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COMPREHENSIVE HESI EXIT B REVIEW 125 Q&As WITH RATIONALE

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COMPREHENSIVE HESI EXIT B REVIEW 125 Q&As WITH RATIONALE 1.Which information is most concerning to the nurse when caring for an older client with bilateral cataracts? A.States having difficulty... with color perception B.Presents with opacity of the lens upon assessment C.Complains of seeing a cobweb-type structure in the visual field D.Reports the need to use a magnifying glass to see small print Rationale: Visualization of a cobweb- or hairnet-type structure is a sign of a retinal detachment, which constitutes a medical emergency. Clients with cataracts are at increased risk for retinal detachment. Distorted color perception, opacity of the lens, and gradual vision loss are expected signs and symptom of cataracts but do not need immediate attention. 2.When caring for a client hospitalized with Guillain-Barré syndrome, which information is most important for the nurse to report to the primary health care provider? A.Ascending numbness from the feet to the knees B.Decrease in cognitive status of the client C.Blurred vision and sensation changes D.Persistent unilateral headache Rationale: A decline in cognitive status in a client is indicative of symptoms of hypoxia and a possible need to assist the client with mechanical ventilation. A primary health care provider will need to be contacted immediately. Options A, C, and D are findings associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome that should also be reported but are not as critical as the client's hypoxic status. 3.A client is admitted with a diagnosis of leukemia. Which assessment findings will the nurse include in the client’s plan of care? (Select all that apply.) A.Elevated platelets B.Weight loss C.Hyperplasia of the gums D.Elevated white blood count E.Weakness Rationale: Hyperplastic gums, weakness, and elevated white blood count are classic signs of leukemia. Options A, B, and D state incorrect information for symptoms of leukemia. 4.The nurse enters the examination room of a client who has been told by her health care provider that she has advanced ovarian cancer. Which response by the nurse is likely to be most supportive for the client? A."I know many women who have survived ovarian cancer." B."Let's talk about the treatments of ovarian cancer." C."In my opinion I would suggest getting a second opinion." D."Tell me about what you are feeling right now." Rationale: The most therapeutic action for the nurse is to be an active listener and to encourage the client to explore her feelings. Giving false reassurance or personal are not therapeutic communication for the client. 5.A nurse working in the emergency department admits a client with full-thickness burns to 50% of the body. Assessment findings indicate high-pitched wheezing, heart rate of 120 beats/min, and disorientation. Which action should the nurse take first? A.Insert a large-bore IV for fluid resuscitation. B.Prepare to assist with maintaining the airway. C.Cleanse the wounds using sterile technique. D.Administer an analgesic for pain. Rationale: High-pitched wheezing indicates laryngeal stridor, a sign of laryngeal edema associated with lung injury. Airway management is the first priority of care. Options A, C, and D are all appropriate interventions in managing the client with a burn but are not as critical as establishing an airway. 6.The nurse walks into the room and observes the client experiencing a tonic-clonic seizure. Which intervention should the nurse implement first? A.Restrain the client to protect from injury. B.Flex the neck to ensure stabilization. C.Use a tongue blade to open the airway. D.Turn client on the side to aid ventilation. Rationale: Maintaining the airway during a seizure is the priority for safety. Options A, B, and C are contraindicated during a seizure and may cause further injury to the client. 7.Which intervention should be included in the plan of care for a client admitted to the hospital with ulcerative colitis? A.Administer stool softeners. B.Place the client on fluid restriction. C.Provide a low-residue diet. D.Add a milk product to each meal. Rationale: A low-residue diet will help decrease symptoms of diarrhea, which are clinical manifestations of ulcerative colitis. Options A, B, and D are contraindicated and could worsen the condition. 8.A nurse implements an education program to reduce hospital readmissions for clients with heart failure. Which statement by the client indicates that teaching has been effective? A."I will not take my digoxin if my heart rate is higher than 100 beats/min." B."I should weigh myself once a week and report any increases." C."It is important to increase my fluid intake whenever possible." D."I should report an increase of swelling in my feet or ankles." E.“I will call my health care provider if I have diarrhea for more than a day.” Rationale: An increase in edema indicates worsening right-sided heart failure and should be reported to the primary health care provider. Digitalis should be held when the heart rate is lower than 60 beats/min. The client with heart failure should weigh himself or herself daily and report a gain of 2 to 3 lb. An increase in fluid can worsen heart failure. 9.After assessing a 26-year-old client with type 1 diabetes mellitus, which data may indicate that the client is experiencing chronic complications of diabetes? A.Blood pressure, 159/98 mm Hg B.Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), 6% C.Creatinine level, 1.0 mg/dL D.Chronic sciatica [Show More]

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