TCRN Practice Questions: Head and Neck How do you remember the cranial nerves? - ✔✔"On Old Olympus Towering Tops A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops" How do you remember which cranial nerves ar... e responsible for sensory/motor/both? - ✔✔"Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter Most" Which cranial nerves do not originate in the brain stem? - ✔✔Olfactory and Optic nerves What cranial nerve deficits might you see with a basilar skull fracture? - ✔✔Facial nerve palsy, oculomotor palsy, hearing loss Name the three layers of the meninges: - ✔✔Pia, Arachnoid, Dura What is the Monroe Kellie hypothesis? - ✔✔Shifting of pressure to compensate for an increase in ICP What are the differences between an epidural hematoma and subdural hematoma? SAH? - ✔✔- Epidural hematomas: between skull and outside of dura (arterial bleeding, middle meningeal artery) -Subdural hematoma: between brain and inside of dura (venous bleeding, cortical veins) -Subarachnoid hemorrhage: between arachnoid and pia (arterial bleeding, usually cerebral artery aneurysm) At what spinal cord level is the diaphragm innervated? - ✔✔"C3-5 keeps the diaphragm alive" (Phrenic nerve) Name three common incomplete spinal cord injuries and their symptoms: - ✔✔-Anterior Cord Syndrome (Paralysis below level of injury and loss of pain and temperature sensation. Proprioception and vibratory sensation intact.) -Central Cord Syndrome (Inability to lift arms and hands completely, or numbness and tingling) -Brown Sequard Syndrome (Loss of motor on side of injury, loss of sensation on opposite side) Name two types of secondary brain injury: - ✔✔-Hypoperfusion -Hypoxia -Hypo/Hypercapnia What is a normal ICP? - ✔✔0-15 mmHg, >20 may require intervention In the immediate, primary survey of a trauma patient, ABCDE is a mneumonic for? - ✔✔Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure What are the three components of the Glasgow Coma Score? - ✔✔Eye Opening, Verbal Responce, Motor Responce In the secondary survey, what is the mneumonic AMPLE? - ✔✔Allergies, Medications, Previous Medical/Surgical History, Last meal, Events /Environment surrounding the injury At what level does the spinal cord end? - ✔✔L1-L2 What does the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Scale measure? - ✔✔State of motor/sensory function: complete vs. levels of incomplete vs normal What is SCIWORA and what is cause? - ✔✔Spontaneous cord injury without radiographic abnormality. Caused by dislocation with spontaneous relocation, most common in pedicatric population. How many anatomy neck zones are there? - ✔✔Three: Zone 1, 2 & 3 What is the Denver Screening Criteria used for? - ✔✔Used to screen for vertebral and carotid artery dissection and/or injury after blunt head and neck trauma What are EAST guidelines used for? - ✔✔Cervical spine clearance algorithm What is assessed on a FAST exam? - ✔✔A FAST exam, Functional Assessment with Sonography in Trauma assesses: cardiac, liver, spleen, and pelvic areas for fluid collections. [Show More]
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