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Perspectives of Pediatric Nursing: Herzing University - NURSING 216 PedsExam1/ NURS216 Exam. Graded A. All Answers Correct

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Perspectives of Pediatric Nursing: Herzing University - NURSING 216 PedsExam1 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A nurse is planning a teaching session for parents of preschool children. Which statement explains wh... y the nurse should include information about morbidity and mortality? a. Life-span statistics are included in the data. b. It explains effectiveness of treatment. c. Cost-effective treatment is detailed for the general population. d. High-risk age groups for certain disorders or hazards are identified. 2. A clinic nurse is planning a teaching session about childhood obesity prevention for parents of school-age children. The nurse should include which associated risk of obesity in the teaching plan? a. Type I diabetes b. Respiratory disease c. Celiac disease d. Type II diabetes 3. Which is the leading cause of death in infants younger than 1 year? a. Congenital anomalies b. Sudden infant death syndrome c. Respiratory distress syndrome d. Bacterial sepsis of the newborn 4. Which leading cause of death topic should the nurse emphasize to a group of African-American boys ranging in ages 15 to 19 years? a. Suicide b. Cancer c. Firearm homicide d. Occupational injuries 5. Which is the major cause of death for children older than 1 year? a. Cancer b. Heart disease c. Unintentional injuries d. Congenital anomalies 6. Which is the leading cause of death from unintentional injuries for females ranging in age from 1 to 14? a. Mechanical suffocation b. Drowning c. Motorvehicle-related fatalities d. Fire- and burn-related fatalities 7. Which factor most impacts the type of injury a child is susceptible to, according to the childs age? a. Physical health of the child b. Developmental level of the child c. Educational level of the child d. Number of responsible adults in the home 8. Which is now referred to as the new morbidity? a. Limitations in the major activities of daily living b. Unintentional injuries that cause chronic health problems c. Discoveries of new therapies to treat health problems d. Behavioral, social, and educational problems that alter health 9. A nurse on a pediatric unit is practicing family-centered care. Which is most descriptive of the care the nurse is delivering? a. Taking over total care of the child to reduce stress on the family b. Encouraging family dependence on health care systems c. Recognizing that the family is the constant in a childs life d. Excluding families from the decision-making process 10. The nurse is preparing an in-service education to staff about atraumatic care for pediatric patients. Which intervention should the nurse include? a. Prepare the child for separation from parents during hospitalization by reviewing a video. b. Prepare the child before any unfamiliar treatment or procedure by demonstrating on a stuffed animal. c. Help the child accept the loss of control associated with hospitalization. d. Help the child accept pain that is connected with a treatment or procedure. 11. Which is most suggestive that a nurse has a nontherapeutic relationship with a patient and family? a. Staff is concerned about the nurses actions with the patient and family. b. Staff assignments allow the nurse to care for same patient and family over an extended time. c. Nurse is able to withdraw emotionally when emotional overload occurs but still remains committed. d. Nurse uses teaching skills to instruct patient and family rather than doing everything for 12. Which is most descriptive of clinical reasoning? a. A simple developmental process b. Purposeful and goal-directed c. Based on deliberate and irrational thought d. Assists individuals in guessing what is most appropriate 13. A nurse makes the decision to apply a topical anesthetic to a childs skin before drawing blood. Which ethical principle is the nurse demonstrating? a. Autonomy b. Beneficence c. Justice d. Truthfulness 14. Which action by the nurse demonstrates use of evidence-based practice (EBP)? a. Gathering equipment for a procedure b. Documenting changes in a patients status c. Questioning the use of daily central line dressing changes d. Clarifying a physicians prescription for morphine 15. A nurse is admitting a toddler to the hospital. The toddler is with both parents and is currently sitting comfortably on a parents lap. The parents state they will need to leave for a brief period. Which type of nursing diagnosis should the nurse formulate for this child? a. Risk for anxiety b. Anxiety c. Readiness for enhanced coping d. Ineffective coping 16. A child has a postoperative appendectomy incision covered by a dressing. The nurse has just completed a prescribed dressing change for this child. Which description is an accurate documentation of this procedure? a. Dressing change to appendectomy incision completed, child tolerated procedure well, parent present b. No complications noted during dressing change to appendectomy incision c. Appendectomy incision non-reddened, sutures intact, no drainage noted on old dressing, new dressing applied, procedure tolerated well by child d. No changes to appendectomy incisional area, dressing changed, child complained of pain during procedure, new dressing clean, dry and intact 17. A nurse is planning a class on accident prevention for parents of toddlers. Which safety topic is the priority for this class? a. Appropriate use of car seat restraints b. Safety crossing the street c. Helmet use when riding a bicycle d. Poison control numbers MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Which behaviors by the nurse indicate a therapeutic relationship with children and families? (Select all that apply.) a. Spending off-duty time with children and families b. Asking questions if families are not participating in the care c. Clarifying information for families d. Buying toys for a hospitalized child e. Learning about the familys religious preferences MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A nurse is selecting a family theory to assess a patients family dynamics. Which family theory best describes a series of tasks for the family throughout its life span? a. Interactional theory b. Developmental systems theory c. Structural-functional theory d. Duvalls developmental theory 2. Which family theory explains how families react to stressful events and suggests factors that promote adaptation to these events? a. Interactional theory b. Developmental systems theory c. Family stress theory d. Duvalls developmental theory 3. Which is the term for a family in which the paternal grandmother, the parents, and two minor children live together? a. Blended b. Nuclear c. Binuclear d. Extended 4. A nurse is assessing a familys structure. Which describes a family in which a mother, her children, and a stepfather live together? a. Blended b. Nuclear c. Binuclear d. Extended 5. Which is considered characteristic of children who are the youngest in their family? a. More dependent than firstborn children b. More outgoing than firstborn children c. Identify more with parents than with peers d. Are subject to greater parental expectations 6. Parents of a firstborn child are asking whether it is normal for their child to be extremely competitive. The nurse should respond to the parents that studies about the ordinal position of children suggest that firstborn children tend to: a. be praised less often. b. be more achievement oriented. c. be more popular with the peer group. d. identify with peer group more than parents. 7. A 35-year-old client is currently on fertility treatments. When responding to a question from the client about multiple births, which statement by the nurse is accurate? a. Use of fertility treatments has been associated with an increase in multiple births. b. Your chance of having multiple births is at the same rate as all women of childbearing age. c. There is not enough evidence about the use of fertility treatments increasing the rate of multiple births. d. Because of your age and the fertility treatments, you have almost a 100% chance of a multiple birth. 8. Nicole and Kelly, age 5 years, are identical twins. Their parents tell the nurse that the girls always want to be together. The nurses suggestions should be based on which statement? a. Some twins thrive best when they are constantly together. b. Individuation cannot occur if twins are together too much. c. Separating twins at an early age helps them develop mentally. d. When twins are constantly together, pathologic bonding occurs. 9. The nurse is teaching a group of new parents about the experience of role transition. Which statement by a parent would indicate a correct understanding of the teaching? a. My marital relationship can have a positive or negative effect on the role transition. b. If an infant has special care needs, the parents sense of confidence in their new role is strengthened. c. Young parents can adjust to the new role easier than older parents. d. A parents previous experience with children makes the role transition more difficult. 10. When assessing a family, the nurse determines that the parents exert little or no control over their children. This style of parenting is called: a. permissive. b. dictatorial. c. democratic. d. authoritarian. 11. When discussing discipline with the mother of a 4-year-old child, the nurse should include which instruction? a. Children as young as 4 years old rarely need to be punished. b. Parental control should be consistent. c. Withdrawal of love and approval is effective at this age. d. One should expect rules to be followed rigidly and unquestioningly. 12. Which is most characteristic of the physical punishment of children, such as spanking? a. Psychological impact is usually minimal. b. Children rarely become accustomed to spanking. c. Childrens development of reasoning increases. d. Misbehavior is likely to occur when parents are not present. 