Biology > Study Notes > BIOL 3100 MICRO FINAL Chapter 4 to Chapter 23. Quick study notes with limited time towards the exam. (All)

BIOL 3100 MICRO FINAL Chapter 4 to Chapter 23. Quick study notes with limited time towards the exam.

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CHAPTER 4 Classification of Organisms CHAPTER 5 Requirement for a successful infection 1. Entry – getting in 2. Establishment – staying in 3. Defeat the host defenses 4. Damage the host 5... . Exit the host – getting out (be transmitted to another host) CHAPTER 6 Mechanisms of Transmission • There are three mechanisms of pathogen transmisiion 1. Contact transmission • Person to person within short period of time, short distance 2. Vehicle transmission  Contaminated non living source-person after longer period od time and possible longer distance 3. Vector transmission  Person-living carrier-person CHAPTER 7 Normal Microbiota • Can protect us through microbial antagonism o Many bacteria produce bacteriocins which are localized bacterial antibiotics o Bactriocins can kill invading organisms but do not affect the bacteria that produce them • Produces vitamins (Vit K and B) • Stimulates and train our immune system CHAPTER 8 How do Emerging and Re-emerging Infection Diseases Arise and Spread? • Definitions o Emerging infectious disease  Infectious disease whose incidences have increased over the past 30 years or threaten to increase  Includes new pathogens not observed before • Mutated viruses  Includes disease whose etiology was no established before o Re-emerging infectious disease  Infectious diseases we once thought to have overcome bounce back CHAPTER 9 Bacterial Structures • The bacterial cell wall o The bacterial cell wall is a protective barrier against:  Osmotic pressure changes  Other environmental stresses o The cell wall is a complex meshwork structure composed of several parts o The key structure is peptidoglycan o The cell wall is different in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria CHAPTER 10 Bacterial growth • Each division of bacteria is called a generation • The time between division is called generation time • Some pathogen have excessively long generation times while other have very short generation time • The shorter the generation time the faster the number of bacteria increases within the host • Infectious organisms have specific growth requirements CHAPTER 11 DNA Replication Which of the following base pairs is mismatched? a) Adenine: thymine b) Guanine: uracil c) Cytosine: guanine d) Adenine: uracil e) All are correct CHAPTER 12 Viral Structure  What are viruses? o Viruses are acellular, they do not have a cell membrane o There are obligate intracellular parasites o Viral genome subverts host cell’s machinery to reproduce o Virus depend on host metabolism  Energy, materials, enzymes CHAPTER 13 Viral Infection  Patterns of viral infections: damage to host cell o Cytopathic viruses produce virions and cause morphological changes to host cells (cytopathology) o Noncytopathic viruse produce virions but do not cause apparent cytopathology  Vital cytopathic effect o Viruses induced changes to eukaryotic cell  Cell rounding  Cell aggregation  Inclusion bodies CHAPTER 14  Parasitic Infections o Parasites can be divided into two groups:  Protozoans – microscopic, single-celled eukaryotes  Helminthes – worms, macroscopic, multicellular eukaryotes with organ systems o Disease causing parasites depend on their infected host for survival o Involved often multiple host in which specific developmental stages are reached  Definitive host – where adults develop and sexual reproduction occurs  Intermediate host – where asexual reproduction occurs CHAPTER 15 • Innate o Limited specificity o Immediately available, preformed or recruited withing hours after infection o No memory • Adaptive o Specific o Takes several days to develop CHAPTER 16 • Introduction: Initiation of the Adaptive Immune Response o The adaptive immune response is the second line of defense o The innate response is a prerequisite for the adaptive immune response  Alerts and activated the adaptive immune response via cytokines and chemokines  Presents antigens o Dendritic cells are the most important innate cells for the proper development of an adaptive immune response. This is because:  They take up and process antigens  They migrate to lymph node and present antigens to T cells  They have enormous surface areas and can interact with many different T cells CHAPTER 17 • Overview o There are several reasons why host defense does not function properly or is absent: o Immune defenses are normal but pathogen outsmarts the host o Too little immune response  Acquired immune response • HIV CHAPTER 18 • Important Terminology o Sterilization – the removal of all living microbe as wells as viruses and spores  Sterilization does not destroy prions o Disinfection – kill or inhibits growth of pathogenic microorganisms by chemical or physical mean  Chemical to achieve this used on inanimate object is call a disinfectant  The chemical to achieve this used on skin and tissue is called and antiseptic  Some chemical can be used for both disinfection and antiseptic treatment  Some disinfecting agents do no affect spores CHAPTER 19 • What is an antibiotic? o Original term was used for antibacterial compounds produced by living microorganisms o These were products of secondary metabolic pathways and served to defend the producer against other microbe in the environment o Some of them were chemical modified o Chemotherapeutics were entirely chemically synthesized compounds o Today some use the term antibiotics for any drug inhibiting bacteria some use the term antimicrobics CHAPTER 21 Corynebacterium Diphtheria • Caused by the toxin produced by Cornebacterium diphtheriae o Diphtheria toxin is a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis • It is a localized infection o Presents as sever pharyngitis o Can be accompanies by plaque-like pseudomembranes in the throat o Can be obliterate airways • Toxinemia causes life threatening systemic symptoms o Multiple organs can be affects o Myocarditis CHAPTER 22 General Feature of Gastrointestinal Disease • Clinical symptoms of Gastrointestinal Infections o The central denature in all cases is diarrhea o The nature of the diarrhea is used to classify gastrointestinal infections into three categories:  Watery diarrhea: enterotoxin mediated such s in traveler’s diarrhea or in cholera  Dysentery: cytotoxin mediated such as in Shigella dysentery CHAPTER 23 UTIs • General Information Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) o Urine is essentially sterile o When passing through urethral opening urine becomes contaminated with normal microbiota and some epithelial cells  Refrigerate urine after collection! o Presence of one type of microbe at >105 CFU/mL indicates UTI o Presence inflammatory cells and erythrocytes indicates UTI o UTIs are typically caused by bacteria, less often yeast o UTIs are more common in women due to the closeness of the anus and contaminating fecal normal microbiota [Show More]

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