What is the term for abnormal breath sounds that result from an obstructed airway? a. crackles b. wheezing c. snoring d. stridor - ANSWER d. stridor is an upper airway obstruction caused by tissue... swelling around the trachea, layrnx, or epiglotitis. Stridor is often present with an airway obstruction, epiglottitis, or croup What is the term for high-pitched whistling sounds heard during expiration? a. friction rub b. stridor c. snoring d. wheezing - ANSWER d. wheezing suggests lower airway obstrictions or constrictions. Exhalation is a passive process and the wheezing noise is air pasively leaving constriced bronchioles What are the structures that branch off the trachea into the lower airway? a. arterioles b. bronchi c. alveoli d. cricoid - ANSWER b. bronchi The trachea bifurcates (splits) at the carina into left and right bronchus. The bronchi get smaller and smaller until it reaches the terminal bronchioles where the alveoli are located An 18 year old male is cyanotic and complains of sharp chest pain and difficulty breathing after lifting weights. Vital signs are BP 110/66, P 88, and R 22. What is the most likely cause? a. spontaneous pneumothorax b. pulmonary embolism c. tension pneumothorax d. acute myocardial infarction - ANSWER b. pulmonary embolism Performing strenuous activities can cause a collapsed lung (spontaneous pneumothorax). He has sable vital signs so you should suspect a spontaneous pneumothorax. If he was hypotensive, you should suspect spontaneous pneumothorax had developed into a tension pneumothorax. An alert 32 year old female complains of difficultly breathing. She speaks in 2-3 word sentences and has an oxygen saturation of 92%. What should you do? a. assist ventillations with a BVM b. obtain VS c. assist her with her MDI d. apply high flow O2 - ANSWER d. apply high flow O2 She is alert and her respirations are still efective without the need for assiting ventilations. SHe only complains of shortness of breath so applying high flow O2 should be the first treatment The use of accessory muscles and nasal flaring are signs of what type of breathing? a. labored b. normal c. obstructed d. shallow - ANSWER a. labored The sue of accessory muscles is a sign of respiratory distress or failure. Nasal flaring is the body's response in effor to increase the size of the airway and attempt to draw in more air with each breath. Expect to initially see an increased RR and HR with labored breathing. As the patient begins to tire, the RR and quality will begin to decrease, which worsens the problem What is the amount of air that normally reaches the alveoli in an adult? a. 350 ml b. 150 L c. 500 ml d. 750 L - ANSWER a. 350 ml The average adult ventilation is 500 mL, but there ia an area of dead space that traps 150 ml of air so only 350 mL effectively reaches the alveoli for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange. A 56 year old female has a complete airway obstruction from a piece of food. She becomes unconscious while you assess her. What should you do? a. begin chets compressions b. perform a finger sweep c. attempt to ventilate her d. deliver up to 5 abdominal thrusts - ANSWER a. begin chets compressions When a patient has a completely obstructed airway and becomes unconscious, the first thing you should do is start chest compressions What is the normal range of breaths per minute for an adult? a. 6-12 b. 12-20 c. 20-28 d. 28-36 - ANSWER b. 12-20 which allows for adequate oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange A 67 year old male complains of mild respiratory distress. He smokes 4 packs of cigarettes a day and reports a consistent cough and frequent respiratory infections. Chest sounds reveal bilateral rhonchi. What should you expect? a. chronchi bronchitis b. pulmonary embolus c. lung cancer d. status asthmaticus - ANSWER a. chronic bronchitis is a long term inflammation of bronchioles. Excessive mucus and pus production leads to obstructive airwayds. Consistent cough is the body's response to clear the airway obstruction An unresponsive 43 year old male is cool, pale, diaphoretic, and breathing 6 times per minute. WHat device should you use to administer O2? a. NRB mask b. BVM c. simple face mask d. nasal cannula - ANSWER b. BVM. He is unresponsive, breathing too slow so assist with ventilaitons first to increase RR. What are the small air sacs at the end of the airway that are responsible for gas exchange? a. carina b. bronchioles c. alveoli d. trachea - ANSWER c. alveoli Inhaled air ia drawn down into the lung tisuse which consists of tiny alveoli sacs. Capillaries are located on the outside of the alveoli and they share a membrane with the alveoli sacs, which is where gas exchange takes place. These alveoli sacs are kept open by syrfactant which is a soap substance that reduces surface tension, otherwise, alveoli collapse and