13. A 3-year-old girl was adopted immediately after birth. The parents have just asked the nurse how they should tell the child that she is adopted. Which guidelines concerning adoption should the nurse use in planning a response? a. Telling the child is an important aspect of their parental responsibilities. b. The best time to tell the child is between ages 7 and 10 years. c. It is not necessary to tell the child who was adopted so young. d. It is best to wait until the child asks about it. 14. A parent of a school-age child is going through a divorce. The parent tells the school nurse the child has not been doing well in school and sometimes has trouble sleeping. The nurse should recognize this as which implication? a. Indication of maladjustment b. Common reaction to divorce c. Lack of adequate parenting d. Unusual response that indicates need for referral 15. A mother brings 6-month-old Eric to the clinic for a well-baby checkup. She comments, I want to go back to work, but I dont want Eric to suffer because Ill have less time with him. The nurses most appropriate answer would be which statement? a. Im sure hell be fine if you get a good babysitter. b. You will need to stay home until Eric starts school. c. You should go back to work so Eric will get used to being with others. d. Lets talk about the child-care options that will be best for Eric. 1. Dunst, Trivette, and Deal identified the qualities of strong families that help them function effectively. Which qualities are included? (Select all that apply.) a. Ability to stay connected without spending time together b. Clear set of family values, rules, and beliefs c. Adoption of one coping strategy that always promotes positive functioning in dealing with life events d. Sense of commitment toward growth of individual family members as opposed to that of the family unit e. Ability to engage in problem-solving activities f. Sense of balance between the use of internal and external family resources 2. A nurse is conducting a teaching session on the use of time-out as a discipline measure to parents of toddlers. Which are correct strategies the nurse should include in the teaching session? (Select all that apply.) a. Time-out as a discipline measure cannot be used when in a public place. b. A rule for the length of time-out is 1 minute per year. c. When the child misbehaves, one warning should be given. d. The area for time-out can be in the family room where the child can see the television. e. When the child is quiet for the specified time, he or she can leave the room. 3. Divorced parents of a preschool child are asking whether their child will display any feelings or behaviors related to the effect of the divorce. The nurse is correct when explaining that the parents should be prepared for which type of behaviors? (Select all that apply.) a. Displaying fears of abandonment b. Verbalizing that he or she is the reason for the divorce c. Displaying fear regarding the future d. Ability to disengage from the divorce proceedings e. Engaging in fantasy to understand the divorce COMPLETION 1. A nurse is admitting a child, in foster care, to the hospital. The nurse recognizes that foster parents care for the child _____ hours a day. (Record your answer as a whole number.) 2. A parent of a newborn is expressing concern about returning to work after taking time off under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). The nurse understands that the Act allows a new parent to take off from work for _____ weeks. (Record your answer as a whole number.) Chapter 04: Social, Cultural, and Religious Influences on Child Health Promotion MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which term best describes a group of people who share a set of values, beliefs, practices, social relationships, law, politics, economics, and norms of behavior? a. Race b. Culture c. Ethnicity d. Social group 2. Which term best describes the emotional attitude that ones own ethnic group is superior to others? a. Culture b. Ethnicity c. Superiority d. Ethnocentrism 3. Currently, the fastest-growing segment of the homeless population in the United States consists of: a. families. b. runaway adolescents. c. migrant farm workers. d. individuals with mental disorders. 4. Maria, a Spanish-speaking 5-year-old girl, has started kindergarten in an English-speaking school. Crying most of the time, she appears helpless and unable to function in this new situation. Which description best explains Marias behavior? a. Lacks adequate culture for attending school b. Lacks the maturity needed in school c. Is experiencing culture shock d. Is experiencing minority group discrimination 5. When minority groups immigrate to another country, a certain degree of cultural or ethnic blending occurs through the involuntary process of: a. acculturation. b. ethnocentrism. c. culture shock. d. cultural sensitivity. 6. Which is a frequent health problem of migrant children and adolescents in the United States? a. Suicide b. Diabetes c. Tuberculosis d. Cardiovascular disease 7. The nurse observes that the families who do not show up for scheduled clinic appointments are usually from minority cultural groups. The best explanation for this is that these families often differ from the dominant culture because they: a. lack education. b. avoid health care. c. are more forgetful. d. view time differently. 8. The Vietnamese mother of a child being seen in the clinic avoids eye contact with the nurse. The best explanation for this, considering cultural differences, is that the parent: a. feels responsible for her childs illness. b. feels inferior to the nurse. c. is embarrassed to seek health care. d. is showing respect for the nurse. 9. The belief that health is a state of harmony with nature and the universe is common in which culture? a. Japanese b. African-American c. Native American d. Hispanic-American 10. A Hispanic toddler has pneumonia. The nurse notices that the parent consistently feeds the child only the broth that comes on the clear liquid tray. Food items, such as Jell-O, Popsicle, and juices are left. Which statement would best explain this? a. Parent is trying to feed child only what child likes most. b. Parent is trying to restore normal balance through appropriate hot remedies. c. Hispanics believe the evil eye enters when a person gets cold. d. Hispanics believe an innate energy, called chi, is strengthened by eating soup. 11. A nurse is taking a history on a low-income Hispanic toddler. The parent tells the nurse that occasional diarrhea is treated with azogue, a mercury compound commonly used in the parents native Mexico. What should the nurse recognize about this remedy? a. It is harmless. b. It is dangerous. c. It has a scientific basis. d. It has importance in certain religious practices. MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity 12. The nurse discovers welts on the back of a Vietnamese child during a home health visit. The childs mother says she has rubbed the edge of a coin on her childs oiled skin. What explanation should the nurse recognize about this? a. Child abuse b. Cultural practice to rid the body of disease c. Cultural practice to treat enuresis or temper tantrums d. Child discipline measure common in the Vietnamese culture 13. The father of a hospitalized child tells the nurse, He cant have meat. We are Buddhist and vegetarians. The nurses best intervention is to: a. order the child a meatless tray. b. ask a Buddhist priest to visit. c. explain that hospital patients are exempt from dietary rules. d. help the parent understand that meat provides protein needed for healing. 14. In which cultural group is good health considered to be a balance between yin and yang? a. Asians b. Australian aborigines c. Native Americans d. African-Americans 15. A young child from Mexico is hospitalized for a serious illness. The father tells the nurse that the child is being punished by God for being bad. The nurse should recognize that this is a(n): a. health belief common in this culture. b. early indication of potential child abuse. c. misunderstanding of the familys common beliefs. d. belief common when fortune tellers have been used. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Children are taught the values of their culture through observation and feedback, relative to their own behavior. In teaching a class on cultural competence, the nurse should be aware that which factor(s) may be culturally determined? (Select all that apply.) a. Degree of competition b. Racial variation c. Determination of status d. Social roles e. Geographic boundaries 2. Research is being done on the development of assets in children. A community that is supportive of children has which external assets? (Select all that apply.) a. Unstructured environments to allow for freedom of choice b. Social competencies to make positive choices c. Empowerment to feel safe and secure d. Positive values to direct choice e. Boundaries to set expectations and actions 3. A nurse is planning care for a Spanish-speaking child and family. The nurse speaks limited Spanish. Which interventions should the nurse plan when caring for this child and family? (Select all that apply.) a. Ask a visitor to interpret. b. Use a language-line telephone interpreter if a hospital interpreter is not available. c. Use written cards with common phrases in the Spanish language. d. Ask the family to provide an interpreter. e. When using a hospital interpreter, speak to the family not the interpreter. 4. A nurse is working in a clinic that serves a culturally diverse population of children. The nurse should plan care, understanding that which complementary and alternative practices may be used by families of this diverse population? (Select all that apply.) a. Seeking another doctors opinion b. Seeking advice from a curandero or curandera c. Using acupuncture or acupressure as a therapy d. Consulting an herbalist e. Consulting a kahuna 5. A nurse is caring for an African-American child recently admitted to the hospital. The nurse should be aware of which broad cultural characteristics for this child when planning care? (Select all that apply.) a. Silence may indicate a lack of trust. b. Maintaining constant eye contact may be viewed as aggressive. c. Self-care and folk medicine do not play a role in healthcare. d. Illness may be seen as the will of God. e. No importance is attached to nonverbal behavior. COMPLETION 1. Poverty has serious implications for children and families. Social and cultural deprivation, including limited employment opportunities, inferior educational opportunities, inferior or no access to health care, and a lack of public services, is referred to as the _______________ type of poverty. 2. A parent of a 12-year-old child states to the nurse, My 12-year-old watches TV constantly while at homeis this OK? The nurse should recommend to the parent that television viewing should be limited to _____ hours a day? (Record your answer in a whole number.) Chapter 05: Developmental and Genetic Influences on Child Health Promotion MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. An infant gains head control before sitting unassisted. The nurse recognizes that this is which type of development? a. Cephalocaudal b. Proximodistal c. Mass to specific d. Sequential 2. Which refers to those times in an individuals life when he or she is more susceptible to positive or negative influences? a. Sensitive period b. Sequential period c. Terminal points d. Differentiation points 3. An infant who weighs 7 pounds at birth would be expected to weigh how many pounds at age 1 year? a. 14 b. 16 c. 18 d. 21 4. By what age does birth length usually double? a. 1 year b. 2 years c. 4 years d. 6 years 5. Parents of an 8-year-old child ask the nurse how many inches their child should grow each year. The nurse bases the answer on the knowledge that after age 7 years, school-age children usually grow what number of inches per year? