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Sensation & Perception, 6th Edition by Wolfe Test Bank

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Test Bank for Sensation & Perception, 6th Edition, 6e by Wolfe, Kluender, Levi, Bartoshuk TEST BANK ISBN-13: 9781605359724 FULL CHAPTERS INCLUDED Chapter 1 Introduction Questions to Contemplat... e 1.1 Sensation & Perception: Welcome to Our World METHOD 1: THRESHOLDS METHOD 2: SCALING—MEASURING PRIVATE EXPERIENCE METHOD 3: SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY—MEASURING DIFFICULT DECISIONS METHOD 4: SENSORY NEUROSCIENCE METHOD 5: NEUROIMAGING—AN IMAGE OF THE MIND METHOD 6: COMPUTATIONAL MODELS 1.2 Thresholds and the Dawn of Psychophysics Psychophysical Methods Scaling Methods Signal Detection Theory 1.3 Sensory Neuroscience and the Biology of Perception Nerves and Specific Nerve Energies Neuronal Connections Neuronal Firing: The Action Potential Neuroimaging 1.4 Modeling as a Method: Math and Computation Computational Models: Probability, Statistics, and Networks Deep Learning Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 2 The First Steps in Vision: From Light to Neural Signals Questions to Contemplate 2.1 A Little Light Physics 2.2 Eyes That Capture Light Focusing Light onto the Retina The Retina What the Doctor Saw Retinal Geography and Function 2.3 Dark and Light Adaptation Pupil Size Photopigment Regeneration The Duplex Retina Neural Circuitry 2.4 Retinal Information Processing Light Transduction by Rod and Cone Photoreceptors Lateral Inhibition through Horizontal and Amacrine Cells Convergence and Divergence of Information via Bipolar Cells Communicating to the Brain via Ganglion Cells CENTER-SURROUND RECEPTIVE FIELDS P AND M GANGLION CELLS REVISITED INTRINSICALLY PHOTO SENSITIVE RETINAL GANGLION CELLS (ipRGCs) IN THE DEVELOPING RETINA Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 3 Spatial Vision: From Spots to Stripes Questions to Contemplate 3.1 Visual Acuity: Oh Say, Can You See? A Visit to the Eye Doctor More Types of Visual Acuity MINIMUM VISIBLE ACUITY MINIMUM RESOLVABLE ACUITY MINIMUM RECOGNIZABLE ACUITY MINIMUM DISCRIMINABLE ACUITY Acuity for Low-Contrast Stripes Why Sine Wave Gratings? 3.2 Retinal Ganglion Cells and Stripes 3.3 The Lateral Geniculate Nucleus 3.4 The Striate Cortex The Topography of the Human Cortex Some Perceptual Consequences of Cortical Magnification 3.5 Receptive Fields in Striate Cortex Orientation Selectivity Other Receptive-Field Properties Simple and Complex Cells Further Complications 3.6 Columns and Hypercolumns 3.7 Selective Adaptation: The Psychologist’s Electrode The Site of Selective Adaptation Effects Spatial Frequency–Tuned Pattern Analyzers in Human Vision 3.8 The Development of Vision Development of the Contrast Sensitivity Function Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 4 Perceiving and Recognizing Objects Questions to Contemplate 4.1 From Simple Lines and Edges to Properties of Objects 4.2 What and Where Pathways 4.3 The Problems of Perceiving and Recognizing Objects 4.4 Mid-Level Vision Finding Edges OCCLUSION RULES OF EVIDENCE Texture Segmentation and Grouping CAMOUFLAGE AMBIGUITY AND PERCEPTUAL “COMMITTEES” COMMITTEE RULES: HONOR PHYSICS AND AVOID ACCIDENTS Figure and Ground A COMPLICATED BUSINESS Dealing with Occlusion Parts and Wholes Summarizing Mid-Level Vision From Metaphor to Formal Model 4.5 Object Recognition Can We Build It? Multiple Recognition Committees? Faces: An Illustrative Special Case Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 5 The Perception of Color Questions to Contemplate 5.1 Basic Principles of Color Perception Three Steps to Color Perception 5.2 Step 1: Color Detection 5.3 Step 2: Color Discrimination The Principle of Univariance The Trichromatic Solution Metamers The History of Trichromatic Theory A Brief Digression into Lights, Filters, and Finger Paints From Retina to Brain: Repackaging the Information Cone-Opponent Cells in the Retina and LGN 5.4 Step 3: Color Appearance Three Numbers, Many Colors The Limits of the Rainbow Opponent Colors Color in the Visual Cortex 5.5 Individual Differences in Color Perception Language and Color Genetic Differences in Color Vision Does Everyone See the Same Colors? The Special Case of Synesthesia 5.6 From the Color of Lights to a World of Color Adaptation and Afterimages Color Constancy The Problem with the Illuminant Physical Constraints Make Constancy Possible 5.7 What Is Color Vision Good For? Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 6 Space Perception and Binocular Vision Questions to Contemplate 6.1 Monocular Cues to Three-Dimensional Space Pictorial Depth Cues Occlusion Size and Position Cues Aerial Perspective Linear Perspective Seeing Depth in Pictures 6.2 Triangulation Cues to Three-Dimensional Space Motion Cues Accommodation and Convergence 6.3 Binocular Vision and Stereopsis Stereoscopes and Stereograms Random Dot Stereograms Using Stereopsis Stereoscopic Correspondence The Physiological Basis of Stereopsis and Depth Perception 6.4 Combining Depth Cues The Bayesian Approach Revisited Illusions and the Construction of Space Binocular Rivalry and Suppression 6.5 Development of Binocular Vision and Stereopsis Abnormal Visual Experience Can Disrupt Binocular Vision Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 7 Attention and Scene Perception Questions to Contemplate 7.1 Selection in Space The “Spotlight” of Attention 7.2 Visual Search Feature Searches Are Efficient Many Searches Are Inefficient Guided Searches in the Real World BASIC FEATURES GUIDE VISUAL SEARCH HISTORY GUIDES VISUAL SEARCH PROPERTIES OF SCENES GUIDE VISUAL SEARCH The Binding Problem in Visual Search Binding between the Senses 7.3 Attending in Time: RSVP and the Attentional Blink 7.4 The Physiological Basis of Attention Attention Could Enhance Neural Activity Attention Could Enhance the Processing of a Specific Type of Stimulus Attention and Single Cells Attention May Change the Way Neurons Talk to Each Other 7.5 Disorders of Visual Attention Neglect Extinction 7.6 Perceiving and Understanding Scenes Two Pathways to Scene Perception The Nonselective Pathway Computes Ensemble Statistics The Nonselective Pathway Computes Scene Gist and Layout—Very Quickly Memory for Objects and Scenes Is Amazingly Good But … Memory for Objects and Scenes Can Be Amazingly Bad: Change Blindness What Do We Actually See? Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 8 Visual Motion Perception Questions to Contemplate 8.1 Motion Aftereffects 8.2 Computation of Visual Motion Apparent Motion The Correspondence Problem: Viewing through an Aperture Detection of Global Motion in Area MT Second-Order Motion 8.3 Using Motion Information Going with the Flow: Using Motion Information to Navigate Avoiding Imminent Collision: The Tao of Tau Something in the Way You Move: Using Motion Information to Identify Objects Motion-Induced Blindness (MIB) 8.4 Eye Movements Physiology and Types of Eye Movements Eye Movements and Reading Saccadic Suppression and the Comparator Updating the Neural Mechanisms for Eye Movement Compensation 8.5 Development of Motion Perception Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 9 Hearing: Physiology and Psychoacoustics Questions to Contemplate 9.1 The Function of Hearing 9.2 What Is Sound? Basic Qualities of Sound Waves: Frequency and Amplitude Sine Waves and Complex Sounds 9.3 Basic Structure of the Mammalian Auditory System Outer Ear Middle Ear Inner Ear COCHLEAR CANALS AND MEMBRANES THE ORGAN OF CORTI HAIR CELLS CODING OF AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY IN THE COCHLEA The Auditory Nerve BEYOND SIMPLE SOUNDS AT LOW INTENSITY TWO-TONE SUPPRESSION RATE SATURATION TEMPORAL CODE FOR SOUND FREQUENCY Auditory Brain Structures 9.4 Basic Operating Characteristics of the Auditory System Intensity and Loudness Frequency and Pitch 9.5 Hearing Loss Types of Hearing Loss Causes of Hearing Loss Treating Hearing Loss Using versus Detecting Sound Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 10 Hearing in the Environment Questions to Contemplate 10.1 Sound Localization Interaural Time Difference THE PHYSIOLOGY OF ITDS Interaural Level Difference THE PHYSIOLOGY OF ILDS Cones of Confusion Pinnae and Head Cues Auditory Distance Perception Spatial Hearing and Blindness 10.2 Complex Sounds Harmonics Timbre Attack and Decay 10.3 Auditory Scene Analysis Spatial, Spectral, and Temporal Segregation Grouping by Timbre Grouping by Onset When Hearing Dominates Vision When Sounds Become Familiar 10.4 Continuity and Restoration Effects Restoration of Complex Sounds 10.5 Auditory Attention Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 11 Music and Speech Perception Questions to Contemplate 11.1 Music Musical Notes TONE HEIGHT AND TONE CHROMA CHORDS CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ABSOLUTE PITCH Making Music RHYTHM MELODY DEVELOPMENT 11.2 Speech Speech Production RESPIRATION AND PHONATION ARTICULATION CLASSIFYING SPEECH SOUNDS Speech Perception COARTICULATION