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APEA Neurology exam questions and answers with explanations 2022

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Question 1: Sudden, brief, rapid jerks, involving the trunk or limbs may be consistent with: a myoclonic seizure. Correct an absent seizure. a myoclonic atonic seizure. a focal seizure with impai... rment of consciousness. Explanation: A patient experiencing a myoclonic seizure manifests sudden, brief, rapid jerks, involving the trunk or limbs. A sudden brief lapse of consciousness with momentary blinking, staring, or movements of the lips and hands but no falling is consistent with an absent seizure. During a myoclonic atonic seizure, the patient experiences a sudden loss of consciousness with falling but no movements. Injury may occur. Focal seizures with impairment of consciousness the person appears confused. Automatisms include automatic motor behaviors such as chewing, smacking the lips, walking about, and unbuttoning clothes. Question 2: Which of the following neurological assessment findings indicate the need for further evaluation? Lifting one foot and then the other when the infant is held upright with the feet touching a solid surface Fanning and hyperextension of the toes when the sole is stroked upward from the heel Grasping a finger placed in the neonate's palm Weak and ineffective sucking movements Correct Explanation: Weak and ineffective sucking movements would indicate the need for further evaluation since any weak, absent, asymmetrical or fine jumping movements would suggest neurological system disorders. The other choices represent common reflexes found in the normal newborn: Babinski, grasping, and stepping. Question 3: An example of proximal weakness is: the right shoulder. Correct the right hand. both arms. Incorrect on the right side of the face. Explanation: There are 4 different patterns of weakness: Proximal, distal, symmetric, and asymmetric. An example of proximal weakness is weakness in the shoulder or hip girdle. Distal weakness occurs in the hands or feet. Symmetric weakness occurs in the same areas on both sides of the body. An asymmetric weakness occurs in a portion of the face or extremity - a form of focal weakness. Question: A female patient complains of weakness in her hand when opening a jar. This finding could be suggestive of which type of weakness pattern? ProximalDistal CorrectSymmetricAsymmetric Explanation: To identify distal weakness, ask about hand movements when opening a jar, can or using scissors or a screwdriver. Another example is a problems like tripping when walking. Question: A patient presents with an altered level of consciousness. He/she is considered in a stuporous state if he/she: appears drowsy but opens the eyes, looks at the examiners, answers the questions, and then falls asleep.arouses from sleep after exposure to painful stimuli, exhibits slow verbal responses, and easily lapses into an unresponsive state. Correctremains unarousable with eyes closed. There is no evident response to inner need or external stimuli.opens the eyes and looks at the examiner, but responds slowly and is somewhat confused. Explanation: A stuporous patient arouses from sleep after exposure to painful stimuli, verbal responses are slow, and lapses into an unresponsive state. A lethargic patient appears drowsy but opens the eyes, looks at the examiners, answers the questions, and then falls asleep. An obtunded patient opens the eyes and looks at the examiner, but responds slowly and is somewhat confused. A comatose patient remains unarousable with eyes closed. There is no evident response to inner need or external stimuli. [Show More]

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