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NR 509 Final Exam Study Guide: Latest Updated: A+ Guide Solution

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Appendicitis (Ans – 1. McBurney point tenderness 2. Rovsing sign 3. the psoas sign 4. the obturator sign --Appendicitis is twice as likely in the presence of RLQ tenderness, Rovsing sign, and... the psoas sign --The pain of appendicitis classically begins near the umbilicus, then migrates to the RLQ. Older adults are less likely to report this pattern. --Localized tenderness anywhere in the RLQ, even in the right flank, suggests appendicitis. McBurney Point (Ans – 1. McBurney point lies 2 inches from the anterior superior spinous process of ilium on a line drawn from that process to the umbilicus 2. Appendicitis is three times more likely if there is McBurney point tenderness. Rovsing sign (Ans - Press deeply and evenly in the LLQ. Then quickly withdraw your fingers. Pain in the RLQ during left-sided pressure is a positive Rovsing sign. Psoas Sign (Ans – --Place your hand just above the patient's right knee and ask the patient to raise that thigh against your hand. Alternatively, ask the patient to turn onto the left side. Then extend the patient's right leg at the hip. Flexion of the leg at the hip makes the psoas muscle contract; extension stretches it. --Increased abdominal pain on either maneuver is a positive psoas sign, sug-gesting irritation of the psoas muscle by an inflamed appendix. Obturator Sign (Ans – --Less helpful --Flex the patient's right thigh at the hip, with the knee bent, and rotate the leg internally at the hip. This maneuver stretches the internal obturator muscle. --Right hypogastric pain is a positive obturator sign, from irritation of the obturator muscle by an inflamed appendix. This sign has very low sensitivity. Acute Cholecystits (Ans – RUQ pain Murphy Sign Murphy Sign (Ans – Hook your left thumb or the fingers of your right hand under the costal margin at the point where the lateral border of the rectus muscle intersects with the costal margin. Alternatively, palpate the RUQ with the fingers of your right hand near the costal margin. If the liver is enlarged, hook your thumb or fingers under the liver edge at a comparable point. Ask the patient to take a deep breath, which forces the liver and gallbladder down toward the examining fingers. Watch the patient's breathing and note the degree of tenderness. --A sharp increase in tenderness with inspiratory effort is a positive Murphy sign. When positive, Murphy sign triples the likelihood of acute cholecystitis. Acute Pancreatitis Process (Ans - Intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation to trypsin and other enzymes, result-ing in autodigestion and inflammation of the pancreas Acute Pancreatitis Location (Ans - Epigastric, may radiate straight to the back or other areas of the abdomen; 20% with severe sequelae of organ failure Acute Pancreatitis Quality (Ans - Usually steady Acute Pancreatitis Timing (Ans - Acute onset, persistent pain Acute Pancreatitis Aggrevating Factors (Ans - Lying supine; dyspnea if pleural effusions from capillary leak syn-drome; selected medications, high triglycerides may exacerbate Acute Pancreatitis Relieving factors (Ans - Leaning forward with trunk flexed Acute Pancreatitis Associated Symptoms and Setting (Ans - Nausea, vomiting, abdominal dis-tention, fever; often recurrent; 80% with history of alcohol abuse or gallstones [Show More]

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