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 6. Parents express concern that their pubertal daughter is taller than the boys in her class. The nurse should respond with which statement regarding how the onset of pubertal growth spurt compares in girls and boys? a. It occurs earlier in boys. b. It occurs earlier in girls. c. It is about the same in both boys and girls. d. In both boys and girls, the pubertal growth spurt depends on growth in infancy. 7. A 13-year-old girl asks the nurse how much taller she will get. She has been growing about 2 inches per year but grew 4 inches this past year. Menarche recently occurred. The nurse should base her response on which statement? a. Growth cannot be predicted. b. Pubertal growth spurt lasts about 1 year. c. Mature height is achieved when menarche occurs. d. Approximately 95% of mature height is achieved when menarche occurs. 8. A childs skeletal age is best determined by: a. assessment of dentition. b. assessment of height over time. c. facial bone development. d. radiographs of the hand and wrist. 9. Trauma to which site can result in a growth problem for childrens long bones? a. Matrix b. Connective tissue c. Calcified cartilage d. Epiphyseal cartilage plate 10. A nurse has completed a teaching session for adolescents regarding lymphoid tissue growth. Which statement, by the adolescents, indicates understanding of the teaching? a. The tissue reaches adult size by age 1 year. b. The tissue quits growing by 6 years of age. c. The tissue is poorly developed at birth. d. The tissue is twice the adult size by ages 10 to 12 years. 11. Which statement is true about the basal metabolic rate (BMR) in children? a. It is reduced by fever. b. It is slightly higher in boys than in girls at all ages. c. It increases with age of child. d. It decreases as proportion of surface area to body mass increases. 12. A mother reports that her 6-year-old child is highly active, irritable, and irregular in habits and that the child adapts slowly to new routines, people, or situations. The nurse should chart this type of temperament as: a. easy. b. difficult. c. slow-to-warm. d. fast-to-warm. 13. A 12-year-old child enjoys collecting stamps, playing soccer, and participating in Boy Scout activities. The nurse recognizes that the child is displaying which developmental task? a. Identity b. Industry c. Integrity d. Intimacy 14. A nurse is conducting parenting classes for parents of children ranging in ages 2 to 7 years. The parents understand the term egocentrism when they indicate it means: a. selfishness. b. self-centeredness. c. preferring to play alone. d. unable to put self in anothers place. 15. The nurse is observing parents playing with their 10-month-old child. Which should the nurse recognize as evidence that the child is developing object permanence? a. Looks for the toy that parents hide under the blanket b. Returns the blocks to the same spot on the table c. Recognizes that a ball of clay is the same when flattened out d. Bangs two cubes held in her hands 16. A father tells the nurse that his child is filling up the house with collections like seashells, bottle caps, baseball cards, and pennies. The nurse should recognize that the child is developing: a. object permanence. b. preoperational thinking. c. concrete operational thinking. d. ability to use abstract symbols. 17. A visitor arrives at a daycare center during lunch time. The preschool children think that every time they have lunch a visitor will arrive. Which preoperational characteristic is being displayed? a. Egocentrism b. Transductive reasoning c. Intuitive reasoning d. Conservation 18. Which behavior is most characteristic of the concrete operations stage of cognitive development? a. Progression from reflex activity to imitative behavior b. Inability to put oneself in anothers place c. Increasingly logical and coherent thought processes d. Ability to think in abstract terms and draw logical conclusions 19. According to Kohlberg, children develop moral reasoning as they mature. Which statement is most characteristic of a preschoolers stage of moral development? a. Obeying the rules of correct behavior is important. b. Showing respect for authority is important behavior. c. Behavior that pleases others is considered good. d. Actions are determined as good or bad in terms of their consequences. 20. A school nurse notes that school-age children generally obey the rules at school. The nurse recognizes that the children are displaying which stage of moral development? a. Preconventional b. Conventional c. Post-conventional d. Undifferentiated 21. A nurse observes a toddler playing with sand and water. The nurse appropriately documents this type of play as _____ play. a. skill b. dramatic c. social-affective d. sense-pleasure 22. In which type of play are children engaged in similar or identical activity, without organization, division of labor, or mutual goal? a. Solitary b. Parallel c. Associative d. Cooperative 23. The nurse observes some children in the playroom. Which play situation exhibits the characteristics of parallel play? a. Kimberly and Amanda sharing clay to each make things b. Brian playing with his truck next to Kristina playing with her truck c. Adam playing a board game with Kyle, Steven, and Erich d. Danielle playing with a music box on her mothers lap 24. A nurse is planning play activities for school-age children. Which type of a play activity should the nurse plan? a. Solitary b. Parallel c. Associative d. Cooperative a. Creativity b. Socialization c. Intellectual development d. Sensorimotor activity 26. Parents are asking the clinic nurse about an appropriate toy for their toddler. Which response by the nurse is appropriate? a. Your child would enjoy playing a board game. b. A toy your child can push or pull would help develop muscles. c. An action figure toy would be a good choice. d. A 25-piece puzzle would help your child develop recognition of shapes. 27. Which is probably the single most important influence on growth at all stages of development? a. Nutrition b. Heredity c. Culture d. Environment 28. A nurse is counseling an adolescent, in her second month of pregnancy, about the risk of teratogens. The adolescent has understood the teaching if she makes which statement? a. I will be able to continue taking isotretinoin (Accutane) for my acne. b. I can continue to clean my cats litter box. c. I should avoid any alcoholic beverages. d. I will ask my physician to adjust my phenytoin (Dilantin) dosage. 29. What should the nurse consider when discussing language development with parents of toddlers? a. Sentences by toddlers include adverbs and adjectives. b. The toddler expresses himself or herself with verbs or combination words. c. The toddler uses simple sentences. d. Pronouns are used frequently by the toddler. PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 73 TOP:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning MSC:Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance 30. A nurse is observing children at play. Which figure depicts associative play? a. c. b. d. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Play serves many purposes. In teaching parents about appropriate activities, the nurse should inform them that play serves which of the following function? (Select all that apply.) a. Intellectual development b. Physical development c. Socialization d. Creativity e. Temperament development 2. What factors indicate parents should seek genetic counseling for their child? (Select all that apply.) a. Abnormal newborn screen b. Family history of a hereditary disease c. History of hypertension in the family d. Severe colic as an infant e. Metabolic disorder a. All items intersected by the age line should be administered. b. There is no correction for a child born prematurely. c. The tool is an intelligence test. d. Toddlers and preschoolers should be prepared by presenting the test as a game. e. Presentation of the toys from the kit should be done one at a time. COMPLETION 1. The nurse is recording a normal interpretation of a Denver II assessment. The nurse understands that the maximum number of cautions determined for a normal interpretation is _____. (Record your answer in a whole number.) Chapter 06: Communication and Physical Assessment of the Child MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The nurse is seeing an adolescent boy and his parents in the clinic for the first time. What should the nurse do first? a. Introduce self. b. Make family comfortable. c. Explain purpose of interview. d. Give assurance of privacy. 2. Which is most likely to encourage parents to talk about their feelings related to their childs illness? a. Be sympathetic. b. Use direct questions. c. Use open-ended questions. d. Avoid periods of silence. 3. Which communication technique should the nurse avoid when interviewing children and their families? a. Using silence b. Using clichs c. Directing the focus d. Defining the problem 4. What is the single most important factor to consider when communicating with children? a. The childs physical condition b. Presence or absence of the childs parent c. The childs developmental level d. The childs nonverbal behaviors 5. Which approach would be best to use to ensure a positive response from a toddler? a. Assume an eye-level position and talk quietly. b. Call the toddlers name while picking him or her up. c. Call the toddlers name and say, Im your nurse. d. Stand by the toddler, addressing him or her by name. 6. What is an important consideration for the nurse who is communicating with a very young child? a. Speak loudly, clearly, and directly. b. Use transition objects, such as a doll. c. Disguise own feelings, attitudes, and anxiety. d. Initiate contact with child when parent is not present. 7. A nurse is preparing to assess a 3-year-old child. What communication technique should the nurse use for this child? a. Focus communication on child. b. Explain experiences of others to child. c. Use easy analogies when possible. d. Assure child that communication is private. 8. The nurses approach when introducing hospital equipment to a preschooler should be based on which principle? a. The child may think the equipment is alive. b. The child is too young to understand what the equipment does. c. Explaining the equipment will only increase the childs fear. d. One brief explanation will be enough to reduce the childs fear. 9. A nurse is assigned to four children of different ages. In which age group should the nurse understand that body integrity is a concern? a. Toddler b. Preschooler c. School-age child d. Adolescent 10. An 8-year-old girl asks the nurse how the blood pressure apparatus works. The most appropriate nursing action is to: a. ask her why she wants to know. b. determine why she is so anxious. c. explain in simple terms how it works. d. tell her she will see how it works as it is used. 11. When the nurse interviews an adolescent, which is especially important? a. Focus the discussion on the peer group. b. Allow an opportunity to express feelings. c. Emphasize that confidentiality will always be maintained. d. Use the same type of language as the adolescent. 