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BIOC 385 FINAL EXAM

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BIOC 385 FINAL EXAM The Biosphere 2 project, in Tucson, Arizona, was an experiment involving a large sealed terrarium with humans and photosynthetic plants living in balance. Why did the project hav... e to be interrupted after only a few months? - ✔✔Levels of CO2 rose to dangerous levels. The __________ is driven directly by photons from the sun in photosynthesis light reactions. - ✔✔transfer of electrons Which of the following is an electron transfer molecule in photosynthesis light reactions? - ✔✔plastoquinone The Calvin cycle requires which species from the light reactions? - ✔✔ATP and NADPH Which of the following oligosaccharides are found in high abundance in some types of vegetables and have been known to cause intestinal distress? - ✔✔verbascose What type of bond is responsible for the rigid nature of the polysaccharide fibril structure? - ✔✔hydrogen bonds The pentose phosphate pathway - ✔✔allows 5C sugars to converge with or diverge from the glycolysis pathway. The conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) in gluconeogenesis - ✔✔occurs in two steps and is catalyzed by the enzymes pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase In the glycogenesis pathway, which enzyme catalyzes the formation of (1,6) linkages? - ✔✔Branching enzyme Why is it important that muscle cells are unresponsive to glucagon? - ✔✔Muscle cells store glycogen for its own energy needs and not the needs of other tissues Cortisol is a glucocorticoid that regulates - ✔✔liver metabolism. The beta-oxidation of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids - ✔✔involves isomerization and in some cases reduction of the double bonds before the continuation of Beta- oxidation. Which lipid is thought to give rise to the plaques that can clog arteries? - ✔✔LDL What are the four key enzymes in nitrogen fixation and assimilation in plants and bacteria? - ✔✔nitrogenase complex, glutamine synths etase, glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase It is important that proteolytic enzymes in the lysosome are optimized to work at low pH because low pH - ✔✔enchances protein denaturing Alkaptonuria is a disease coming from a deficiency in which pathway? - ✔✔Group 3 Aspartate contains four carbons. If all are radioactively labeled, how many carbons of UMP will be radioactively labeled? - ✔✔3 To study the allosteric regulation of E. coli ribonucleotide reductase in a cell-free in vitro system, which of the following would be a good choice to add to the system? - ✔✔ATP PPARs have a variety of functions in lipid metabolism that include all EXCEPT - ✔✔decreasing insulin sensitivity. What do factors bind to in RNA synthesis? - ✔✔DNA promoters and RNA polymerase What prokaryotic promoter would most likely control a housekeeping gene? - ✔✔strong promoter Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II facilitates the - ✔✔addition of 7-methylguanylate cap Which of the following best describes how trans- and cis-acting factors operate? - ✔✔Transacting factors can bind to specific DNA sequences whereas cis-acting sites are DNA sequences. A mutation in the gene encoding which of the following enzymes would affect the synthesis of both AMP and GMP? - ✔✔PRPP synthetase The expected outcome in adipose tissue after exposure to glucagon would be an increased - ✔✔triacylglycerol hydrolysis A replication fork is necessary because it allows - ✔✔for DNA replication to start on a single strand. Which type of RNA facilitates RNA interference by resulting in degraded mRNA? - ✔✔siRNA Where would an amino acid be attached to the tRNA below? - ✔✔A (it's on the 3' end of the tRNA) Different tRNAs for the same amino acid that bind alternate codons are known as __________ tRNAs. - ✔✔isoacceptor When trp operon is attenuated, what does that mean for the trp operon? - ✔✔disruption of transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase Pluripotent state can be defined as a __________ cell. - ✔✔predifferentiated [Show More]

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