Medicine > ATI > ATI Nervous System Part 1 and 2 with Complete Solution (twin Set) (All)

ATI Nervous System Part 1 and 2 with Complete Solution (twin Set)

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A HCP is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking pramipexole (mirapex) to treat Parkinson's disease. The HCP should recognize that which of the following laboratory tests require monitoring?... - ANSWER Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) CPK is an enzyme found in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles. Patients taking pramipexole can develop muscle weakness with a lack of energy, creating a situation that can be more problematic for patients than their original muscle dysfunction. Monitoring CPK can alert health care professionals to the possibility of skeletal muscle damage from the drug. For which of the following should a health care professional monitor a patient who is taking donepezil (Aricept) for Alzheimer's disease? - ANSWER Nausea The most common adverse effects of donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Taking the drug with food can help minimize adverse effects. A HCP is talking to a patient who is newly diagnosed with Parkinson's disease about how levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet) will hep control her symptoms. which of the following mechanisms is the drug effective in treating the disorder? - ANSWER Increases available dopamine in the brain Levodopa/carbidopa, a dopaminergic agent, can act by increasing dopamine in the extrapyramidal center of the brain, reducing involuntary motion. A HCP is talking to a patient who is about to begin taking valproic acid (Depakote) for a newly diagnosed seizure disorder. He should tell the patient to watch for which of the following adverse side effects? - ANSWER drowsiness, headache, rash -Patients taking valproic acid should report CNS depressant effects, such as sedation or drowsiness, because these effects can indicate the need for a reduction in dose. Rash -Skin rash is a side effect of valproic acid and other antiepileptic drugs. Which of the following findings should alert a HCP that a patient is developing a potentially serious adverse side reaction to interferon beta-1b (Betaseron)? - ANSWER Fatigue B/c of the potential for bone marrow suppression and decreased platelet count, patients should report unexplained bruising, bleeding, or fatigue. While talking to a patient and his family about taking memantine (Namenda) for Alzheimer's disease, the HCP should include which of the following instructions? - ANSWER Notify the health care professional before taking over-the-counter antacids. Antacids that contain sodium bicarbonate increase urine alkalinity and can decrease drug excretion, ultimately leading to toxicity. While talking to a patient about taking modafinil (Provigil) to treat narcolepsy, which of the following instructions should the HCP include? - ANSWER Take the drug in the morning Modafinil is a non-amphetamine stimulant. Taking it in the morning helps improve wakefulness for patients who have narcolepsy. Patients taking the drug for shift-work sleepiness should take it 1 hr before work. A HCP is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking dantrolene (Dantrium) for skeletal muscle spasms. The HCP should tell the patient to report which of the following adverse effects? - ANSWER Diarrhea Prolonged diarrhea can cause dehydration and other serious effects. Diarrhea is an adverse effect of dantrolene, as are nausea and vomiting. Patients should report these effects so the health care professional can monitor fluid balance and intervene accordingly. Anesthetists often administer midazolam (Versed) during induction of anesthesia b/c of which of the following pharmacological actions? - ANSWER Causes amnesia Midazolam, a benzodiazepine, is appropriate during induction because of its anti-anxiety and amnesiac properties. A HCP is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking dantrolene (Dantrium) for skeletal muscle spasms. the health care professional should recognize that which of the following laboratory tests require monitoring? - ANSWER Liver function Liver toxicity is a serious adverse effect of dantrolene. The health care professional should monitor liver function prior to treatment and at regular intervals, and advise patients to report jaundice or abdominal pain. A HCP is caring or a patient who is receiving thiopental (Pentothal). For which of the following should the HCP monitor? - ANSWER Respiratory depression Thiopental, a short-acting barbiturate, causes respiratory depression. Mechanical ventilation and continuous monitoring are essential for patients receiving the drug. A HCP should include which of the following instruction when talking with a patient about taking levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet) to treat Parkinson's disease? - ANSWER Change position slowly to prevent orthostatic hypotension. Levodopa/carbidopa can cause orthostatic hypotension A patient is taking selegiline (Eldepryl) to treat Parkinson's disease. The provider is considering the use of analgesics for the patient but should be aware that a drug interaction between selegiline and meperidine (Demerol) can result in which of the following? - ANSWER Muscle rigidity A drug interaction between selegiline and opioids, especially meperidine, can result in a serious reaction resulting in rigidity, stupor, agitation, hypertension, and fever. A HCP is reviewing the medical record of a patient who has a newly diagnosed seizure disorder. The patient is to begin taking both valproic acid (Depakote) and phenytoin (Dilantin). The HCP should recognize that which of the following can occur as a result of a drug interaction between vaproic acid and phenytoin? - ANSWER Phenytoin toxicity Valproic acid can cause an increase in phenytoin blood levels, causing phenytoin toxicity. The primary