12. The nurse is having difficulty communicating with a hospitalized 6-year-old child. What technique might be most helpful? a. Suggest that the child keep a diary. b. Suggest that the parent read fairy tales to the child. c. Ask the parent if the child is always uncommunicative. d. Ask the child to draw a picture. 13. The nurse is meeting a 5-year-old child for the first time and would like the child to cooperate during a dressing change. The nurse decides to do a simple magic trick using gauze. This should be interpreted as: a. inappropriate, because of childs age. b. a way to establish rapport. c. too distracting, when cooperation is important. d. acceptable, if there is adequate time. 14. The nurse must assess 10-month-old infant. The infant is sitting on the fathers lap and appears to be afraid of the nurse and of what might happen next. Which initial action by the nurse would be most appropriate? a. Initiate a game of peek-a-boo. b. Ask father to place the infant on the examination table. c. Undress the infant while he is still sitting on his fathers lap. d. Talk softly to the infant while taking him from his father. 15. The nurse is taking a health history on an adolescent. Which best describes how the chief complaint should be determined? a. Ask for detailed listing of symptoms. b. Ask adolescent, Why did you come here today? c. Use what adolescent says to determine, in correct medical terminology, what the problem is. d. Interview parent away from adolescent to determine chief complaint. 16. Where in the health history should the nurse describe all details related to the chief complaint? a. Past history b. Chief complaint c. Present illness d. Review of systems 17. The nurse is interviewing the mother of an infant. She reports, I had a difficult delivery, and my baby was born prematurely. This information should be recorded under which of the following headings? a. Past history b. Present illness c. Chief complaint d. Review of systems 18. Which is most important to document about immunizations in the childs health history? a. Dosage of immunizations received b. Occurrence of any reaction after an immunization c. The exact date the immunizations were received d. Practitioner who administered the immunizations 19. When interviewing the mother of a 3-year-old child, the nurse asks about developmental milestones such as the age of walking without assistance. This should be considered: a. unnecessary information because child is age 3 years. b. an important part of the family history. c. an important part of the childs past history. d. an important part of the childs review of systems. 20. The nurse is taking a sexual history on an adolescent girl. Which is the best way to determine whether she is sexually active? a. Ask her, Are you sexually active? b. Ask her, Are you having sex with anyone? c. Ask her, Are you having sex with a boyfriend? d. Ask both the girl and her parent whether she is sexually active. 21. When doing a nutritional assessment on a Hispanic family, the nurse learns that their diet consists mainly of vegetables, legumes, and starches. The nurse should recognize that this diet: a. indicates they live in poverty. b. is lacking in protein. c. may provide sufficient amino acids. d. should be enriched with meat and milk. 22. Which following parameters correlate best with measurements of the bodys total protein stores? a. Height b. Weight c. Skin-fold thickness d. Upper arm circumference 23. A nurse is preparing to perform a physical assessment on a toddler. Which approach should the nurse use for this child? a. Always proceed in a head-to-toe direction. b. Perform traumatic procedures first. c. Use minimal physical contact initially. d. Demonstrate use of equipment. 24. The nurse is preparing to perform a physical assessment on a 10-year-old girl. The nurse gives her the option of her mother either staying in the room or leaving. This action should be considered: a. appropriate because of childs age. b. appropriate because mother would be uncomfortable making decisions for child. c. inappropriate because of childs age. d. inappropriate because child is same sex as mother. 25. A nurse is counseling parents of a child beginning to show signs of being overweight. The nurse accurately relates which body mass index (BMI)-for-age percentile indicates a risk for being overweight? a. 10th percentile b. 9th percentile c. 85th percentile d. 95th percentile 26. The nurse is using the NCHS growth chart for an African-American child. Which statement should the nurse consider? a. This growth chart should not be used. b. Growth patterns of African-American children are the same as for all other ethnic groups. c. A correction factor is necessary when the NCHS growth chart is used for non-Caucasian ethnic groups. d. The NCHS charts are accurate for U.S. African-American children. 27. Which tool measures body fat most accurately? a. Stadiometer b. Calipers c. Cloth tape measure d. Paper or metal tape measure 28. The nurse is using calipers to measure skin-fold thickness over the triceps muscle in a school-age child. What is the purpose of doing this? a. To measure body fat b. To measure muscle mass c. To determine arm circumference d. To determine accuracy of weight measurement 29. A nurse notes that a 10-month-old infant has a larger head circumference than chest. The nurse interprets this as a normal finding because the head and chest circumference become equal at which age? a. 1 month b. 6 to 9 months c. 1 to 2 years d. 2 1/2 to 3 years 30. Which would be best for the nurse to use when determining the temperature of a preterm infant under a radiant heater? a. Axillary sensor b. Tympanic membrane sensor c. Rectal mercury glass thermometer d. Rectal electronic thermometer 31. What is the earliest age at which a satisfactory radial pulse can be taken in children? a. 1 year b. 2 years c. 3 years d. 6 years 32. Pulses can be graded according to certain criteria. Which is a description of a normal pulse? a. 0 b. +1 c. +2 d. +3 33. Where is the best place to observe for the presence of petechiae in dark-skinned individuals? a. Face b. Buttocks c. Oral mucosa d. Palms and soles 34. The nurse observes yellow staining in the sclera of eyes, soles of feet, and palms of hands. This should be interpreted as: a. normal. b. erythema. c. jaundice. d. ecchymosis. 35. When palpating the childs cervical lymph nodes, the nurse notes that they are tender, enlarged, and warm. What is the best explanation for this? a. Some form of cancer b. Local scalp infection common in children c. Infection or inflammation distal to the site d. Infection or inflammation close to the site 36. During a routine health assessment, the nurse notes that an 8-month-old infant has significant head lag. Which is the nurses most appropriate action? a. Teach parents appropriate exercises. b. Recheck head control at next visit. c. Refer child for further evaluation. d. Refer child for further evaluation if anterior fontanel is still open. 37. The nurse has just started assessing a young child who is febrile and appears very ill. There is hyperextension of the childs head (opisthotonos) with pain on flexion. Which is the most appropriate action? a. Refer for immediate medical evaluation. b. Continue assessment to determine cause of neck pain. c. Ask parent when neck was injured. d. Record head lag on assessment record, and continue assessment of child. a. 2 months b. 2 to 4 months c. 6 to 8 months d. 12 to 18 months 39. During a funduscopic examination of a school-age child, the nurse notes a brilliant, uniform red reflex in both eyes. The nurse should recognize that this is a(n): a. normal finding. b. abnormal finding, so child needs referral to ophthalmologist. c. sign of possible visual defect, so child needs vision screening. d. sign of small hemorrhages, which will usually resolve spontaneously. 40. Parents of a newborn are concerned because the infants eyes often look crossed when the infant is looking at an object. The nurses response is that this is normal based on the knowledge that binocularity is normally present by what age? a. 1 month b. 3 to 4 months c. 6 to 8 months d. 12 months 41. A nurse is preparing to test a school-age childs vision. Which eye chart should the nurse use? a. Denver Eye Screening Test b. Allen picture card test c. Ishihara vision test d. Snellen letter chart 42. Which is the most appropriate vision acuity test for a child who is in preschool? a. Cover test b. Ishihara test c. HOTV chart d. Snellen letter chart 43. The nurse is testing an infants visual acuity. By what age should the infant be able to fix on and follow a target? a. 1 month b. 1 to 2 months c. 3 to 4 months d. 6 months 44. The appropriate placement of a tongue blade for assessment of the mouth and throat is: a. center back area of tongue. b. side of the tongue. c. against the soft palate. d. on the lower jaw. 45. An appropriate screening test for hearing that can be administered by the nurse to a 5-year-old child is: a. the Rinne test. b. the Weber test. c. conventional audiometry. d. eliciting the startle reflex. a. Vesicular b. Bronchial c. Adventitious d. Bronchovesicular 47. A nurse is assessing a patient admitted for an asthma exacerbation. Which breath sounds does the nurse expect to assess? a. Rubs b. Rattles c. Wheezes d. Crackles 48. While caring for a critically ill child, the nurse observes that respirations are gradually increasing in rate and depth, with periods of apnea. What pattern of respiration will the nurse document? a. Dyspnea b. Tachypnea c. Cheyne-Stokes respirations d. Seesaw (paradoxic) respirations a. inspecting the chest. b. auscultating the heart. c. palpating the apical pulse. d. palpating the skin to produce a slight blanching. 50. A nurse is assessing a child with an unrepaired ventricular septal defect. Which heart sound does the nurse expect to assess? a. S3 b. S4 c. Murmur d. Physiologic splitting 51. The nurse has determined the rate of both the childs radial pulse and heart. When comparing the two rates, the nurse should expect that normally they: a. are the same. b. differ, with heart rate faster. c. differ, with radial pulse faster. d. differ, depending on quality and intensity. 