AND LACK OF INVARIANCE CATEGORICAL PERCEPTION COARTICULATION AND SPECTRAL CONTRAST USING MULTIPLE ACOUSTIC CUES Learning to Listen BECOMING A NATIVE LISTENER LEARNING WORDS Speech in the Brain Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 12 Vestibular Sensation Questions to Contemplate 12.1 Vestibular Contributions 12.2 Evolutionary Development and Vestibular Sensation 12.3 Modalities and Qualities of Spatial Orientation Sensing Angular Motion (“Rotation”), Linear Motion (“Translation”), and Tilt Basic Qualities of Spatial Orientation: Amplitude and Direction AMPLITUDE DIRECTION 12.4 The Vestibular Organs Hair Cells: Mechanical Transducers Semicircular Canals HOW AMPLITUDE IS CODED IN THE SEMICIRCULAR CANALS HOW DIRECTION IS CODED IN THE SEMICIRCULAR CANALS SEMICIRCULAR-CANAL DYNAMICS WHY SINE WAVE MOTIONS? Otolith Organs HOW AMPLITUDE IS CODED IN THE OTOLITH ORGANS HOW DIRECTION IS CODED IN THE OTOLITH ORGANS 12.5 Spatial Orientation Perception Rotation Perception Translation Perception Tilt Perception 12.6 Multisensory Integration Visual-Vestibular Multisensory Integration 12.7 Beyond Multisensory Integration: Active Sensing 12.8 Reflexive Vestibular Responses Vestibulo-Ocular Responses Vestibulo-Autonomic Responses Vestibulo-Spinal Responses 12.9 Multisensory Spatial Orientation Cortex Vestibular Thalamocortical Pathways Cortical Influences 12.10 When the Vestibular System Goes Bad Falls and Vestibular Function Mal de Debarquement Syndrome Ménière’s Syndrome Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 13 Touch Questions to Contemplate 13.1 Physical Inputs to Touch Touch Physiology Touch Receptors and Neural Fibers SOMATOSENSORY FIBERS TACTILE RECEPTORS KINESTHETIC RECEPTORS THERMORECEPTORS NOCICEPTORS PLEASANT TOUCH RECEPTORS From Skin to Brain Pain MULTIPLE LEVELS OF PAIN MODERATING PAIN PAIN SENSITIZATION Neural Plasticity of Somatosensation 13.2 Tactile Sensitivity and Acuity How Sensitive Are We to Mechanical Pressure? How Finely Can We Resolve Spatial Details? How Finely Can We Resolve Temporal Details? Do People Differ in Tactile Sensitivity? 13.3 Haptic Perception Perception for Action Action for Perception The What System of Touch: Perceiving Objects and Their Properties PERCEIVING MATERIAL VERSUS GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES THE HAPTIC ALGORITHM FOR CURVATURE HAPTIC SEARCH PERCEIVING PATTERNS WITH THE SKIN TACTILE AGNOSIA The Where System of Touch: Locating Objects HAPTIC OBJECT LOCALIZATION BEYOND THE BODY HAPTIC OBJECT LOCALIZATION ON THE BODY Tactile Spatial Attention Social Touch Interactions between Touch and Other Modalities Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 14 Olfaction Questions to Contemplate 14.1 Olfactory Physiology Odors and Odorants The Human Olfactory Apparatus How Well Do We Smell? 14.2 Neurophysiology of Olfaction The Genetic Basis of Olfactory Receptors The “Feel” of Scent 14.3 From Chemicals to Smells Theories of Olfactory Perception The Importance of Patterns Is Odor Perception Synthetic or Analytical? Nasal Power Odor Imagery 14.4 Olfactory Psychophysics, Identification, and Adaptation Detection Discrimination and Recognition Psychophysical Methods for Detection, Discrimination, and Recognition Identification: Olfaction and Language Individual Differences Adaptation Cognitive Habituation and Odor Consciousness 14.5 Olfactory Hedonics Familiarity and Intensity Nature or Nurture? An Evolutionary Argument Caveats 14.6 Associative Learning and Emotion: Neuroanatomical and Evolutionary Considerations The Vomeronasal Organ, Human Pheromones, and Chemosignals Summary List of Key Terms Chapter 15 Taste Questions to Contemplate 15.1 Taste versus Flavor Localizing Flavor Sensations: The Role of Taste 15.2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Gustatory System Taste Myth: The Tongue Map THE MAP IS BOGUS Taste Buds and Taste Receptor Cells Non-Oral Locations for Taste Receptors Taste Processing in the Central Nervous System 15.3 The Four Basic Tastes? Salty Sour Bitter Sweet 15.4 Are There More Than Four Basic Tastes? Does It Matter? Protein: The Umami Question Fat 15.5 Genetic Variation in Bitter Supertasters Health Consequences of Variation in Taste Sensations 15.6 How Do Taste and Flavor Contribute to the Regulation of Nutrients? Taste Flavor Is All Olfactory Affect Learned? 15.7 The Nature of Taste Qualities Taste Adaptation and Cross-Adaptation The Pleasure of the Burn of Chili Peppers [Show More]

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