Biology > QUESTIONS & ANSWERS > Arizona State University BIO 130 BIO 130 Exam 4 (All)

Arizona State University BIO 130 BIO 130 Exam 4

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• Question 1 Match the following soil/groundwater remediation techniques with their description. Question Match Match air stripping B. bubble air up through a column as contaminated water ... trickles down the column, to remove VOCs B. bubble air up through a column as contaminated water trickles down the column, to remove VOCs capping C. cover the land surface to prevent infiltrating water that may cause further migration of soil/groundwater contaminants C. cover the land surface to prevent infiltrating water that may cause further migration of soil/groundwater contaminants bioremediati on A. uses microbes in the soil to decompose (or degrade) soil and groundwater contaminants A. uses microbes in the soil to decompose (or degrade) soil and groundwater contaminants pump-andtreat D. use a pumping well to extract contaminated groundwater for treatment at the surface, and then reinject the clean water D. use a pumping well to extract contaminated groundwater for treatment at the surface, and then reinject the clean water • Question 2 Water/soil pollutants classified as LNAPLs are easier to access and cleanup than DNAPLs. Tru e Tru e ! This is true. DNAPLs are more dense then water, and so they sink to the bottom of an aquifer, making them harder to access. LNAPLs float on top of an aquifer. • Question 3 Which of the following is not a primary "fate" of a soil/groundwater contaminant? photodegradat ion photodegradat ion Right! Photodegradation would mean that the contaminant is degraded by light (Sun) energy, and these contaminants are deep underground - i.e., in the dark. • Question 4 Match the following soil/groundwater remediation techniques with their description. Question Match Match excavation C. contaminated soil is removed from a site and sent to a landfill or remediated C. contaminated soil is removed from a site and sent to a landfill or remediated phytoremediati on A. uses plants to extract contaminants from soil/groundwater systems A. uses plants to extract contaminants from soil/groundwater systems bioremediation B. uses microbes in the soil to decompose (or degrade) soil and groundwater contaminants B. uses microbes in the soil to decompose (or degrade) soil and groundwater contaminants incineration D. contaminated soil is subjected to very high temperatures to combust all of the hydrocarbon contaminants D. contaminated soil is subjected to very high temperatures to combust all of the hydrocarbon contaminants • Question 5 The National Priorities List that was established as part of CERCLA is a list of ______________. the worst hazardous waste sites that require extensive soil and water remediation the worst hazardous waste sites that require extensive soil and water remediation • Question 6 The name of the federal fund established in 1980 that helps to identify the previous owners (and polluters) of contaminated sites and helps to pay for the remediation of contaminated sites is ____________. Superfund Superfund • Question 7 CERCLA and the Superfund were implemented for all of the following reasons EXCEPT: a fund needed to be established in which to hold all of the money generated by the cleanup efforts a fund needed to be established in which to hold all of the money generated by the cleanup efforts • Question 8 Which age group does asthma effect in the highest proportion? birth - 4 years old birth - 4 years old Small children experience the most asthma. • Question 9 Around the world, ________ people rely on burning wood, coal or dried animal dung in open pits, stoves or fireplaces to heat their homes and cook. 3 billion 3 billion • Question 10 Which room in a typical U.S. house is most likely to have high concentrations of Radon? baseme nt baseme nt • Question 11 Atmospheric (air) pollutants impact the respiratory system (lungs, bronchii) of animals more than other systems in the body. Tru e Tru e Right, it's the respiratory system (lungs, bronchii, and more ). • Question 12 Which common disease is NOT included in the suite of diseases of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)? heart disease heart disease Heart disease isn't one of the COPD conditions, however, it can be linked to air pollution and other COPD conditions. • Question 13 Lead exposure can cause ______ in children. mental retardation mental retardation • Question 14 Which common air pollutant is a primary damager of crops (including cotton, a large crop in AZ!)