52. A nurse is performing an otoscopic exam on a school-age child. Which direction should the nurse pull the pinna for this age of child? a. Up and back b. Down and back c. Straight back d. Straight up 53. The nurse has a 2-year-old boy sit in tailor position during palpation for the testes. What is the rationale for this position? a. It prevents cremasteric reflex. b. Undescended testes can be palpated. c. This tests the child for an inguinal hernia. d. The child does not yet have a need for privacy. 54. During examination of a toddlers extremities, the nurse notes that the child is bowlegged. The nurse should recognize that this finding is: a. abnormal and requires further investigation. b. abnormal unless it occurs in conjunction with knock-knee. c. normal if the condition is unilateral or asymmetric. d. normal because the lower back and leg muscles are not yet well developed. 55. At about what age does the Babinski sign disappear? a. 4 months b. 6 months c. 1 year d. 2 years 56. A 5-year-old girl is having a checkup before starting kindergarten. The nurse asks her to do the finger-to-nose test. The nurse is testing for: a. deep tendon reflexes. b. cerebellar function. c. sensory discrimination. d. ability to follow directions. a. c. b. d. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. The nurse must check vital signs on a 2-year-old boy who is brought to the clinic for his 24-month checkup. What criteria should the nurse use in determining the appropriate-size blood pressure cuff? (Select all that apply.) a. The cuff is labeled toddler. b. The cuff bladder width is approximately 40% of the circumference of the upper arm. c. The cuff bladder length covers 80% to 100% of the circumference of the upper arm. d. The cuff bladder covers 50% to 66% of the length of the upper arm. 2. Which of the following data would be included in a health history? (Select all that apply.) a. Review of systems b. Physical assessment c. Sexual history d. Growth measurements e. Nutritional assessment f. Family medical history 3. A nurse is performing an assessment on a school-age child. Which findings suggest the child is getting an excess of vitamin A? (Select all that apply.) a. Delayed sexual development b. Edema c. Pruritus d. Jaundice e. Paresthesia 4. A nurse is planning to use an interpreter during a health history interview of a non-English speaking patient and family. Which nursing care guidelines should the nurse include when using an interpreter? (Select all that apply.) a. Elicit one answer at a time. b. Interrupt the interpreter if the response from the family is lengthy. c. Comments to the interpreter about the family should be made in English. d. Arrange for the family to speak with the same interpreter, if possible. e. Introduce the interpreter to the family. Chapter 07: Pain Assessment and Management in Children MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A 2-year-old child has been returned to the nursing unit after an inguinal hernia repair. Which pain assessment tool should the nurse use to assess this child for the presence of pain? a. FACES pain rating tool b. Numeric scale c. Oucher scale d. FLACC tool 2. The nurse is caring for a 6-year-old girl who had surgery 12 hours ago. The child tells the nurse that she does not have pain, but a few minutes later she tells her parents that she does. Which should the nurse consider when interpreting this? a. Truthful reporting of pain should occur by this age. b. Inconsistency in pain reporting suggests that pain is not present. c. Children use pain experiences to manipulate their parents. d. Children may be experiencing pain even though they deny it to the nurse. 3. A nurse is gathering a history on a school-age child admitted for a migraine headache. The child states, I have been getting a migraine every 2 or 3 months for the last year. The nurse documents this as which type of pain? a. Acute b. Chronic c. Recurrent d. Subacute 4. Physiologic measurements in childrens pain assessment are: a. the best indicator of pain in children of all ages. b. essential to determine whether a child is telling the truth about pain. c. of most value when children also report having pain. d. of limited value as sole indicator of pain. MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity 5. Nonpharmacologic strategies for pain management: a. may reduce pain perception. b. make pharmacologic strategies unnecessary. c. usually take too long to implement. d. trick children into believing they do not have pain. 6. Which drug is usually the best choice for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for a child in the immediate postoperative period? a. Codeine b. Morphine c. Methadone d. Meperidine 7. A lumbar puncture is needed on a school-age child. The most appropriate action to provide analgesia during this procedure is to apply _____ before the procedure. a. TAC (tetracaine-adrenaline-cocaine) 15 minutes b. transdermal fentanyl (Duragesic) patch immediately c. EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics) 1 hour d. EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics) 30 minutes 8. The nurse is caring for a child receiving intravenous (IV) morphine for severe postoperative pain. The nurse observes a slower respiratory rate, and the child cannot be aroused. The most appropriate management of this child is for the nurse to: a. administer naloxone (Narcan). b. discontinue IV infusion. c. discontinue morphine until child is fully awake. d. stimulate child by calling name, shaking gently, and asking to breathe deeply. 9. The nurse is completing a pain assessment on a 4-year-old child. Which of the depicted pain scale tools should the nurse use with a child this age? a. b. c. d. . MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. A nurse recognizes which physiologic responses as a manifestation of pain in a neonate? (Select all that apply.) a. Decreased respirations b. Diaphoresis c. Decreased SaO2 d. Decreased blood pressure e. Increased heart rate . PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 153 TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity 2. A nurse is monitoring a patient for side effects associated with opioid analgesics. Which side effects should the nurse expect to monitor for? (Select all that apply.) a. Diarrhea b. Respiratory depression c. Hypertension d. Pruritus e. Sweating a. Bran cereal b. Decrease fluid intake c. Prune juice d. Cheese e. Vegetables 4. Surgery has informed a nurse that the patient returning to the floor after spinal surgery has an opioid epidural catheter for pain management. The nurse should prepare to monitor the patient for which side effects of an opioid epidural catheter? (Select all that apply.) a. Urinary frequency b. Nausea c. Itching d. Respiratory depression SHORT ANSWER 1. A dose of oxycodone (OxyContin) 2 mg/kg has been ordered for a child weighing 33 lb. How many milligrams of OxyContin should the nurse administer? (Record your answer as a whole number.) ANS: 30 The childs weight is divided by 2.2 to get the weight in kilograms. Kilograms in weight are then multiplied by the prescribed 2 mg. 33 lb/2.2 = 15 kg. 15 kg 2 mg = 30 mg. PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 164 TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity 2. A nurse is using the FLACC scale to evaluate pain in a preverbal child. The nurse makes the following assessment: Face: occasional grimace; Leg: relaxed; Activity: squirming, tense; Cry: no cry; Consolability: content, relaxed. The nurse records the FLACC assessment as which number? (Record your answer as a whole number.) ANS: 2 Chapter 19: Impact of Cognitive or Sensory Impairment on the Child and Family MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A young child has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of 45. The nurse should document this finding as: a. within the lower limits of the range of normal intelligence. b. mild cognitive impairment but educable. c. moderate cognitive impairment but trainable. d. severe cognitive impairment and completely dependent on others for care. 2. When a child with mild cognitive impairment reaches the end of adolescence, which characteristic should be expected? a. Achieves a mental age of 5 to 6 years b. Achieves a mental age of 8 to 12 years c. Unable to progress in functional reading or arithmetic d. Acquires practical skills and useful reading and arithmetic to an eighth-grade level 3. When should children with cognitive impairment be referred for stimulation and educational programs? a. As young as possible b. As soon as they have the ability to communicate in some way c. At age 3 years, when schools are required to provide services d. At age 5 or 6 years, when schools are required to provide services 4. Which should be the major consideration when selecting toys for a child who is cognitively impaired? a. Safety b. Age appropriateness c. Ability to provide exercise d. Ability to teach useful skills 5. Appropriate interventions to facilitate socialization of the cognitively impaired child include: a. providing age-appropriate toys and play activities. b. providing peer experiences, such as scouting, when older. c. avoiding exposure to strangers who may not understand cognitive development. d. emphasizing mastery of physical skills because they are delayed more often than verbal skills. 6. The nurse is discussing sexuality with the parents of an adolescent girl with moderate cognitive impairment. Which should the nurse consider when dealing with this issue? a. Sterilization is recommended for any adolescent with cognitive impairment. b. Sexual drive and interest are limited in individuals with cognitive impairment. c. Individuals with cognitive impairment need a well-defined, concrete code of sexual conduct. d. Sexual intercourse rarely occurs unless the individual with cognitive impairment is sexually abused. 7. When caring for a newborn with Down syndrome, the nurse should be aware that the most common congenital anomaly associated with Down syndrome is: a. hypospadias. b. pyloric stenosis. c. congenital heart disease. d. congenital hip dysplasia. PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 576 TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation 8. Mark, a 9-year-old with Down syndrome, is mainstreamed into a regular third-grade class for part of the school day. His mother asks the school nurse about programs, such as Cub Scouts, that he might join. The nurses recommendation should be based on which statement? a. Programs like Cub Scouts are inappropriate for children who are mentally retarded. b. Children with Down syndrome have the same need for socialization as other children. c. Children with Down syndrome socialize better with children who have similar disabilities. d. Parents of children with Down syndrome encourage programs, such as scouting, because they deny that their children have disabilities. 