Health Care > EXAM > NR 222 Ch 32 Exam 103 Questions with Answers Latest,100% CORRECT (All)

NR 222 Ch 32 Exam 103 Questions with Answers Latest,100% CORRECT

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NR 222 Ch 32 Exam 103 Questions with Answers Latest What does allopathic or biomedicine mean? - CORRECT ANSWER conventional western medicine What is biomedicine generally less effective in ... decreasing? - CORRECT ANSWER stress-induced illnesses, managing symptoms of chronic disease, caring for the emotional and spiritual needs of individuals, + improving the quality of life and general well-being What are complementary therapies? - CORRECT ANSWER therapies used together w/ conventional treatment recommended by a person's health care provider What do complementary therapies do? - CORRECT ANSWER complement conventional treatments What kind of complementary therapies are available? - CORRECT ANSWER -Many, such as therapeutic tough, contain diagnostic + therapeutic methods that require special training -while others, such as guided imagery + breathwork, are easily learned and applied -relaxation, exercise, massage, reflexology, prayer, biofeedback, hypnotherapy -creative therapies: art, music, or dance therapy, meditation, chiropractic therapy, + herbs/supplements What is another term used for complementary therapies, mainly by licensed health care providers? - CORRECT ANSWER integrative therapies What are alternative therapies? - CORRECT ANSWER Nonpharmacologic therapies, such as exercise, chiropractic, + herb supplements are used in place of conventional pharmacologic or other medical procedures What is CAM? - CORRECT ANSWER an array of health care approaches w/ a history of use or origins outside of mainstream medicine What type of therapy can replace biomedical care as the primary treatment? - CORRECT ANSWER alternative therapy What type of alternate treatment do individuals from different cultural background might choose over biomedicine? - CORRECT ANSWER They may choose to use whole medicine systems such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Ayurveda, or naturopathy Why are whole medicine systems such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Ayurveda, or naturopathy considered as alternative? - CORRECT ANSWER They are based on completely different philosophies + life systems than those used by allopathic medicine What is integrated health care? - CORRECT ANSWER Offered by graduate practitioners who recommend a full spectrum of possible treatments, both biomedical + complementary What does integrated health care emphasize? - CORRECT ANSWER it emphasizes the importance of the relationship btwn. practitioner + patient, focuses on the whole person, is informed by evidence, + makes use of appropriate therapeutic approaches, health care professionals, and disciplines to achieve optimal health What does holistic nursing treat? - CORRECT ANSWER the mind-body-spirit of the patient, using interventions such as relaxation therapy, music therapy, touch therapy, + guided imagery What is integrative nursing? - CORRECT ANSWER a way of being-knowing-doing that advances the health and well-being of persons, families , + communities through caring-healing relationships What do integrative nurses do? - CORRECT ANSWER uses evidence to inform traditional + emerging interventions that support whole person/whole systems healing What should nurses consider when recommending complementary therapies? - CORRECT ANSWER -the history of each therapy -nursing's history + experience w/ a particular therapy -other forms of evidence reporting outcomes + safety data, including case study and qualitative research -the cultural influences + context for certain patient populations How do you achieve effective outcomes with complementary therapies? - CORRECT ANSWER -therapeutic strategies need to be matched w/ an individual's lifestyle, his or her beliefs + values, and the context w/in which the care is to be delivered (acute or community based) What are the physiological responses to the stress response (short term)? - CORRECT ANSWER -increased heart + respiratory rates - tightened muscles -increased metabolic rates -general sense of foreboding (feeling something bad is going to happen soon) -fear -nervousness -irritability -negative mood - elevated bp -dilated pupils -stronger cardiac contractions -increased levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, circulating free fatty acids, + triglycerides What are the physiological responses to the stress response (long term)? - CORRECT ANSWER -structural damage -chronic illness, such as angina -tension headaches -cardiac arrhythmias -pain -ulcers -atrophy of the immune system organs What is the relaxation response? - CORRECT ANSWER reduces generalized cognitive, physiological, +/or behavioral arousal What is the process of relaxation? - CORRECT ANSWER elongates the muscle fibers, reduces the neural impulses sent to the brain, which decreases the activity of the brain + other body systems What characterizes the relaxation response? - CORRECT ANSWER decreased heart + respiratory rates, bp, + O2 consumption, and increased alpha brain activity + peripheral skin temp. How does relaxation help an individual? - CORRECT ANSWER helps them develop cognitive skills to reduce the negative ways in which they respond to a situation within their environment What cognitive skills are developed from relaxation? - CORRECT ANSWER -focusing (the ability to identify, differentiate, maintain attention on, + return attention to simple stimuli