BioChemistry > Class Notes > Catabolism of proteins and amino acid nitrogen (All)

Catabolism of proteins and amino acid nitrogen

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Protein turnover occurs in all forms of life - Amount of nitrogen relatively constant except growth - No storage form of nitrogen reserve  muscle is NOT for storage - Turnover 1 – 2% of total ... body protein (principally muscle protein) - High rates of protein degradation (undergoing structural rearrangement – chemically altered):  Uterine tissue during pregnancy  Skeletal muscle in starvation  Tadpole tail tissue during metamorphosis (I will give everyone a hundred pesos if this is mentioned in the exam) - 75% of liberated aa: reutilized - 20 – 25%: rapidly degraded (not stored) o Carbon skeletons  amphibolic intermediates o Amino nitrogen  urea  excreted in urine Proteases and peptidases degrade proteins to amino acids  Half life (t1/2) – relative susceptibility of a protein to degradation - Time required to lower its concentration to half the initial value o Housekeeping enzymes (typical) – over 100h o Key regulatory enzymes – 0.5 – 2h  PEST sequences – regions rich in proline, glutamate, serine, threonine which target some proteins for rapid degradation  Intracellular proteases – hydrolyze internal peptide bonds  Endopeptidases – cleave internal peptide bonds of peptides which are then degraded to aa  Aminopeptidases – remove amino acids sequentially from amino terminals  Carboxypeptidases – remove amino acids sequentially from carboxyl terminals  Cathepsins – degrades asialogylcoproteins which are internalized by liver cell asialoglycoprotein receptors o Eg. Loss of sialic acid moiety from nonreducing ends of oligosaccharide chains (circulating peptides – hormones)  internalized by liver cell  Ubiquitin – attachment of single ubiquitin molecule to transmembrane proteins  alters subcellular localization  targeting for degradation o Soluble proteins  undergo polyubiquitination  further ligase – catalyzed attachment of 4 or more additional ubiquitin molecules  subsequent degradation of ubiquitin tagged proteins in proteasome o Defects of ubiquitin molecule: Angelman syndrome and von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (defect in ubiquitin E3 ligase) [Show More]

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