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1. Which nurse most likely kept records on sanitation techniques and the effects on health? a. Florence Nightingale b. Mary Nutting c. Clara Barton d. Lillian Wald ANS: A Nightingale was the fir... st practicing nurse epidemiologist. Her statistical analyses connected poor sanitation with cholera and dysentery. Mary Nutting, Clara Barton, and Lillian Wald came after Nightingale, each contributing to the nursing profession in her own way. Mary Nutting was instrumental in moving nursing education into universities. Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross. Lillian Wald helped open the Henry Street Settlement. DIF:Understand (comprehension) OBJ:Discuss the influence of social, historical, political, and economic changes on nursing practices. TOP: Evaluation MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance 2. The nurse prescribes strategies and alternatives to attain expected outcome. Which standard of nursing practice is the nurse following? a. Assessment b. Diagnosis c. Planning d. Implementation ANS: C In planning, the registered nurse develops a plan that prescribes strategies and alternatives to attain expected outcomes. During assessment, the registered nurse collects comprehensive data pertinent to the patient’s health and/or the situation. In diagnosis, the registered nurse analyzes the assessment data to determine the diagnoses or issues. During implementation, the registered nurse implements (carries out) the identified plan. DIF:Understand (comprehension) OBJ:Discuss the development of professional nursing roles. TOP: Planning MSC: Management of Care 3. An experienced medical-surgical nurse chooses to work in obstetrics. Which level of proficiency is the nurse upon initial transition to the obstetrical floor? a. Novice b. Proficient c. Competent d. Advanced beginner ANS: A A beginning nursing student or any nurse entering a situation in which there is no previous level of experience (e.g., an experienced operating room nurse chooses to now practice in home health) is an example of a novice nurse. A proficient nurse perceives a patient’s clinical situation as a whole, is able to assess an entire situation, and can readily transfer knowledge gained from multiple previous experiences to a situation. A competent nurse understands the organization and specific care required by the type of patients (e.g., surgical, oncology, or orthopedic patients). This nurse is a competent practitioner who is able to anticipate nursing care and establish long-range goals. A nurse who has had some level of experience with the situation is an advanced beginner. This experience may only be observational in nature, but the nurse is able to identify meaningful aspects or principles of nursing care. DIF:Apply (application) OBJ:Discuss the development of professional nursing roles. TOP: Evaluation MSC: Management of Care 4. A nurse assesses a patient’s fluid status and decides that the patient needs to drink more fluids. The nurse then encourages the patient to drink more fluids. Which concept is the nurse demonstrating? a. Licensure b. Autonomy c. Certification d. Accountability ANS: B Autonomy is an essential element of professional nursing that involves the initiation of independent nursing interventions without medical orders. To obtain licensure in the United States, the RN candidate must pass the NCLEX-RN. Beyond the NCLEX-RN, the nurse may choose to work toward certification in a specific area of nursing practice. Accountability means that you are responsible, professionally and legally, for the type and quality of nursing care provided. DIF:Apply (application) OBJ:Discuss the roles and career opportunities for nurses. TOP: Implementation MSC: Management of Care 5. A nurse prepares the budget and policies for an intensive care unit. Which role is the nurse implementing? a. Educator b. Manager c. Advocate d. Caregiver ANS: B A manager coordinates the activities of members of the nursing staff in delivering nursing care and has personnel, policy, and budgetary responsibility for a specific nursing unit or facility. As an educator, you explain concepts and facts about health, describe the reason for routine care activities, demonstrate procedures such as self-care activities, reinforce learning or patient behavior, and evaluate the patient’s progress in learning. As a patient advocate, you protect your patient’s human and legal rights and provide assistance in asserting these rights if the need arises. As a caregiver, you help patients maintain and regain health, manage disease and symptoms, and attain a maximal level function and independence through the healing process. DIF:Apply (application) OBJ:Discuss the roles and career opportunities for nurses. TOP: Implementation MSC: Management of Care 6. The nurse has been working in the clinical setting for several years as an advanced practice nurse. However, the nurse has a strong desire to pursue research and theory development. To fulfill this desire, which program should the nurse attend? a. Doctor of Nursing Science degree (DNSc) b. Doctor of Philosophy degree (PhD) c. Doctor of Nursing Practice degree (DNP) d. Doctor in the Science of Nursing degree (DSN) ANS: B Some doctoral programs prepare nurses for more rigorous research and theory development and award the research-oriented Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in nursing. Professional doctoral programs in nursing (DSN or DNSc) prepare graduates to apply research findings to clinical nursing. The DNP is a practice doctorate that prepares advanced practice nurses such as nurse practitioners. DIF:Understand (comprehension) OBJ:Compare and contrast the educational programs available for professional registered nurse (RN) education. TOP: Teaching/Learning MSC: Management of Care 7. A nurse attends a workshop on current nursing issues provided by the American Nurses Association. Which type of education did the nurse receive? a. Graduate education b. Inservice education c. Continuing education d. Registered nurse education ANS: C Continuing education involves formal, organized educational programs offered by universities, hospitals, state nurses associations, professional nursing organizations, and educational and health care institutions. After obtaining a baccalaureate degree in nursing, you can pursue graduate education leading to a master’s or doctoral degree in any number of graduate fields, including nursing. Inservice education programs are instruction or training provided by a health care facility or institution. Registered nurse education is the education preparation for an individual intending to be an RN. DIF:Apply (application) OBJ:Compare and contrast the educational programs available for professional registered nurse (RN) [Show More]

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