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PHIL 447N Week 4 Quiz (MCQs) - Download Paper To Score An A

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Based on what you have read in the text, the lecture, and any other sources you find helpful to your understanding of deductive arguments, explain the structure of a deductive argument in your own wo... rds. Answer: The structure of a deductive argument is its has three parts to it, which are the central premise, the lesser premise, and the conclusion. A deductive argument is an argument that needs to be valid by guarantee that the conclusion is true by making the premises accurate as well. Go to the box “Deductive Reasoning” (in the beginning of Chapter 8). Read the last paragraph there. Based on that reading and any other sources you find helpful to your understanding, describe the part that “rules, operating conditions, core beliefs, values, policies, principles, procedures, and terminology” (p. 159) play in deductive arguments. Answer: These parts play an essential role in deductive argument because they determine the outcome of the discussion. Based on chapter 8, "Deductive reasoning moves with exacting precision from the assumed truth of a set of beliefs to a conclusion which cannot be false if those beliefs are true. Deductive validity is rigorously logical and clear-cut." (Facione & Gittes, 2016). The deductive argument must be accurate and precise, and for that to happen, all of the parts must be true and valid. The conclusion must be proper for that to happen; the premise must be correct, and these parts will help with that. For example, with belief, the assumptions are always valid as long as the ideas are accurate. No matter which parts are being, the premises must be correct, and the conclusion is proper. In the introduction to Chapter 8, the text sets forth a specific definition of the term “valid” as it applies to deductive arguments. What is that definition? Answer: According to chapter 8, "If the assumption that all the premises are true makes it impossible for the conclusion to be false, that is, if the premises entail or simply that conclusion, we will evaluate that argument or inference as valid." (Facione & Gittens, 2016). this means that if the conclusion is true base on the premises being true, then the argument is valid. Use the following template to create a valid Denying the Consequent argument example: If then It is not the case that Therefore, it is not the case that Answer: If you completed all the general science courses, you would graduate with an associate degree in general science. It is not the case that you would graduate with an associate degree in general science. Therefore, it is not the case that you complete all the general science courses. Question 5 Use the following template to create a valid Affirming the Antecedent argument example: If then Therefore Answer: If I’m a student at Essex County College, then I’m in college. I’m a Student at Essex County College. Therefore I’m in college. Question 6 Jack says: “I can enroll full time this semester, or I can buy a car. I think going to school full time is the better option for me, so I’ll have to put off buying car.” What name does the text give to this argument structure? Answer: The name that the text gives to this argument structure is a disjunctive syllogism. Because Jack had more than one option, but he had to pick the best one. Question 7 In addition to if/then and either/or, there are other terms that, when used correctly, can create valid argument templates. Using the three deductive statements below, create five (5) valid deductive arguments. To make your life easier, you can use the key words at the end of the statement to fill in the template. Statement A: Tuition increases 5 percent per academic year. (Tuition increases) Statement B: I must graduate in no more than two years. (Graduate two years) Statement C: I have legal access to unlimited amounts of cash. (Unlimited cash) Example: For a template such as “Either A or B. Not A. Therefore B” you would answer: “Either tuition increases, or I graduate in two years. Tuition will not increase. Therefore, I will graduate in two years.” Do this for all five templates. Templates • Either A, B, or C. Not C. So, A or B. • It is not the case that both A and B are true. So, either A is not true or B is not true. • Neither B nor C is true. So, B is false. • B unless C. Not B. So, C. • A only if B. A. Therefore, B. Check the Logical Strength of each argument you have written. If it lacks logical strength, check the table Grammatically Equivalent Structures (in Chapter 8) to be sure you are interpreting the words correctly. Answer: Either tuition increases, I graduate in two years, or I have unlimited cash. I don’t have unlimited cash. Therefore tuition increases, or I graduate in two years. It is not the case that tuition increases and I graduate in two years. So, either tuition will not