9. What is one of the major physical characteristics of the child with Down syndrome? a. Excessive height b. Spots on the palms c. Inflexibility of the joints d. Hypotonic musculature 10. A newborn assessment shows separated sagittal suture, oblique palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge, protruding tongue, and transverse palmar creases. These findings are most suggestive of: a. microcephaly. b. Down syndrome. c. cerebral palsy. d. fragile X syndrome. 11. The child with Down syndrome should be evaluated for which condition before participating in some sports? a. Hyperflexibility b. Cutis marmorata c. Atlantoaxial instability d. Speckling of iris (Brushfield spots) 12. Many of the physical characteristics of Down syndrome present nursing problems. Care of the child should include which intervention? a. Delay feeding solid foods until the tongue thrust has stopped. b. Modify diet as necessary to minimize the diarrhea that often occurs. c. Provide calories appropriate to childs age. d. Use a cool-mist vaporizer to keep mucous membranes moist. 13. A child has just been diagnosed with fragile X syndrome. The nurse recognizes that fragile X syndrome is: a. a chromosomal defect affecting females only. b. a chromosomal defect that follows the pattern of X-linked recessive disorders. c. the second most common genetic cause of mental retardation. d. the most common cause of noninherited mental retardation. 14. A school nurse is performing hearing screening on school children. The nurse recognizes that distortion of sound and problems in discrimination are characteristic of which type of hearing loss? a. Conductive b. Sensorineural c. Mixed conductive-sensorineural d. Central auditory imperceptive 15. A school nurse is performing hearing screening on school children. The nurse recognizes that the most common type of hearing loss resulting from interference of transmission of sound to the middle ear is characteristic of which type of hearing loss? a. Conductive b. Sensorineural c. Mixed conductive-sensorineural d. Central auditory imperceptive 16. Hearing is expressed in decibels (dB), or units of loudness. Which is the softest sound a normal ear can hear? a. 0 dB b. 10 dB c. 40 to 50 dB d. 100 dB 17. The nurse should suspect a hearing impairment in an infant who demonstrates which behavior? a. Absence of the Moro reflex b. Absence of babbling by age 7 months c. Lack of eye contact when being spoken to d. Lack of gesturing to indicate wants after age 15 months 18. The nurse is talking with a 10-year-old boy who wears bilateral hearing aids. The left hearing aid is making an annoying whistling sound that the child cannot hear. Which is the most appropriate nursing action? a. Ignore the sound. b. Ask him to reverse the hearing aids in his ears. c. Suggest he reinsert the hearing aid. d. Suggest he raise the volume of the hearing aid. 19. Which is an implanted ear prosthesis for children with sensorineural hearing loss? a. Hearing aid b. Cochlear implant c. Auditory implant d. Amplification device MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation 20. A nurse is caring for a hearing-impaired child who lip reads. The nurse should plan which intervention to facilitate lip reading? a. Speak at an even rate. b. Exaggerate pronunciation of words. c. Avoid using facial expressions. d. Repeat in exactly the same way if child does not understand. 21. A nurse is preparing a teaching session for parents on prevention of childhood hearing loss. The nurse should include that the most common cause of hearing impairment in children is: a. auditory nerve damage. b. congenital ear defects. c. congenital rubella. d. chronic otitis media. 22. Prevention of hearing impairment in children is a major goal for the nurse. This can be achieved through which intervention? a. Being involved in immunization clinics for children b. Assessing a newborn for hearing loss c. Answering parents questions about hearing aids d. Participating in hearing screening in the community 23. Which term refers to the ability to see objects clearly at close range but not at a distance? a. Myopia b. Amblyopia c. Cataract d. Glaucoma 24. Which of the following terms refers to opacity of the crystalline lens that prevents light rays from entering the eye and refracting on the retina? a. Myopia b. Amblyopia c. Cataract d. Glaucoma 25. A nurse should suspect possible visual impairment in a child who displays which characteristic? a. Excessive rubbing of the eyes b. Rapid lateral movement of the eyes c. Delay in speech development d. Lack of interest in casual conversation with peers 26. When assessing the eyes of a neonate, the nurse observes opacity of the lens. This represents which impairment? a. Blindness b. Glaucoma c. Cataracts d. Retinoblastoma 27. The school nurse is caring for a child with a penetrating eye injury. Emergency treatment includes which intervention? a. Apply a regular eye patch. b. Apply a Fox shield to affected eye and any type of patch to the other eye. c. Apply ice until the physician is seen. d. Irrigate eye copiously with a sterile saline solution. 28. A father calls the emergency department nurse saying that his daughters eyes burn after getting some dishwasher detergent in them. The nurse recommends that the child be seen in the emergency department or by an ophthalmologist. The nurse also should recommend which action before the child is transported? a. Keep eyes closed. b. Apply cold compresses. c. Irrigate eyes copiously with tap water for 20 minutes. d. Prepare a normal saline solution (salt and water) and irrigate eyes for 20 minutes. 29. An adolescent gets hit in the eye during a fight. The school nurse, using a flashlight, notes the presence of gross hyphema (hemorrhage into anterior chamber). The nurse should: a. apply a Fox shield. b. instruct the adolescent to apply ice for 24 hours. c. have adolescent rest with eye closed and ice applied. d. notify parents that adolescent needs to see an ophthalmologist. 30. Which of the following is the most common clinical manifestation of retinoblastoma? a. Glaucoma b. Amblyopia c. Cats eye reflex d. Sunken eye socket 31. The nurse is talking to the parent of a 13-month-old child. The mother states, My child does not make noises like da or na like my sisters baby, who is only 9 months old. Which statement by the nurse would be most appropriate to make? a. I am going to request a referral to a hearing specialist. b. You should not compare your child to your sisters child. c. I think your child is fine, but we will check again in 3 months. d. You should ask other parents what noises their children made at this age. 32. A nurse is preparing to perform a dressing change on a 6-year-old child with mild cognitive impairment (CI) who sustained a minor burn. Which strategy should the nurse use to prepare the child for this procedure? a. Verbally explain what will be done. b. Have the child watch a video on dressing changes. c. Demonstrate a dressing change on a doll. d. Explain the importance of keeping the burn area clean. PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 572 | 576 TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort 33. Parents of a child with Down syndrome ask the nurse about techniques for introducing solid food to their 8-month-old childs diet. The nurse should give the parents which priority instruction? a. It is too early to add solids; the parents should wait for 2 to 3 months. b. A small but long, straight-handled spoon should be used to push the food toward the back and side of the mouth. c. If the child thrusts the food out, the feeding should be stopped. d. Solids should be offered only three times a day. 34. A child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is admitted to the hospital with pneumonia. The nurse should plan which priority intervention when caring for the child? a. Maintain a structured routine and keep stimulation to a minimum. b. Place child in a room with a roommate of the same age. c. Maintain frequent touch and eye contact with the child. d. Take the child frequently to the playroom to play with other children. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Autism is a complex developmental disorder. The diagnostic criteria for autism include delayed or abnormal functioning in which areas with onset before age 3 years? (Select all that apply.) a. Language as used in social communication b. Parallel play c. Gross motor development d. Growth below the 5th percentile for height and weight e. Symbolic or imaginative play f. Social interaction 2. Which assessment findings indicate to the nurse a child has Down syndrome? (Select all that apply.) a. High arched narrow palate b. Protruding tongue c. Long, slender fingers d. Transverse palmar crease e. Hypertonic muscle tone 3. Which expected appearance will the nurse explain to parents of an infant returning from surgery after an enucleation was performed to treat retinoblastoma? (Select all that apply.) a. A lot of drainage will come from the affected socket. b. The face may be edematous or ecchymotic. c. The eyelids will be sutured shut for the first week. d. There will be an eye pad dressing taped over the surgical site. e. The implanted sphere is covered with conjunctiva and resembles the lining of the mouth. 4. A nurse is instructing a nursing assistant on techniques to facilitate lip reading with a hearing-impaired child who lip reads. Which techniques should the nurse include? (Select all that apply.) a. Speak at eye level. b. Stand at a distance from the child. c. Speak words in a loud tone. d. Use facial expressions while speaking. e. Keep sentences short. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Home care is being considered for a young child who is ventilator-dependent. Which factor is most important in deciding whether home care is appropriate? a. Level of parents education b. Presence of two parents in the home c. Preparation and training of family d. Familys ability to assume all health care costs 2. The home health nurse asks a childs mother many questions as part of the assessment. The mother answers many questions, then stops and says, I dont know why you ask me all this. Who gets to know this information? The nurse should take which action? a. Determine why the mother is so suspicious. b. Determine what the mother does not want to tell. c. Explain who will have access to the information. d. Explain that everything is confidential and that no one else will know what is said. 3. When communicating with other professionals, it is important for home care nurses to: a. ask others what they want to know. b. share everything known about the family. c. restrict communication to clinically relevant information. d. recognize that confidentiality is not possible. 4. The home health nurse is caring for a child who requires complex care. The family expresses frustration related to obtaining accurate information about their childs illness and its management. Which is the best action for the nurse? a. Determine why family is easily frustrated. b. Refer family to childs primary care practitioner. c. Clarify familys request, and provide information they want. d. Answer only questions that family needs to know about. 