for an extended period) -passivity (the ability to stop unnecessary goal-directed + analytic activity) -receptivity (the ability to tolerate + accept experiences that are uncertain, unfamiliar, or paradoxical) What is the long term goal of relaxation therapy? - CORRECT ANSWER For people to continually monitor themselves for indicators of tension contained in various body parts What is progressive relaxation? - CORRECT ANSWER teaches the individual how to effectively rest + reduces tension in the body What does a person learn w/ progressive relaxation? - CORRECT ANSWER Learns to detect subtle localized muscle tension sequentially, one muscle group @ at time -this helps them learn to differentiate btwn high-intensity tension, very subtle tension, + relaxation What is the goal of passive relaxation? - CORRECT ANSWER to still the mind and body intentionally without the need to tighten and relax any particular body part What is one type of effective passive relaxation technique? - CORRECT ANSWER incorporates slow abdominal breathing exercises while imagining warmth + relaxation flowing through specific body parts, such as the lungs or hands How is passive relaxation useful? - CORRECT ANSWER Useful for persons for whom the effort + energy expenditure of active muscle contracting leads to discomfort or exhaustion What does research show about relaxation techniques? - CORRECT ANSWER -it effectively lowers bp + hr -decreases muscle tension -reduce symptom distress in person experiencing a variety of situations (ex: complications from medical treatments, loss of a significant other) -reduces pain + anxiety while improving well-being -reduction of depression + breathlessness in persons w/ chronic respiratory illnesses What does relaxation enable people to do? - CORRECT ANSWER -enables them to exert control over their lives -decreased feeling of helplessness -more positive psychological state overall What is an example of an adverse effect from relaxation therapy? - CORRECT ANSWER some relaxation therapies can result in continued intensification of symptoms or the development of altogether new symptoms What is an important consideration when choosing any type of relaxation technique? - CORRECT ANSWER the physiological + psychological status of the individual What type of relaxation technique is not appropriate for patients w/ advances disease or those who have decreased energy reserves and why? - CORRECT ANSWER - active progressive relaxation -Some patients w/ advanced disease, such as cancer or AIDS, seek relaxation training to reduce their stress response, but active progressive relaxation require a moderate expenditure of energy, which often increases fatigue + limits an individual's ability to complete relaxation sessions + practice What is meditation? - CORRECT ANSWER -an activity that limits stimulus input by directing attention to a single unchanging or repetitive stimulus so that the person is able to become more aware of self -involves relaxing the body + stilling the mind What are the 4 components of meditation according to Benson? - CORRECT ANSWER (1) a quiet space (2) a comfortable position (3) a receptive attitude (4) a focus of attention What is the purpose of meditation? - CORRECT ANSWER become "mindful", increasing our ability to live freely + escape destructive patterns of negativity What do most meditation techniques involve? - CORRECT ANSWER slow, relaxed, deep abdominal breathing that evokes a restful state, lowers O2 consumption, reduces respiratory + hr, and reduces anxiety What are the advantages of meditation? - CORRECT ANSWER -reduces overall systolic + diastolic bp -reduces hypertensive risk -increases productivity -improves mood -increases sense of identity -lowers irritability What are the advantages of meditation (mindful-based cognitive therapies) with cancer patients? - CORRECT ANSWER -less depression, anxiety, + distress -improved quality of life What is the incentive for individuals to continue to meditate? - CORRECT ANSWER the pleasurable, peaceful, positive mental state What are the limitations of meditation? - CORRECT ANSWER -some become hypertensive during meditation + require a much shorter session than the average of 15-20min -may increase the effects of certain drugs What is imagery (or visualization)? - CORRECT ANSWER a mind-body therapy that uses the conscious mind to create mental images to stimulate physical changes in the body, improve perceived well-being, +/or enhance self-awareness How does imagery work? - CORRECT ANSWER -it is self directed -individuals create their mental images, or guided, during which a practitioner leads an individual through a particular scenario Besides visual images, what are some other imagery techniques? - CORRECT ANSWER -auditory senses -proprioceptive senses (the body's ability to sense its location, movements, and actions) -gustatory senses (relating to sense of taste) -olfactory senses (smell) What is creative visualization? - CORRECT ANSWER one form of self-directed imagery that is based on the principle of mind-body connectivity (i.e. every mental image leads to physical or emotional changes) What are some of the clinical applications of imagery? - CORRECT ANSWER -control or relieve pain -decrease nightmares -improve sleep -aids in treatment of chronic conditions, such as asthma, cancer, sickle cell anemia, migraines, autoimmune disorders, atrial fibrillation, fxnal urinary disorders, menstrual + premenstrual syndromes, gastrointestinal disorders (such as IBS) + ulcerative colitis, and rheumatoid arthritis