? Ozone Ozone • Question 15 Which of the following is NOT true about photochemical smogs? These sulfurous smogs come from coal-burning industries. These sulfurous smogs come from coal-burning industries. No, these come from petroleum-burning vehicles that produce exhaust containing VOCs and NOx. • Question 16 The gas found in the highest proportion in the atmosphere is _______. Nitrogen (N2) Nitrogen (N2) No. Nitrogen is 78% of the atmosphere, and oxygen is the second highest proportion at 21%. • Question 17 What is the main source for Sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere? Transporation Fossil fuels in power plants Sulfur dioxide comes mostly from coal powered electricity plants. • Question 18 What is the main source for Nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the atmosphere? Transporati on Transporati on • Question 19 Acid rain does not impact the chemistry of surface waters because they are ALL buffered by dissolved minerals. Fals e Fals e • Question 20 You can use decommissioned landfills (covered with soil and no longer used) for parks and open space. Tru e Tru e Yes, this is OK. Even though the waste may settle underneath, this shouldn't matter as long as there are not any buildings on site. • Question 21 Now that landfills are designed to decrease the amount of leachate that is formed, decomposition of waste is much quicker. Fals e Fals e This is false. Landfills are now designed to decrease the amount of water that enters "the mound", but less water means less decomposition by resident microbes. • Question 22 The hazardous heavy metal found in CFL bulbs is _________ mercur y mercur y • Question 23 Most (recyclable, disposable) plastic water bottles are recycled. Fals e Fals e No, right now only about 1 in 6 (or less than 20%) of disposable plastic water bottles are recycled. • Question 24 Which of the following are criteria for landfills? Check all that apply. Answers: they must be covered at night and when not in use to prevent pests groundwater monitoring wells must be installed around the landfill to insure that contaminated water is not leaking from the landfill they must be located away from airports so that birds attracted to the landfill will not interfere with airplanes the party who is building the landfill must be able to demonstrate that they have a financial plan that includes closure costs for the landfill once it is full Answers: they must be covered at night and when not in use to prevent pests groundwater monitoring wells must be installed around the landfill to insure that contaminated water is not leaking from the landfill they must be located away from airports so that birds attracted to the landfill will not interfere with airplanes the party who is building the landfill must be able to demonstrate that they have a financial plan that includes closure costs for the landfill once it is full • Question 25 In the daily operation of a landfill, it is important to vent biogas from a landfill because _______________. Choose the most important reason! biogas has a very strong odor that attract pests, and so it must be vented to keep from attracting these critters biogas is composed mainly of highly flammable (even explosive) methane gas, and it must be vented to prevent explosions and seepage of gas to other locations underground • Question 26 "Pay as you throw," or PAYT programs decrease the amount of solid waste that people send to a landfill or incinerator. Tru e Tru e This is true. People generate a lot less waste if they are charged by the amount of waste that they generate. • Question 27 2.01 out of 3 points Which of the following are advantages to bioreactor landfills. Check ALL that apply. decomposition is aerobic, and so methane gas is not created less long-term environmental risks as waste is not around as long Answers: waste is degraded more quickly decomposition is aerobic, and so methane gas is not created less long-term environmental risks as waste is not around as long All are except that methane gas is not produced and so it cannot be siphoned off to produce electricity. • Question 28 You can build (houses, office buildings, etc.) on top of decommissioned (covered and no longer used) landfills. Fals e Fals e No, because of settling of the wastes, the surface is not stable. • Question 29 Which of the following strategies would help you to reduce the amount of waste that you generate? use reusable containers (water bottles) and bags use reusable containers (water bottles) and bags • Question 30 The amount of fossil fuels that goes into the production of a year's supply of disposalbe water bottles would be enough to power 1 million cars for an entire year. Tru e Tru e Yes, we consume 29 billion bottles of water in the U.S. every year, and these take 17 million barrels of oil to produce (which would power 1 million cars for a year). • Question 31 Leachate is _______________________. contaminated water that forms in landfills as infiltrating water contacts an assortment of wastes contaminated water that forms in landfills as infiltrating water contacts an assortment of wastes , leachate is contaminated water that forms in landfills as infiltrating water contacts an assortment of wastes • Question 32 The National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) issues permits and regulates discharge of pollutants from point sources. Tru e Tru e • Question 33 Which of the following strategies are effective in decreasing the amount of nutrient pollution that gets into natual waters from agricultural sources? Choose all that apply! plant buffers of shrubs, trees and/or grasses between crop lands and natural water bodies use constructed wetlands to remove nutrients in water waste streams before they leave the farm apply nutrients on a regular schedule, rather than applying nutrients based on soil nutrient tests Answers: plant buffers of shrubs, trees and/or grasses between crop lands and natural water bodies use constructed wetlands to remove nutrients in water waste streams before they leave the farm • Question 34 Match the following water quality parameters with their description. Question Match Match pH A. a measure of the acidity (or basicity) of the water A. a measure of the acidity (or basicity) of the water turbidity B. measures the amount of light that can infiltrate the water body (i.e., cloudiness of the water) B. measures the amount of light that can infiltrate the water body (i.e., cloudiness of the water) specific conductanc e D. measures how well water conducts electricity, which depends on the mineral salt content of the water D. measures how well water conducts electricity, which depends on the mineral salt content of the water suspended sediment C. how much sediment (nondissolved particles) is being carried by the water C. how much sediment (nondissolved particles) is being carried by the water • Question 35 The National Water Quality Assessment Program covers urban areas that have been identified to have pollution concerns. Fals e Fals e No, this project tests waters all over the country, and is useful for collecting water quality data at different times of year. • Question 36 Organic wastes with high BOD (biological oxygen demand) are helpful to fish in aquatic systems. Fals e Fals e No. High BOD means that much of the oxygen in a water body is depleted as bacteria decompose the organic wastes in the water and use up the oxygen. • Question 37 During which process in the treatment of wastewater do decomposers (detritus feeders) consume and remove organic wastes in the water? aeratio n aeratio n • Question 38 Acid mine drainage, in which acidic water washes off a pile of mine tailings and directly into the adjacent stream, is a point source pollutant. Tru e Tru e Yes, this is true, as long as the source of pollution is only one identified pile of mine tailings and the path of flow from the mine tailings to the stream is easy to identify. • Question 39 Eutrophication is a process commonly associated with _________ pollutants. excess nutrient excess nutrient • Question 40 During which process in the treatment of wastewater are nitrogen and phosphorous removed? biological nutrient removal biological nutrient removal • Question 41 Worldwide, there are 1 billion deaths/year from waterborne disease. Fals e Fals e Thankfully, this is NOT true. There are 1 billion people without access to safe drinking water, however, there are "only" 1.8 million deaths/year. Obviously, this is a terrible number, even so. • Question 42 Which of the following is NOT a component in a household septic system? air stripping column air stripping column • Question 43 It is simpler to identify the party responsible for point source pollution, as compared to nonpoint source pollution. Tru e Tru e • Question 44 How many people in developing nations do NOT have access to improved sanitation systems? 2.6 billion 2.6 billion • Question 45 In terms of years of lives lost, car crashes are the ____ leading cause of death in the U.S. 3rd 3rd • Question 46 Because of rising populations in developing nations, the % of people who have access to improved sanitation systems has decreased since 1990. Fals e Fals e • Question 47 How many people in developing nations do NOT have access to safe drinking water? 1.1 billion 1.1 billion • Question 48 Biodiversity declines as population density and the amount of development increases in an area. Tru e Tru e • Question 49 What % of the global population lives in slums? 24 % 24 % • Question 50 Highway vehicles are responsible for ___% of the NOx air emissions in the U.S. 75 38 [Show More]

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