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PSYC 328/ PSYCHOLOGY 328 Midterm EXAM 1 Questions (GRADED A)

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PSYC 328 Midterm 1 Study Questions 1. The stage of development that begins with puberty and ends when individual’s transition into adult roles is called________. 2. Which perspective identi... fies adolescence beginning with the onset of puberty and ends with being capable of sexual reproduction? 3. Which perspective identifies adolescence as beginning with the emergence of more advanced reasoning abilities and ends with the consolidation of advanced reasoning abilities? 4. Some researchers have described a new phase of life, developing in the early 20s, that is called ________adulthood 5. Which of the following is a feature of adolescent development? 6. Ozzie is a 14-year-old teen who has grown taller and has now begun to have enough facial hair to start shaving. This is a sign that Ozzie has reached ______. 7. A ceremony or ritual marking an individual’s transition from one social status to another, especially the transition to adulthood, is called a _________. 8. According to the _______ perspective of Urie Bronfenbrenner, we cannot understand development without examining the environment in which it occurs. 9. The four main _______ that 13-year-old Cody spends time with are his family, peers, work, and school. 10. Adolescence is a time of major changes. These changes are affected by which of the following areas? 11. Some of the most important areas affecting adolescent development are outside the adolescent’s home, including________. 12. The domain of psychosocial development involving self-conception, self-esteem, and the sense of who we are is called _______. 13. The psychosocial domain concerning the development and expression of independence is called __________. 14. Jake is 14 years old. He has become more interested in the aspects of friendships including openness, honesty, and loyalty rather than the sharing of activities and interests. This is a sign to Jake’s parents that he has entered the developmental aspects of _______. 15. Samantha is 14 years old. She is noticing changes in her relationships with some of her peers. She is recognizing several questions about her ________, values, and morals. 16. Jonah is a developing teen with many changes occurring. Jonah is looking to his parents, teachers, and peers with questions about his future goals and expectations. These behaviors and plans are part of his ________ changes. 17. Brennan is striving to find a sense of independence from his parents with his own values and morals. When this starts to happen, his parents can recognize his struggle for 18. The most important legacy of G. Stanley Hall’s view of adolescence is the notion of a period of ______ as a result of hormonal changes. 19. The theorist who saw adolescence as a time of upheaval, reviving old conflicts over unconscious and uncomfortable sexual urges, is _________. 20. Which theorist stressed the psychosocial conflicts faced by individuals at specific points in time as a crisis of internal forces of biology and the demands of society? * 21. Which theorist believed that as children mature they pass through distinct changes in cognitive development? 22. In the _______ theory of development, adolescents learn how to behave through reinforcement and punishment as well as by watching and imitating those around them. 23. Parent and teenager relationships are influenced by the ________ they have about each other. 24. Barbara expects her son Michael to drink. Research has found that with this expectation, Michael is _______ likely to use alcohol. 25. Of all the developments that take place during the second decade of life, the only one that is truly inevitable is 26. The term puberty refers to the period during which: 27. When levels of _____ and _____ fall below the set points, the _____ stops inhibiting the pituitary gland, thus permitting it to stimulate the release of sex hormones by the gonads. 28. Which of the following is not thought to contribute to the onset of puberty? 29. The presence or absence of certain hormones early in life may "program" the brain and the nervous system to develop in certain ways later on. These hormones are considered: 30. The simultaneous release of growth hormones, thyroid hormones, and _________ stimulates rapid acceleration in height and weight during puberty. 31. Who is at the greatest risk of developing body dissatisfaction? 32. The rapid increase in body fat that adolescent girls experience: 33. Which of the following is probably true for Ashley, an early-maturing girl who was short and stocky as a child? 34. Which of the following female sex characteristics is usually the last to develop? 35. Based on research addressing ethnic differences in the timing and rate of pubertal maturation, which American girl would be expected to be the earliest to mature? 36. According to the textbook, Julie, a seventeen-year-old living in a college dormitory, has noticed that her menstrual periods have begun to synchronize with _____, which is compelling evidence that social relationships can affect biological functioning. 37. Which of the following statements about hormonal changes of puberty is true? 38. Which of the following statements about adolescent mood swings is false? 