Medicine > Exam > PTCE 2022 EXAM with Complete solution ( Actual Exam ) (All)

PTCE 2022 EXAM with Complete solution ( Actual Exam )

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AUDITORY SYSTEM - ANSWER Responsible for hearing, balance, equilibrium, and communication skills cardiovascular system - ANSWER THE HEART IS A MUSCLE THAT INITIATES SYSTEMIC ARTERIAL PULSE WAVES, C... AUSING BLOOD TO CIRCULATE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM - ANSWER RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DIGESTION, ABSORPTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION OF FOOD endocrine system - ANSWER PRODUCTION AND SECRETION OF HORMONES FROM THE GLANDS. IMMUNE SYSTEM - ANSWER DEFENSE SYSTEM THAT IDENTIFIES AND DESTROYS FOREIGN SUBSTANCES THAT INVADE THE BODY integumentary system - ANSWER protects the body as a whole from the external environment nervous system - ANSWER CONTROLS BOTH VOLUNTARY AND INVOLUNTARY FUNCTIONS OF THE BODY OPTHALMIC SYSTEM - ANSWER responsible for providing an individual with vision REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM - ANSWER the production of offspring RESPIRATORY SYSTEM - ANSWER RESPONSIBLE FOR RESPIRATION AND MAINTAINING HOMEOSTASIS URINARY SYSTEM - ANSWER RESPONSIBLE FOR THE EXCRETION OF CHEMICALS AND SUBSTANCES FROM THE BODY SYSTEM drug-drug interactions: ADDITION - ANSWER the combined effect of two drugs; it is equal to the sum of the effects of each drug taken alone drug-drug interactions: ANTAGONISM - ANSWER one drug works against the action of another drug drug-drug interactions: POTENTIATION - ANSWER One drug increases or prolongs the effect of another drug; the total effect is greater than the sum of the effects of each drug alone. Example: Vistaril and Demerol. drug-drug interactions: SYNERGISM - ANSWER The joint action of drugs in which their combined effect is more intense or longer in duration than the sum of the effects of two drugs. Drug-Disease Interactions - ANSWER Various diseases may inhibit the absorption, metabolism, and elimination of different drugs. DRUG DISEASE INTERACTIONS EXAMPLE - ANSWER TAKING DECONGESTANTS IF THE PATIENT HAD HYPERTENSION OR DIABETES Drug-Dietary Supplement Interactions - ANSWER Many herbal and dietary supplements have developed drug interactions with prescription drugs (ex: warfarin) drug-over-the-counter drug interactions - ANSWER various over-the-counter (OTC) medications may either increase or decrease the effects of a prescription medication Drug-OTC drug interactions example - ANSWER aspirin can increase the effect of warfarin Drug-laboratory interactions - ANSWER Many drugs used today have demonstrated they may have an effect on serum potassium and creatine levels in the body. These interactions can result in additional testing to detect abnormalities. Drug-Nutrient Interactions - ANSWER poor nutrition may affect the metabolism of various drugs Drug-Related Problems - ANSWER an event or situation involving drug therapy that actually or potentially interferes with the optimum outcome - include: untreated indication, improper drug selection, sub-therapeutic dosage (dosage too low to produce a therapeutic effect), failure to receive a drug, over-dosage, and drug use without an indication pregnancy category a - ANSWER no risk to fetus pregnancy category b - ANSWER drug studies have not been performed in pregnant women; animal studies have not demonstrated fetal risk pregnancy category c - ANSWER animal studies show risk, caution is advised, benefits may outweigh risks pregnancy category d - ANSWER Positive evidence of human fetal risk BUT benefits outweigh risks Pregnancy Category X - ANSWER Studies in animals or humans show abnormalities; use in pregnancy is contraindicated chemical name - ANSWER Determined by chemical structure of the drug entity proprietary name - ANSWER Assigned by the drug manufacturer and is protected through a patent nonproprietary name - ANSWER generic name astine - ANSWER antihistamine azepam - ANSWER Antianxiety caine - ANSWER local anesthetic cillin - ANSWER penicillin conazole - ANSWER systemic antifungal estr - ANSWER estrogen -glitazone - ANSWER Antidiabetic micin - ANSWER Aminoglycosides (antibiotics) thromycin - ANSWER macrolide antibiotic olol - ANSWER beta blocker olone - ANSWER steroid profen - ANSWER NSAIDS (anti-inflammatory) prazole - ANSWER proton pump inhibitor pril - ANSWER ACE inhibitor sartan - ANSWER Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist semide - ANSWER loop diuretic setron - ANSWER Serotonin (5-HT3) antagonist sulfa - ANSWER antibiotic; anti-infective; anti-inflammatory terol - ANSWER Bronchodilator tidine - ANSWER H2 receptor antagonists -e-triptyline; -amine - ANSWER tricyclic antidepressant -oxetine - ANSWER Antidepressant vastatin - ANSWER antihyperlipidemics