5. A family wants to begin oral feeding of their 4-year-old son, who is ventilator-dependent and currently tube-fed. They ask the home health nurse to feed him the baby food orally. The nurse recognizes a high risk of aspiration and an already compromised respiratory status. The most appropriate nursing action is to: a. refuse to feed him orally because the risk is too high. b. explain the risks involved, and then let the family decide what should be done. c. feed him orally because the family has the right to make this decision for their child. d. acknowledge their request, explain the risks, and explore with the family the available options. 6. The home health nurse outlines short- and long-term goals for a 10-year-old child with many complex health problems. Who should agree on these goals? a. Family and nurse b. Child, family, and nurse c. All professionals involved d. Child, family, and all professionals involved 7. One of the supervisors for a home health agency asks the nurse to give the family a survey evaluating the nurses and other service providers. The nurse should recognize this as: a. inappropriate, unless nurses are able to evaluate family. b. appropriate to improve quality of care. c. inappropriate, unless nurses and other providers agree to participate. d. inappropriate, because family lacks knowledge necessary to evaluate professionals. 8. The home care nurse has been visiting an adolescent with recently acquired quadriplegia. The teens mother tells the nurse, Im sick of providing all the care while my husband does whatever he wants to, whenever he wants to do it. Which should be the initial action of the nurse? a. Refer mother for counseling. b. Listen and reflect mothers feelings. c. Ask father, in private, why he does not help. d. Suggest ways the mother can get her husband to help. 9. The home health nurse is planning care for a 3-year-old boy who has Down syndrome and is receiving continuous oxygen. He recently began walking around furniture. He is spoon-fed by his parents and eats some finger foods. Which is the most appropriate goal to promote normal development? a. Encourage mobility. b. Encourage assistance in self-care. c. Promote oral-motor development. d. Provide opportunities for socialization. 10. A mother of a 5-year-old child, with complex health care needs and cared for at home, expresses anxiety about attending a kindergarten graduation exercise of a neighbors child. The mother says, I wish it could be my child graduating from kindergarten. The nurse recognizes that the mother is experiencing: a. abnormal anxiety. b. ineffective coping. c. chronic sorrow. d. denial. 11. A ventilator-dependent child is cared for at home by his parents. Nurses come for 4 hours each day giving the parents some relief. Which other strategy should the nurse recommend to give the parents a break from the responsibilities of caring for a ventilator-dependent child? a. Encourage members from the parents church group to provide some relief care. b. Train a trusted grandparent to provide an occasional break from the responsibilities of care. c. Encourage the parents to pay out of pocket for additional private duty nurses. d. Suggest the parents place the child in a care facility. 12. A nurse manager at a home-care agency is planning a continuing education program for the home-care staff nurses. Which type of continuing education program should the nurse manager plan? a. On-line training modules b. A structured written teaching module each nurse completes individually c. A workshop training day, with a professional speaker, where nurses can interact with each other d. One-on-one continuing education training with each nurse 13. A priority intervention the home-care nurse should teach parents to do to maintain infection control is: a. sterilize equipment. b. reuse equipment to decrease costs. c. use proper hand hygiene. d. use gloves when repositioning the child. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Which behaviors by the nurse indicate therapeutic nurse-family boundaries? (Select all that apply.) a. Nurse visits family on days off. b. House rules are negotiated. c. Nurse buys child expensive gifts. d. Communication is open and two-way. 2. A child dependent on medical technology is preparing to be discharged from the hospital to home. Which predischarge assessments should the nurse ensure? (Select all that apply.) a. Emergency care and transport plan b. Reliance on private duty nurses to teach the family infection control practices c. Financial arrangements d. Individualized home plan to be completed within the first month of the childs discharge MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which should the nurse consider when having consent forms signed for surgery and procedures on children? a. Only a parent or legal guardian can give consent. b. The person giving consent must be at least 18 years old. c. The risks and benefits of a procedure are part of the consent process. d. A mental age of 7 years or older is required for a consent to be considered informed. 2. The nurse is planning to prepare a 4-year-old child for some diagnostic procedures. Guidelines for preparing this preschooler should include which action? a. Plan for a short teaching session of about 30 minutes. b. Tell the child that procedures are never a form of punishment. c. Keep equipment out of the childs view. d. Use correct scientific and medical terminology in explanations. 3. Katie, 4 years old, is admitted to outpatient surgery for removal of a cyst on her foot. Her mother puts the hospital gown on her, but Katie is crying because she wants to leave on her underpants. The most appropriate nursing action is to: a. allow her to wear her underpants. b. discuss with her mother why this is important to Katie. c. ask her mother to explain to her why she cannot wear them. d. explain in a kind, matter-of-fact manner that this is hospital policy. 4. Using knowledge of child development, which is the best approach when preparing a toddler for a procedure? a. Avoid asking the child to make choices. b. Demonstrate the procedure on a doll. c. Plan for teaching session to last about 20 minutes. d. Show necessary equipment without allowing child to handle it. 5. The nurse is preparing a 12-year-old girl for a bone marrow aspiration. The girl tells the nurse she wants her mother with her like before. The most appropriate nursing action is to: a. grant her request. b. explain why this is not possible. c. identify an appropriate substitute for her mother. d. offer to provide support to her during the procedure. 6. The emergency department nurse is cleaning multiple facial abrasions on a 9-year-old child whose mother is present. The child is crying and screaming loudly. The nurses action should be to: a. ask the child to be quieter. b. have the childs mother give instructions about relaxation. c. tell the child it is okay to cry and scream. d. remove the mother from the room. 7. In some genetically susceptible children, anesthetic agents can trigger malignant hyperthermia. The nurse should be alert in observing that, in addition to an increased temperature, an early sign of this disorder is: a. apnea. b. bradycardia. c. muscle rigidity. d. decreased blood pressure. 8. The nurse is caring for an unconscious child. Skin care should include which action? a. Avoid use of pressure reduction on bed. b. Massage reddened bony prominences to prevent deep tissue damage. c. Use draw sheet to move child in bed to reduce friction and shearing injuries. d. Avoid rinsing skin after cleansing with mild antibacterial soap to provide a protective barrier. 9. An appropriate intervention to encourage food and fluid intake in a hospitalized child is to: a. force child to eat and drink to combat caloric losses. b. discourage participation in noneating activities until caloric intake is sufficient. c. administer large quantities of flavored fluids at frequent intervals and during meals. d. give high-quality foods and snacks whenever child expresses hunger. 10. A 6-year-old child is hospitalized for intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy. He eats little on his regular diet trays. He tells the nurse that all he wants to eat is pizza, tacos, and ice cream. Which is the best nursing action? a. Request these favorite foods for him. b. Identify healthier food choices that he likes. c. Explain that he needs fruits and vegetables. d. Reward him with ice cream at end of every meal that he eats. 11. A 3-year-old child has a fever associated with a viral illness. Her mother calls the nurse, reporting a fever of 102 F even though she had acetaminophen 2 hours ago. The nurses action should be based on which statement? a. Fevers such as this are common with viral illnesses. b. Seizures are common in children when antipyretics are ineffective. c. Fever over 102 F indicates greater severity of illness. d. Fever over 102 F indicates a probable bacterial infection. 12. A critically ill child has hyperthermia. The parents ask the nurse to give an antipyretic such as acetaminophen (Tylenol). The nurse should explain that antipyretics: a. may cause malignant hyperthermia. b. may cause febrile seizures. c. are of no value in treating hyperthermia. d. are of limited value in treating hyperthermia. 13. Tepid water or sponge baths are indicated for hyperthermia in children. The nurses action is to: a. add isopropyl alcohol to the water. b. direct a fan on the child in the bath. c. stop the bath if the child begins to chill. d. continue the bath for 5 minutes. 14. The nurse approaches a group of school-age patients to administer medication to Sam Hart. To identify the correct child, the nurses action is to: a. ask the group, Who is Sam Hart? b. call out to the group, Sam Hart? c. ask each child, Whats your name? d. check the patients identification name band. 15. The nurse wore gloves during a dressing change. When the gloves are removed, the nurse should: a. wash hands thoroughly. b. check the gloves for leaks. c. rinse gloves in disinfectant solution. d. apply new gloves before touching the next patient. 16. The nurse gives an injection in a patients room. The nurse should perform which intervention with the needle for disposal? a. Dispose of syringe and needle in a rigid, puncture-resistant container in patients room. b. Dispose of syringe and needle in a rigid, puncture-resistant container in an area outside of patients room. c. Cap needle immediately after giving injection and dispose of in proper container. d. Cap needle, break from syringe, and dispose of in proper container. 