increase, or I will not graduate in two years. Neither I graduate in two years, nor I have unlimited cash. I won’t graduate in two years. I will graduate in two years unless I don’t have unlimited cash. I won’t graduate in two years. So, I have unlimited cash. Tuition increases only if I’m graduate in two years—tuition increases. Therefore I will graduate in two years. Question 8 Transivity, reflexivity, and identity refer to what kind of reasoning? Answer: Transitivity, reflexivity, and identity refer to deductive reasoning because these characteristics involve using valid reasoning. And valid reasoning deals with deductive reasoning. Question 9 Using what you learned in Chapter 8 section Applying a Generalization, construct an argument proving that your Chamberlain major will place you in the category of healthcare worker. Answer: Everyone who’s taking the BSN Nursing program will be placed in the category of the healthcare worker. I’m taking the BSN Nursing program. This means that I will be placed as a healthcare worker. Question 10 A local newspaper serving a mid-sized U.S. city whose population is about 300,000 surveyed 40 retail businesses. Of the businesses surveyed, 70% said they were planning little or no hiring of extra workers during the coming Christmas season. The newspaper concluded that consumer spending would likely be down for Christmas this year, since retailers were not anticipating extra holiday business. Evaluate the newspaper’s generalization about consumer holiday spending using what you have learned in Chapter 9, including the four questions suggested by the text: • Was the correct group sampled? • Were the data obtained in an effective way? • Were enough cases considered? • Was the sample representatively structured? Answer: No, the correct group was not sampled because they surveyed only the businesses, not the people. Yes, the data obtained effectively because they did the survey, which allows people to be more truthful, but only one group survey. No, enough cases were not considered because they didn’t survey the people as well. No, the sample representatively was not structured because they didn’t give the full results of the business and the people. Question 11 Go to Individual Exercises at the end of Chapter 9. Example 9 concludes that “the American people are opposed to the President’s health care reform legislation” (p. 190). Using the Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments found in Section 7.2 of the text, and keeping in mind all that you have learned from Chapters 7-9, evaluate the worthiness of Example 9, beginning with the Test of Logical Strength. Remember, if the argument fails a test, you do not need to go further. Give a detailed explanation in support of your evaluation. If the argument contains a fallacy, explain what you think the fallacy is. Answer: The argument passed the Test of logical Strength because it has one sound, which means that one of the premises is valid. The argument fails the Relevance Test because they just said a survey, so we can’t trust the source because we don’t know who took it. The argument also contains the Appeals to the Mob fallacy because the conclusion was made base on the people that take the survey, so it’s not accurate because a group of people says they don’t like something. Question 12 What is a correlation? What is a statistically significant correlation? Answer: According to chapter 9, "Correlations, calculated using statistical analyses, described the degree to with two different sets of events are aligned." (Facione & Gittens, 2016). meaning it’s a mutual relationship or connection between two or more things. According to chapter 9, "Statistically significant correlation means that the relationship between the two kinds of events is viewed as not likely to be happenstance or chance. Of course, there could be an error in this estimate, but typically the largest threshold for this error is a sim 5 percent." (Facione &Gittens, 2016). The means that 0.05, and the probability of obtaining such a correlation coefficient by chance is less than five times out of 100. Question 13 Go to Individual Exercises at the end of Chapter 9. Go to Example 12. What test does this argument fail? What fallacy does the argument contain? Answer: The example of 12 fail is the Non-circularity because the claim supports the reasons, which forms a chain of reasoning. The argument contains the Appeals to Emotions fallacy because the person is making the conclusion base, not the person’s emotion. It’s about what the person wants and what will be suitable for the person. [Show More]

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PHIL 447N: Logic & Critical Thinking

PHIL 447N Week 1 Assignment; Short Paper on Execution PHIL 447N Week 1 Quiz (MCQs) PHIL-447N Week 1 Discussion Question 1 – Making Claims (graded) PHIL 447N Week 1 Discussion Question 2 – Cog...

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