bacterial infections - ANSWER occur when the body's immune system is unable to resist bacteria. symptoms: fever greater than 101 F and an increase in white blood cells multidrug resistant infections - ANSWER An infection caused by bacteria that is resistant to one or more drug classifications. pneumonia - ANSWER an infection that causes acute inflammation in the airways of the lung, blocking them with thick mucus sulfa moa - ANSWER interfere with paraaminobenzoic acid and folic acid formation and thus destroy bacteria penicillin moa - ANSWER prevents bacteria from forming a cell wall Cephalosporins MOA - ANSWER Prevent bacteria from forming a cell wall Carbapenems & Monobactams MOA - ANSWER inhibit bacterial wall synthesis Tetracycline MOA - ANSWER inhibit protein synthesis macrolides - ANSWER inhibit protein synthesis ketolides moa - ANSWER Block protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal subunits; may inhibit the formation of newly forming ribosomes streptogramins moa - ANSWER inhibit bacterial protein synthesis quinolones moa - ANSWER Antagonize an enzyme required for DNA synthesis, causing DNA breakage and finally death Aminoglycosides MOA - ANSWER inhibit bacterial protein synthesis Cyclic Lipopeptides moa - ANSWER Bind to bacterial membranes and cause the cell membrane to depolarize, resulting in an inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis clindamycin moa - ANSWER inhibits protein synthesis Metronidazole MOA - ANSWER destroys parts of the bacteria's DNA nucleus Phentamine moa - ANSWER unkown linezolid moa - ANSWER inhibits bacterial protein synthesis Vancomycin MOA - ANSWER interferes with bacterial wall formation fungal infections - ANSWER -caused by single-cell organisms that don't have a cell wall, chlorophyll, and reproduce by spores -fungus develops in individuals whose immune systems have been compromised by disease, drug therapy, or poor nutrition Tinea infections - ANSWER a fungal infection of the skin or feet NRTIs - ANSWER ASSIST IN THE TREATMENT OF HIV NNRTIs - ANSWER AID IN THE TREATMENT OF HIV DISEASE Protease inhibitors MOA - ANSWER Prevent the cleavage of certain HIV protein precursors, which are necessary for the replication of new viruses Fusion Inhibitor MOA - ANSWER Prevents AIDS virus from entering immune cells ALLERGIES - ANSWER A response of our immune system due to an unrecognized substance RHINITIS - ANSWER An inflamation of the nose. Antihistamines - ANSWER medicines that reduce the production of histamines ANITTUSSIVES - ANSWER prevent or relieve coughing DECONGESTANTS - ANSWER eliminate or reduce swelling or congestion EXPECTORANTS - ANSWER TO REMOVE MUCUS FROM BOTH LUNGS AND AIRWAY PASSAGES DURING COUGHING SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) MOA - ANSWER BLOCK THE REUPTAKE OF SEROTONIN SSNRIs (selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors) MOA - ANSWER INHIBIT NOREPINEPHRINE AND SEROTONIN REUPTAKE TCAs (tricyclic antidepressants) - ANSWER DEPRESSION, NOCTURIA (BEDWETTING) IN CHILDREN MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) - ANSWER DEPRESSION neurosis - ANSWER a psychologic condition in which anxiety is prominent phobias - ANSWER irrational fears psychosis - ANSWER loss of contact with reality Schizophrenia - ANSWER chronic psychotic disorder that may include hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior, flat affect, and lack of initiative antipsychotic agents moa - ANSWER Block Dopamine (D2) receptors in the dopamine pathways of the brain anti insomnia agents moa - ANSWER interact with acid (gaba)- benzodiazepine receptor complexes add - ANSWER a physiological disorder found in children showing signs of attention deficit without hyperactivity adhd - ANSWER a physiological disorder found in which the patient has difficulty focusing their attention in a quiet inattentive manner or displays hyperactivity Anticonvulsants - ANSWER prevent or control seizures Antiparkinson's Agents - ANSWER Used in the treatment of parkinson's disease multiple sclerosis agents - ANSWER autoimmune disease in which the myelin sheaths around nerves degenerate emphysema - ANSWER destruction of alveoli cystic fibrosis - ANSWER A genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems. xanthine derivatives moa - ANSWER Reverse bronchospasm associated with antigens and irritants; improve contractility of diaphragm H2 anatagonists - ANSWER block gastric acid and pepsin secretion from histamine, gastrin, certain foods Proton Pump Inhibitors - ANSWER decrease the amount of acid produced by the stomach Crohn disease (Crohn's) - ANSWER chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract ulcerative colitis - ANSWER chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers [Show More]

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