39. Given a choice, Mike would prefer to stay up until 1:00 a.m. and sleep until 10:00 a.m. This pattern is called the: 40. According to the textbook, when compared to their less mature peers, adolescents who are physically mature are: 41. When adolescents in the United States begin to experience specific pubertal events, which of the following is most likely to occur? 42. Early-maturing boys are: 43. In America, early-maturing girls are more likely than their late-maturing peers to: 44. Generalizing from the textbook, the children who are most likely to think of themselves as being "off schedule" with respect to their physical development are girls who mature _____ and boys who mature _____. 45. Which of the following is true about obesity? 46. Who of the following is likely to gain excess weight during adolescence? 47. Of the following, the biggest threat to adolescents' health is: 48. Which of the following is not one of the five chief changes in cognition during adolescence? 49. Dan, an adolescent, has more developed cognitive skills than his 6-year-old brother Timmy because Timmy's thinking is: 50. Which of the following statements about adolescents who have been adopted or spent time in foster care is true? 51. Who of the following is probably a child (and not an adolescent)? 52. Javier spends a great deal of time talking about relationships, politics, philosophy, religion, and morality with his friends, demonstrating his ability to think: 53. The erroneous belief that one's thoughts, feelings, and experiences are unique is called: 54. Research testing Elkind's theory of adolescent egocentrism has found that certain aspects: 55. Multidimensional thinking helps adolescents understand: 56. Dr. Martino argues that development proceeds in stages and that each stage is marked by fairly consistent behavior. Then, as the child's biological development progresses and new experiences are acquired, a shift occurs and development breaks through to the next level. Dr. Martino's view is most consistent with that expressed by the: 57. Rose solves a chemistry problem by systematically testing several hypotheses. According to Piaget, which stage is Rose functioning at? * 58. Which of the following statements is consistent with Piaget's cognitive development theory? 59. Which of the following is not relatively stable during adolescence? 60. Which of the following statements about intelligence in adolescence is true? 61. The ability to remember something from a long time ago is called 62. All of the following are ways that scientists study brain maturation except: 63. The formation of synapses is: 64. Changes in the limbic system during adolescence may cause all of the following, except: 65. The growth of _____ during adolescence is directly related to an improved ability to think abstractly. 66. Sam took an IQ test in fourth grade and scored below average. Sam's middle school is administering the test again. 67. This time, Sam's score is likely to be: * 68. According to Vygotsky, adolescents learn best when: 69. Steve gets all As in his course work but has a hard time relating to the real world. According to Sternberg, Steve is above average in _____ intelligence but below average in _____ intelligence. 70. Which of the following statements about social cognition is false? 71. Which of the following is one of the results of improvements in social cognition? 72. According to research on behavioral decision theory, adolescents often decide to engage in behavior that seems risky to adults because adolescents: * 73. Behavioral decision theory draws heavily on _____, and is a rational process in which individuals _____. 74. One explanation for the risk-taking peak that is observed in adolescence is that: • Adolescents are not aware of the risks associated with certain behaviors. • The prefrontal cortex is fully developed years before the limbic system is active. • None of the above statements are true. Risk taking does not peak in adolescence. 75. Which of the following is not one of the areas of fundamental change in adolescence? 76. Today, people go through ______ earlier than 100 years ago, but tend to stay in ______ longer. 77. Jacob is looking forward to the upcoming presidential election because he is now able to cast his vote. Based on your knowledge of the social redefinition of adolescence, what has Jacob attained? 78. Before the Industrial Revolution, the term child referred to 79. Which of the following was not an outcome of the Industrial Revolution? 80. Today, adolescence has been redefined as a time of _____, rather than _____. 81. Popularized about 50 years ago, this expression refers to young people in a more frivolous and lighthearted manner than the term adolescent. 82. Psychologist Jeffery Arnett has suggested that 18- to 25-year-olds are caught between adolescence and adulthood in "emerging adulthood," which is characterized by all but which of the following? 83. One finding that emerged from the competence to stand trial research described in the textbook was that: 84. Jennifer, who is 16, ran away with her friend Tonya, who is 18. The police, however, only arrested Jennifer for running away because for a minor, running away is considered: 85. Compared to a child, an older adolescent is likely to: 86. One discrepancy in the way that society treats adolescents is that courts have ruled that teenagers have the right to obtain ________; however, the courts have also upheld laws forbidding adolescence to obtain _____. 87. Which of the following themes is generally not a universal element in the process of social redefinition? 