the patient on? 76. A patient is in severe shock and is receiving vasopressin. A student asks the health care professional to explain the rationale for this treatment. What response by the professional is most accurate? 77. What is apoptosis? 78. Free radicals play a major role in the initiation and progression of which diseases? 79. An amniocentesis indicates a neural tube defect when an increase in which protein is evident? 80. A patient had a thyroidectomy and now reports tingling around the mouth and has a positive Chvostek sign. What laboratory finding would be most helpful to the healthcare professional? 81. The Bainbridge reflex is thought to be initiated by sensory neurons in which cardiac location? 82. A pregnant woman has Graves disease. What test/s does the healthcare professional advise the woman about? 83. A healthcare professional is assessing a child who has complete trisomy of the twenty-first chromosome. What findings does the professional relate to this condition? 84. Where is two thirds of the body's water found? 85. A healthcare professional is working with a person who drinks several 6-packs of beer a week. What testing does the professional encourage the person to get? 86. After a partial gastrectomy, gastric bypass, or pyloroplasty, clinical manifestations that include increased pulse, hypotension, weakness, pallor, sweating, and dizziness are the results of which mechanism? 87. A person wants to know if eating only plant-based foods is advisable as a way to cut cholesterol to near-zero levels. What response by the health care professional is best? 88. Oxygenated blood flows through which vessel? 89. A healthcare professional is working with a person who drinks several 6-packs of beer a week. What testing does the professional encourage the person to get? 90. What does vomiting-induced metabolic alkalosis cause? 91. A person has hypothyroidism. What chemical does the healthcare professional advise the person to include in the diet? 92. Which statement is true about phagocytosis? 93. Which primary characteristic is unique for the immune response? 94. During the cardiac cycle, why do the aortic and pulmonic valves close after the ventricles relax? 95. A patient reports dumping syndrome after a partial gastrectomy. What does the healthcare professional teach this patient? 96. What is the process that ensures mitral and tricuspid valve closure after the ventricles are filled with blood? 97. A student asks the professor to differentiate Type 2 diabetes mellitus from Type 1. The professors' response would be that Type 2 is best described as what? 98. What organic compound facilitates transportation across cell membranes by acting as receptors, transport channels for electrolytes, and enzymes to drive active pumps? 99. What is the major determinant of the resistance that blood encounters as it flows through the systemic circulation? 100. If a patient develops acidosis, the nurse would expect the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to react in which manner? [Show More]

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