care provider should monitor serum phenytoin levels and reduce the dosage if levels begin to exceed the therapeutic range. Which of the following information should a HCP include when talking to a patient about taking baclofen (lioresal)? - ANSWER Avoid driving until the drug's effects are evident. Baclofen, a centrally-acting muscle relaxant, causes CNS depression. Patients taking the drug should avoid alcohol and other CNS depressants and should not drive a vehicle until they know how the drug will affect them. A HCP is talking with a patient who is begin taking valproic acid (Depakote) to treat a seizure disorder. He should advise the patient to monitor for which of the following adverse effects? - ANSWER Jaundice Valproic acid can cause hepatic toxicity, characterized by jaundice, abdominal pain, and nausea. Patients taking the drug should report these symptoms, and health care professionals should monitor liver function studies prior to treatment and periodically during therapy. When talking with a patient about taking temazepam (Restoril) which of the following instructions should the HCP include? - ANSWER Avoid alcohol and other depressants -Temazepam can cause CNS depression. Combined use with alcohol or other depressants can cause severe respiratory depression. Take the drug 30 min before bedtime -Patients should take temazepam 30 min before bedtime to improve sleep and to prevent daytime drowsiness Taper the drug slowly to prevent withdrawal symptoms -abrupt discontinuation of temazepam can cause withdrawal symptoms. Patients should taper the drug slowly to prevent or minimize withdrawal. A HCP is caring for a patient who is taking zolpidem (Ambien). The patient has a hx of benzodiazepine abuse and reports insomnia. The HCP should caution the patient that the drug can cause: - ANSWER Memory impairment Zolpidem, a non-benzodiazepine, can cause anterograde amnesia, or memory impairment, particularly an inability to recall activities patients carry out just before or during sleep. A HCP is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking amphetamine sulfate (adderall) . The HCP should monitor the patient for which of the following adverse side effects? - ANSWER Tachycardia Amphetamine sulfate is an amphetamine stimulant. It can cause tachycardia and dysrhythmias. Patients should notify the health care professional if they develop palpitations or chest pain. A HCP administers fentanyl (sublimaze) to a patient to reduce pain. Which of the following drugs should she have available to reverse the effects of fentanyl? - ANSWER Naloxone Naloxone is an opioid antagonist that reverses the effects of opioids. Fentanyl, an opioid agonist, can cause severe respiratory depression. HCPs administering fentanyl should also have resuscitation equipment available. A HCP is talking to a patient about the adverse effects of interferon beta-1a (Avonex). To help minimize theses effects, she should tell the patient to: - ANSWER Pre-medicate with acetaminophen (Tylenol) Interferon beta drugs can cause fever, chills, headaches, and muscle aches. Acetaminophen or an NSAID can help minimize these symptoms. A HCP is talking to a patient about beginning sumatriptan (Imitrex) therapy to treat migraine headaches. The HCP should advise the patient o watch for which of the following adverse effects? - ANSWER Chest pain Sumatriptan, a serotonin agonist, can cause coronary vasospasm and chest pain. Patients should report any pressure, pain, or tightness in the jaw, chest or back. Sumatriptan is not an appropriate choice for patients who have a history of coronary artery disease. A HCP is talking to a patient and her family about how methyphenidate (Ritalin) will help manage attention-defecit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Which of the following therapeutic effects should they expect? - ANSWER Increased focus Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, regulate levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain to produce calmness, reduce hyperactivity, and increase focus for patients who have ADHD. B/c of the potential for adverse effects, which of the following should a HCP recommend for patients who begin taking carbamazepine (Tegretol)? - ANSWER Begin taking the drug at a low dosage. Visual disturbances, vertigo, and ataxia can result from taking carbamazepine, an iminostilbene that treats seizure disorders. Dosages should be low to minimize or prevent these adverse effects. An anesthetist is about to administer lidocaine (Xylocaine) as part of the protocol for spinal anesthesia for a patient who is undergoing a surgical procedure. The HCP should be aware that the patient could develop which of the following potentially serious side effects? - ANSWER Hypotension When systemically absorbed in sufficient amounts, lidocaine, a local anesthetic, can cause hypotension, particularly when used as spinal anesthesia. Part 2 Identify six major parts of the brain - ANSWER Frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobs, cerebellum and brain stem What are the three main components of a neuron? - ANSWER Cell body - lysozymes, cytoplasm, mitochondria Axon - carry nerve impulses away from the cell body Dendrites - receive and send messages to other neurons (T or F) The synaptic cleft is the area between the axon's appendages and the branches of the dendrites. - ANSWER True Briefly explain how neurotransmitters are transported from one neuron to the other. - ANSWER Na and K ions are responsible for producing the action potential (depolarization) between the axon's terminals and the branches of the dendrites. Ca ions regulate the flow of Na and K ions. During the depolarization, chemicals are released by the axon to the dendrites. These chemicals --> neurotransmitters. Name 4 common CNS neurotransmitters - ANSWER Choose 4 of the following: Acetylcholine Histamine Oxytocin [Show More]

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