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Phil 341 Exam 1 Review

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Classical Utilitarianism and Rule Utilitarianism a. According to Classical Utilitarianism, what makes an action right? Take the following scenario: It is Christmas season and you are deciding what to ... buy for your three children. You have $500 to spend, in total, on all three children. As you’re shopping about, you run into your utilitarian friend. She informs you that with $500 you could buy malaria vaccines for 1,000 children. According to the classical utilitarian, how should you spend your money? Justify your response. How might a non-utilitarian object to this answer? ● For Classical Utilitarianism, what makes an action right is if the action maximizes happiness. If you can’t maximize happiness, then minimize unhappiness. ● According to the classical utilitarian, you should choose to buy the malaria vaccines for the 1,000 children. Increasing the happiness and potentially saving the lives of the 1,000 children would exceed the happiness that your children would receive from getting presents. ● A non-utilitarian would object to this answer for a few reasons. One may be that they believe that donating to the money to charity would be demanding. Once you donate, it could escalate into you considering to keep giving to the point where you minimize your happiness. Another example is saying you have a special obligation or commitment to your family over the other children. 1) Classic utilitarians are concerned with maximizing happiness a) If you fail to do the best you can do and do not maximize happiness, you are acting immorally b) Also believe if you cannot max happiness, you must minimize misery 2) Stated as argument (Modus Ponens): a) If an act maximizes happiness, then it is morally just b) An act maximizes happiness c) Therefore, it is morally just 3) Because they believe you must minimize misery if happiness cannot be maximized, the classical utilitarian would say you should spend your money to buy the vaccines for the 1,000 children rather than buying the gifts for your own healthy children a) While purchasing gifts for your children would make them happy, By purchasing the vaccines for the sick children, you are reducing their misery and maximizing the overall happiness in the world. b) If just your kids received gifts and experienced happiness, the balance would be 997 miserable kids with no malaria vaccine c) If you got the vaccines, your kids might be sad Christmas morning, but the balance would be 997 happy kids vs just 3 happy kids 4) Issues with the utilitarian view (objections): a) Argue this view is too demanding i) When are you sacrificing too much for the maximized happiness [Show More]

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PHI 2397 - BUSINESS ETHICS TYPED QUIZ 1 TO 3 AND FINAL EXAM, WITH EXAM 1 REVIEW

Phil 341 Exam 1 Review QUIZ ONE: PHI 2397 - BUSINESS ETHICS TYPED QUIZ TWO: PHI 2397 - BUSINESS ETHICS TYPED QUIZ THREE: PHI 2397 - BUSINESS ETHICS PHI2397 FINAL EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE

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