gas exchange is inhibited. With CHF, blood replaces surfactant and the alveoli collapse. AN 82 year old female complains of difficulty breathing. Before you assist her with her prescribed inhaler, who will you need permission from? a. online medical control b. her personal physcian c. staff nurse d. her family - ANSWER a. online medical control is required for assisting prescribed medications (over the radio or cell phone) A 77 year old female with dyspnea, speaks in short words bursts, and breathes with pursed lips. Lung sounds are diminished, distant, and clear. Vital signs are BP 153/90, P 86 and irregular, RR 23. WHat should you expect? a. emphysema b. bronchitis c. status asthmaticus d. pulmonary edema - ANSWER a. emphysema is a chronic obstructive proces of the alveoli. The alveoli regenerate but they are misshaped and consist of scar tissue, which inhibits gas exchange. SHe has pursed lips because she is attempting to keep the alveoli open. Without the extra effort, her alveoli with collaspe due to increased surface tension A 42 year old male complains of SOB after being sprayed with super-heated steam. He has burns to his face, neck, and upper chest. Vital signs are BP 112/66, P 124, RR 28 shallow and labored. What should you do? a. apply sterile dressings b. remove excess clothing c. suctions his airway d. assist his ventilations - ANSWER d. assist his ventilations because he is in respiatory failure. His breathing is ineffective because his respirations are fardt and shallow, which doesn not allow for adequate oxygen exchange because the air is not drawn down far enough into the lungs. Assisting his breathing with positive pressure ventilations will help reduce any developing pulmonary edema from the lower airway burns A 64 year old male is not breathing. What should you do after intiating ventillations with a BVM? a. look for inflation of his cheecks b. look for rise and fall of the chest c. listen for gurgling and check the mask position d. look for signs that he begins breathing on his own - ANSWER b. look for rise (inhale, which shows adequate amounts of air is getting into the patient's lungs) and fall of the chest (exhale, which can show if air is able to passively leak) A 53 year old male is sleepy, diaphoretic, difficult to arouse, and breathing 8 times per minute. What do you expect? a. respiratory failure b. respiratory arrest c. respiratory distress d. respiratory alkalosis - ANSWER a. respiratory failure because slow rate (too slow for adeuqate gas exchagne) and is sleep/difficult to arouse. A febrile 44 year old male complains of SOB and has dull chets pain. He has been coughing up "rusty" sputum for the last 3 days. What is the most likely cause? a. chronchi bronchitis b. pneumonia c. emphysema d. CHF - ANSWER b. pneumonia is an infection of the lung tissue and the "rusty sputum is a sign of lower airway infection. He is febrile from an immune response to the infection with an commone associated symptom of dull chest pain. A 75 year old female complains of a sudden onset of right-sided chest pain and dyspnea. She is recovering from a recent hip surgery. What do you suspect? a. hypotension b. pneumonia c. pulmonary embolism d. myocardial infarction - ANSWER c. pulmonary embolism is typically the result of a bloodclot formed in a lower extremity with poor circulation. Hip surgery caused patient to be immbolized for an extensive time. The sudden unilateral chest pain is the lung with the clot and any lung tissue distal of the cloth with not allow for adequate O2 exchange. How should you insert a NPA? a. guide with a soft tip stylet b. apply an oil-based lubricant c. face bevel towards the septum d. rotate the device 360 degress - ANSWER c. face bevel towards the septum, and apply a water-soluble lubricant What is direclt posterior to the nose? a. nasopharynx b. larynx c. trachea d. oropharynx - ANSWER a. nasopharynx connects the opening of the nostrils to the soft palate to warm inhaled air and filter out fine particulate matter What many lobes are in the lungs? a. 4 b. 7 c. 2 d. 5 - ANSWER d. 5 lobes total with 3 lobes on the right and 2 lobes on the left What part of the respiratory system contains the vocal cords? a. larynx b. trachea c. nasopharynx d. oropharynx - ANSWER a. larynx ("voice box") contains the vocal cords which is superior to the trachea. What is the normal respiratory rate for an adult? a. 8-16 b. 10-18 c. 12-20 d. 14-22 - ANSWER c. 12-20 for adequate oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange What ring-shaped structure forms the lower portion of the larynx? a. cricoid cartilage b. diaphram c. epilottis d. carina - ANSWER a. cricoid cartilage which is inferior to the thyroid cartilage What area is directy posterior to the mouth? a. oropharynx b. trachea c. larynx [Show More]
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