What are some side effects of imagery techniques? - CORRECT ANSWER -increased anxiety + fear ( for PTSD + social anxiety disorders) -increased airway constriction (for some w/ COPD + asthma) What is biofeedback? - CORRECT ANSWER a mind-body technique that uses instruments to teach self-regulation + voluntary self-control over specific physiological responses How does biofeedback work? - CORRECT ANSWER It is the info from electronic or electromechanical instruments, which measure, process, + provide info to patients about their muscle tension, cardiac activity, respiratory rates, brain-wave patterns , + ANS -the feedback from this is given in physical, physiological, auditory, +/or visual feedback signals that increase a person's awareness of internal processes that are linked to illness + distress What are biofeedback therapies used for? - CORRECT ANSWER used to change thinking, emotions, + behavior, which support beneficial physiological changes, resulting in improved health + well-being Why is biofeedback an effective addition to more traditional relaxation programs? - CORRECT ANSWER it immediately demonstrates to patients their ability to control some physiological responses + the relationship among thoughts, feelings, + physiological responses How does biofeedback therapies help patients? - CORRECT ANSWER -helps them to focus on + monitor specific body parts -helps them control the physiological fxn that are most difficult to control by improving immediate feedback about which stress relaxation behaviors work most effectively What are the clinical applications of biofeedback? - CORRECT ANSWER may be helpful in stroke recovery, smoking cessation, ADHD, epilepsy, headache disorders, + a variety of GI and urinary tract disorders What are some limitations of biofeedback, specifically for those with psychological or neurological conditions? - CORRECT ANSWER -repressed emotions or feelings which coping is difficult sometimes resurface -long-term use sometimes lowers bp, hr, + other physiological parameters What is Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)? - CORRECT ANSWER a whole system of medicine that began as an ethnic healing system approx. 3600 yrs ago What does Chinese medicine view health as? - CORRECT ANSWER "life in balance" = lustrous hair, radiant complexion, engaged interactions, a body that fxns w/o limitations, + emotional balance What are health promotion strategies in tradition Chinese medicine? - CORRECT ANSWER encourages: -healthy diet -moderate regular exercise -regular meditation/introspection -healthy family + social relationships -avoidance of environmental toxins, such as cigarette smoke What is the most important concept in the TCM system of assessment, diagnosis, + intervention? - CORRECT ANSWER yin + yang What does yin + yang represent? - CORRECT ANSWER opposing yet complementary phenomena that exist in a state of dynamic equilibrium (ex: night/day, hot/cold) What does Yin represent? - CORRECT ANSWER -shade -cold -inhibition -inner part of body (specifically viscera, liver, heart, spleen, lung, + kidney) What does Yang represent? - CORRECT ANSWER -fire -light -excitement -outer part of body (specifically the bowels, stomach, + bladder) What are the keys to health, according to TCM? - CORRECT ANSWER harmony + balance in every aspect of life, including yin + yang What do TCM practitioners believe that disease occurs from? - CORRECT ANSWER when there is an imbalance in harmony + balance How does imbalance occur, according to TCM? - CORRECT ANSWER as excess or deficiencies in 3 areas: -external (six "evils" linked to weather + climate, including wind, cold, fire, damp, summer heat, + dryness) -internal (originate in emotions + affect different organs, such as anger [liver], joy [heart], or fear [kidney]) -neither internal or external (congenital weak constitutions, such as birth defects, trauma, over exertion, excessive sexual activity, poor-quality diet, + poisons) What does imbalance ultimately leads to in TCM? - CORRECT ANSWER disruption of vital energy qi, which then compromises the body-mind-spirit of the person, causing "disease" What are the 4 methods to evaluate a patient's condition for TCM practitioners? - CORRECT ANSWER -observing -hearing/smelling -asking/interviewing -touching/palpating In TCM, outward manifestations reflect which environment? - CORRECT ANSWER internal ex: -the color, shape, + coating of tongue reflect the general condition of the internal organs -the pulses provide info about the condition + balance of qi, blood, yin + yang, + internal organs What is moxibustion? - CORRECT ANSWER burning moxa, a cone or stick of dried herbs that have healing properties on or near the skin What is cupping? - CORRECT ANSWER placing a heated cup on the skin to create a slight suction What is tai chi? - CORRECT ANSWER originally a martial art that is now viewed as a moving meditation in which patients move their bodies slowly, gently, and w/ awareness while breathing deeply What is qi gong? - CORRECT ANSWER originally a martial art, now viewed as a series of carefully choreographed movements or gestures that are designed to promote + manipulate the flow of qi w/in the body What do some evidence show about the effectiveness in TCM? - CORRECT ANSWER it is helpful in treating fibromyaglia + addressing symptoms associated w/ menopause What are some of the limitations with TCM? - CORRECT ANSWER -it is not regulated by the FDA as safe + w/o toxins -recent reports suggests that they are contaminated w/ drugs, toxins, + heavy metals or ingredients