88. The Bat Mitzvah, the confirmation, and the quinceanera are all examples of: 89. For Sally's 13th birthday, her mother has agreed to let her get her ears pierced. In traditional societies, this type of body ritual may be equated to: 90. Charles feels older than most of the other kids in his grade. He is more likely to engage in all of the following activities except: 91. According to the textbook, all of the following statements about female circumcision are true except which one? 92. Dr. Goodrich believes that the passage into adulthood is a sudden change in which adult roles and statuses are abruptly assumed. This view is most closely associated with the: 93. In contemporary society, the transition into adult work roles is fairly: 94. Approximately what percentage of American 18- to 24-year-olds live with or are supported financially by their parents? 95. According to the textbook, today, about _____ of American adolescents are from ethnic minority groups; and, by the end of this century, it is estimated that nearly _____ of American adolescents will be non-White. 96. According to research presented in the textbook, the longer a foreign-born adolescent has lived in the United States, the more likely he or she is to: 97. How does poverty adversely affect the behavior and development of adolescents? 98. Relocation studies that have randomly chosen poor families to either stay where they are living or move to a more advantaged neighborhood have found: 99. Which of the following is not true for adolescents who have been exposed to violence? 100. The fact that most books for parents of teenagers tend to focus on the problems instead of normative development is concerning because: 101. Which of the following statements about family conflict is true? 102. The popular notion of a "generation gap" has only been supported in differences between parents and children with regard to: 103. Research has indicated that one source of conflict between teenagers and parents is that they define issues very differently. This finding: 104. Mark is a teenager who generally respects his parents. On which of the following issues, however, is Mark most likely to side with his friends and against his parents? 105. One reason that the adolescent years may constitute a difficult period of adjustment is that parents: 106. Luis and Carla Hernandez are getting a divorce. It is likely that the family will go through a period of _________ before it can adjust to this challenge. 107. Changes requiring considerable adjustment for families with adolescents typically include all of the following, except: 108. According to the textbook, one recent study of Mexican-American families found __________ rates of parentadolescent cohesion during mid-adolescence among __________ families. 109. Bobby's parents expect him to tell them everything. However, now that he's 13 years old, he feels entitled to keep secrets from them. What has this discrepancy been referred to as? 110. Authoritative parents value all of the following, except: 111. Judy's parents express love toward her and they let her, for the most part, establish her own schedule. She eats when she's hungry, has full run of the house, and sleeps when she's tired. This parenting style fits best with which of the following? 112. Marcus feels like his parents don't care about him because they allow him to set his own rules and they seldom provide much support. He even wishes they would punish him because that would at least indicate they are paying attention to him. Marcus's parents would be described best as fitting into which of Baumrind's parenting styles? 113. Michelle is in late adolescence. She excels in school, holds an after-school job, and participates in community service projects on the weekends. Michelle also has lots of friends at school. Her parents most likely use which parenting style? 114. Ethnic differences in parenting practices suggest that: 115. According to research, _________ can be an effective way for enhancing the development of adolescents' reasoning abilities, moral judgment, and empathy. 116. The field of behavior genetics examines all of the following, except: 117. According to the textbook, during adolescence, which are more influential, nonshared or shared environmental influences? 118. With regard to single-parent families in the United States, 119. Which of the following is not a finding of social scientists regarding the effects of divorce on adolescents? 120. Which of the following statements regarding divorce in America is true? 121. Although Sarah's parents divorced seven years ago, the counselor at school attributes Sarah's poor school performance and delinquent behavior to the divorce. This counselor is probably referring to the: 122. Research assessing the effects of stepfamilies on children's adjustment suggests that over time: 123. According to the Family Systems Model, financial strain increases mothers' and fathers'______, which, in turn, make parents more irritable, which adversely affects the quality of their parenting. 124. Kim lives in a poor neighborhood. As a result, Kim's mother drives her to school each morning and refuses to let her go out after dark. According to the textbook, Kim's mother is: 125. Which of the following statements about adolescents who have been adopted or spent time in foster care is true? [Show More]

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