17. A mother calls the outpatient clinic requesting information on appropriate dosing for over-the-counter medications for her 13-month-old who has symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection and fever. The box of acetaminophen says to give 120 mg q4h when needed. At his 12-month visit, the nurse practitioner prescribed 150 mg. The nurses best response is: a. The doses are close enough; it doesnt really matter which one is given. b. It is not appropriate to use dosages based on age because children have a wide range of weights at different ages. c. From your description, medications are not necessary. They should be avoided in children at this age. d. The nurse practitioner ordered the drug based on weight, which is a more accurate way of determining a therapeutic dose. 18. An 8-month-old infant is restrained to prevent interference with the IV infusion. The nurses action is to: a. remove the restraints once a day to allow movement. b. keep the restraints on constantly. c. keep the restraints secure so infant remains supine. d. remove restraints whenever possible. 19. A venipuncture will be performed on a 7-year-old girl. She wants her mother to hold her during the procedure. The nurse should recognize that this behavior is: a. unsafe. b. helpful to relax the child. c. against hospital policy. d. unnecessary because of childs age. 20. A 2-year-old child is being admitted to the hospital for possible bacterial meningitis. When preparing for a lumbar puncture, the nurses best action is to: a. prepare child for conscious sedation during the test. b. set up a tray with equipment the same size as for adults. c. reassure the parents that the test is simple, painless, and risk free. d. apply EMLA to puncture site 15 minutes before procedure. 21. Frequent urine testing for specific gravity and glucose are required on a 6-month-old infant. Which is the most appropriate way to collect small amounts of urine for these tests? a. Apply a urine-collection bag to perineal area. b. Tape a small medicine cup to inside of diaper. c. Aspirate urine from cotton balls inside diaper with a syringe. d. Aspirate urine from superabsorbent disposable diaper with a syringe. 22. Which is an important nursing consideration when performing a bladder catheterization on a young boy? a. Clean technique, not standard precautions, is needed. b. Insert 2% lidocaine lubricant into the urethra. c. Lubricate catheter with water-soluble lubricant such as K-Y Jelly. d. Delay catheterization for 20 minutes while anesthetic lubricant is absorbed. 23. The Allen test is performed as a precautionary measure before which procedure? a. Heel stick b. Venipuncture c. Arterial puncture d. Lumbar puncture 24. The nurse must do a heel stick on an ill neonate to obtain a blood sample. Which is recommended to facilitate this? a. Apply cool, moist compresses. b. Apply a tourniquet to ankle. c. Elevate foot for 5 minutes. d. Wrap foot in a warm washcloth. 25. The nurse has just collected blood by venipuncture in the antecubital fossa. Which should the nurse do next? a. Keep arm extended while applying a bandage to the site. b. Keep arm extended, and apply pressure to the site for a few minutes. c. Apply a bandage to the site, and keep the arm flexed for 10 minutes. d. Apply a gauze pad or cotton ball to the site, and keep the arm flexed for several minutes. 26. A nurse must do a venipuncture on a 6-year-old child. Which is an important consideration in providing atraumatic care? a. Use an 18-gauge needle if possible. b. If not successful after four attempts, have another nurse try. c. Restrain child only as needed to perform venipuncture safely. d. Show child equipment to be used before procedure. 27. An appropriate method for administering oral medications that are bitter to an infant or small child would be to mix them with: a. a bottle of formula or milk. b. any food the child is going to eat. c. a small amount (1 teaspoon) of a sweet-tasting substance such as jam or ice cream. d. large amounts of water to dilute medication sufficiently. 28. When liquid medication is given to a crying 10-month-old infant, which approach minimizes the possibility of aspiration? a. Administer the medication with a syringe (without needle) placed along the side of the infants tongue. b. Administer the medication as rapidly as possible with the infant securely restrained. c. Mix the medication with the infants regular formula or juice and administer by bottle. d. Keep the child upright with the nasal passages blocked for a minute after administration. 29. Which is the preferred site for intramuscular injections in infants? a. Deltoid b. Dorsogluteal c. Rectus femoris d. Vastus lateralis 30. Guidelines for intramuscular administration of medication in school-age children include which action? a. Inject medication as rapidly as possible. b. Insert needle quickly, using a dartlike motion. c. Penetrate skin immediately after cleansing site, before skin has dried. d. Have child stand, if possible, and if child is cooperative. 31. Several types of long-term central venous access devices are used. Which is considered an advantage of a Hickman-Broviac catheter? a. No need to keep exit site dry b. Easy to use for self-administered infusions c. Heparinized only monthly and after each infusion d. No limitations on regular physical activity, including swimming 32. When teaching a mother how to administer eye drops, where should the nurse tell her to place them? a. In the conjunctival sac that is formed when the lower lid is pulled down b. Carefully under the eye lid while it is gently pulled upward c. On the sclera while the child looks to the side d. Anywhere as long as drops contact the eyes surface 33. A 2-year-old child comes to the emergency department with dehydration and hypovolemic shock. Which best explains why an intraosseous infusion is started? a. It is less painful for small children. b. Rapid venous access is not possible. c. Antibiotics must be started immediately. d. Long-term central venous access is not possible. 34. When caring for a child with an intravenous infusion, the nurse should: a. use a macrodropper to facilitate reaching the prescribed flow rate. b. avoid restraining the child to prevent undue emotional stress. c. change the insertion site every 24 hours. d. observe the insertion site frequently for signs of infiltration. 35. Nursing considerations related to the administration of oxygen in an infant include to: a. humidify oxygen if infant can tolerate it. b. assess infant to determine how much oxygen should be given. c. ensure uninterrupted delivery of the appropriate oxygen concentration. d. direct oxygen flow so that it blows directly into the infants face in a hood. 36. It is important to make certain that sensory connectors and oximeters are compatible because wiring that is incompatible can cause: a. hyperthermia. b. electrocution. c. pressure necrosis. d. burns under sensors. 37. The nurse is teaching a mother how to perform chest physical therapy and postural drainage on her 3-year-old child, who has cystic fibrosis. To perform percussion, the nurse should instruct her to: a. cover the skin with a shirt or gown before percussing. b. strike the chest wall with a flat-hand position. c. percuss over the entire trunk anteriorly and posteriorly. d. percuss before positioning for postural drainage. 38. The nurse must suction a child with a tracheostomy. Interventions should include: a. encouraging child to cough to raise the secretions before suctioning. b. selecting a catheter with diameter three fourths as large as the diameter of the tracheostomy tube. c. ensuring each pass of the suction catheter should take no longer than 5 seconds. d. allowing child to rest after every five times the suction catheter is passed. 39. When administering a gavage feeding to a school-age child, the nurse should: a. lubricate the tip of the feeding tube with Vaseline to facilitate passage. b. check the placement of the tube by inserting 20 ml of sterile water. c. administer feedings over 5 to 10 minutes. d. position on right side after administering feeding. 40. A child is receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN; hyperalimentation). At the end of 8 hours, the nurse observes the solution and notes that 200 ml/8 hr is being infused rather than the ordered amount of 300 ml/8 hr. The nurse should adjust the rate so that how much will infuse during the next 8 hours? a. 200 ml b. 300 ml c. 350 ml d. 400 ml 41. In preparing to give enemas until clear to a young child, the nurse should select which solution? a. Tap water b. Normal saline c. Oil retention d. Fleet solution 42. The nurse is doing a prehospitalization orientation for a 7-year-old child who is scheduled for cardiac surgery. As part of the preparation, the nurse explains that she will not be able to talk because of an endotracheal tube but that she will be able to talk when it is removed. This explanation is: a. unnecessary. b. the surgeons responsibility. c. too stressful for a young child. d. an appropriate part of the childs preparation. ANS: D MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. The advantages of the ventrogluteal muscle as an injection site in young children include which considerations? (Select all that apply.) a. Less painful than vastus lateralis b. Free of important nerves and vascular structures c. Cannot be used when child reaches a weight of 20 pounds d. Increased subcutaneous fat, which increases drug absorption e. Easily identified by major landmarks 2. A nurse is caring for a child in droplet precautions. Which instructions should the nurse give to the unlicensed assistive personnel caring for this child? (Select all that apply.) a. Wear gloves when entering the room. b. Wear an isolation gown when entering the room. c. Place the child in a special air handling and ventilation room. d. A mask should be worn only when holding the child. e. Wash your hands upon exiting the room. COMPLETION 1. A child with congestive heart failure is placed on a maintenance dosage of digoxin (Lanoxin). The dosage is 0.07 mg/kg/day, and the childs weight is 7.2 kg. The physician prescribes the digoxin to be given once a day by mouth. Each dose will be _____ milligrams. (Record your answer below using one decimal place.) 2. A physicians prescription reads, ampicillin sodium 125 mg IV every 6 hours. The medication label reads, 1 g = 7.4 ml. A nurse prepares to draw up _____ milliliters to administer one dose. (Round your answer to two decimal places.) SHORT ANSWER 1. A 6-month-old infant is admitted to the pediatric unit with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The nurse places the infant on strict intake and output. The infant is in a size #2 diaper and the dry weight is 24 g. At the end of the shift, the infant has had two diapers with urine. One diaper weighed 56 g and one weighed 65 g. What is the total milliliter output for the shift? (Record your answer as a whole number below.) [Show More]

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