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NURS 660 Exam1 LATEST UPDATE 2023 QUESTIONS AND EXPLAINED ANSWERS|AGRADE

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NURS 660 Exam1 LATEST UPDATE 2023 QUESTIONS AND EXPLAINED ANSWERS|AGRADE 1. Identify the emerging neurobiological hypothesis of schizophrenia. o The hypothesis: (focus on the most detail wi... th the Dopamine Theory) ❖ The only pharmacological treatment that we have are dopamine (D2 receptors) and serotonin (5HT2A) ❖ Dopamine Theory ▪ Hyperactive dopamine at D2 receptors in the mesolimbic pathway In the mesolimbic pathway is responsible for the positive symptoms; the hypoactivity is responsible for the negative ▪ Mesolimbic pathway it’s overactive dopamine receptors or overactive dopamine on the dopamine receptors in mesolimbic pathways but it is also hypoactive dopamine at the D2 receptors in the mesocortical pathway ▪ Most detailed knowledge about this theory because that has been our foundational understanding of schizophrenia up until the very recent past so the other two, we don’t have as much detail about. But the other two just give us a much fuller understanding as far as why the Dopamine Theory happened in the first place. ❖ Glutamate Theory ▪ Hypoactive dopamine at N-Methyl-D-Asperate (NMDA) receptor ▪ NMDA receptors are hypofunctioning and because of that, it leads to hyperactive dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway and hypoactive dopamine in the mesocortical pathway. ▪ The NMDA receptor is on the GABA interneurons ▪ Emerging one ❖ Serotonin Theory ▪ Hyperactive dopamine at the 5HT2A receptors in the mesocortical pathway 5HT2A receptors are overly active In the mesocortical pathway is responsible for the negative symptoms ▪ 5HT2A receptors are hyperfunctioning, which leads to over functioning or overactive dopamine on those receptors in them as a mesolimbic pathway and hypoactive dopamine receptors in [Show More]

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