are not listed properly -herbs can be very powerful and interact w/ other drugs, causing complications What is a key component in TCM? - CORRECT ANSWER acupuncture What does acupuncture do? - CORRECT ANSWER Regulates or realigns the vital energy (qi), which flows like a river through the body in channels that form a systems of pathways called meridians What are acupoints? - CORRECT ANSWER where needles are specifically placed in areas along the channels so that qi can be re-established What enhances the effects of the acupuncture needles? - CORRECT ANSWER application of heat or weak electrical currents What are some of the clinical applications of acupuncture? - CORRECT ANSWER -modifies the body's response to pain + how pain is processed by central neural pathways + cerebral fxn -effective for low back pain, myofascial pain, hot flashes, simple + migraine headaches, osteoarthritis, plantar heel pain, + chronic shoulder pain -also used to treat sinusitis, GI disorders, chronic pruritus, perimenstrual symptoms, menopause symptoms, clinical depression, smoking, + other addictions w/ varying effectiveness What are some of the complications of acupuncture? - CORRECT ANSWER complications: -infection from inadequate sterilization -needles are put in for too long -broken needles -puncture of internal organ -bleeding -fainting -seizures -post-treatment drowsiness contraindication: -for persons who have bleeding disorders + skin infections What type of patients should not use semipermanent needles and why? - CORRECT ANSWER patients who have valvular heart disease bc. of the increased risk of infection Who is electroacupuncture not recommended for? - CORRECT ANSWER -persons w/ pacemaker -those w/ cardiac arrhythmias or epilepsy -pregnant What is therapeutic touch (TT)? - CORRECT ANSWER Healing methods used by Nurses. Contact energy field, not actual touching. Find imbalance and re-balance. What does therapeutic touch affect? - CORRECT ANSWER affects the energy fields that surround + penetrate the human body w/ the conscious intent to help or heal What is the purpose of TT? - CORRECT ANSWER it uses the energy of the provider to positively influence the patient's energy field What does TT consist of? - CORRECT ANSWER Placing the practitioner's open palms either on or close to the body of a person What are the 5 phases of TT? - CORRECT ANSWER -centering -assessing -unruffling -treating -evaluating What can TT possibly be effective in? - CORRECT ANSWER -treating pain in adults + children -dementia -trauma -anxiety during acute +chronic illnesses What is a contraindication of TT? - CORRECT ANSWER people who are sensitive to human interaction + touch (ex: those who have been physically abused or have psychiatric disorders) often misinterpret the intent of treatment and become anxious by it What is chiropractic therapy? - CORRECT ANSWER a manipulative or body-based therapy What is the belief of the chiropractic profession? - CORRECT ANSWER -The body structure (primarily the spine + spinal cord) & the ability of the body to fxn normally are closely related -when the spine is misaligned, energy flow is impeded + innate healing abilities of the body are impaired What are the basic goals of chiropractic therapy? - CORRECT ANSWER They focus on restoring structural +fxnal imbalances What is a major structural problem that chiropractors treat? - CORRECT ANSWER vertebral (neck/back) subluxation (a partial dislocation in vertebrae) w/ its accompanying symptom of pain What does chiropractic therapy improve? - CORRECT ANSWER -acute pain + disability in some patients -also sometimes effective over longer periods to reduce acute + subacute low back pain + joint pain caused by osteoarthritis -may also enhance the effects of conventional treatments in pediatric asthma -used to treat headaches, dysmenorrhea, vertigo, tinnitus, + visual disorders What are some contraindications of chiropractic therapy? - CORRECT ANSWER -acute myelopathy -fractures -dislocations -rheumatoid arthritis -osteoporosis What are some risks associated w/ chiropractic therapy? - CORRECT ANSWER mild adverse responses such as: -mild transient headache -increased pain + stiffness more serious injuries such as: -vertebral artery dissection How old are plant remedies? - CORRECT ANSWER they are the oldest form of medicine What is a natural product? - CORRECT ANSWER a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism it includes: -herbal medicines (aka botanicals) -dietary supplements -vitamins -minerals -mycotherapies (fungi-based products) -essential oils (aromatherapy) -probiotics What is curcumin and what are its possible benefits? - CORRECT ANSWER a yellow plant substance associated w/ turmeric + ginger -it is a polyphenol that appears to have a potent anti-inflammatory effect -has suggested use in cancer prevention + progression as well as other chronic conditions What are some limitations of herbal therapy? - CORRECT ANSWER -since it's not regulated, concentration of the active ingredients vary considerably -contamination w/ other herbs or chemicals, including pesticides + heavy metals -some herbs contain toxic products that have been linked to cancer -some herbal substances have powerful chemicals How can you identify herbal products from reputable manufacturers? - CORRECT ANSWER labels on product need to contain: -scientific name of botanical -name + address of actual manufacture -expiration date also look if they have been verified by US Pharmacopeia (USP) [Show More]

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