Learning Disabilities and Intellectual Disability What is the difference between a learning disability and intellectual disability? Correct answer- A learning disability is a specific area of def... iciency, not a deficiency of global intelligence as is seen with intellectual disability What is the mot common type of learning disability? Correct answer- Dyslexia What are the top 4 learning disabilities, in order of occurrence? Correct answer- 1. Dyslexia 2. Dysgraphia 3. Dyscalculia 4. Auditory Memory and Processing Disabilities What gender is more likely to manifest with a learning disability? Correct answer- Boys are 2-3 times more likely What is the most likely cause of learning disability? Correct answer- Problems with integrating information from multiple brain regions or subtle differences in brain structure and function Risk factors for a learning disability? Correct answer- Genetic factors Male gender Developmental delays Medical factors (Premature, cyanotic heart disease, etc.) Environmental factors (lead toxicity, infections, hx of brain injury) Sociocultural factors What are some genetic factors that can contribute to having a learning disability? Correct answer- Positive family history Chromosomal abnormalities on chromosomes 15 and 6 Specific genetic disorders (Klinefelter or Turner Syndrome; spina bifida) If a child is struggling in school, what are some medical causes you need to rule out? Correct answer- Neuro manifestations Hearing/Vision problems Lead Poisoning Anemia (IDA) When should a child's school performance be evaluated? Correct answer- Screened during each well-child visit What does an educational diagnostician do? Correct answer- Tests children to see if they need special educational support services What are some accommodations that can be made for a child with a learning disability? Correct answer- Decrease distractions Special educators (1 on 1 time) Sit in front of the room What is the prognosis of a child with a learning disability? Correct answer- They will always have the disability, just need to find ways to overcome and learn despite it What two components must be present to make a diagnosis of intellectual disability? Correct answer- Significant impairment in intelligence as measure by IQ tests (<70) Inability to adapt to expectations of environment What are two major causes of intellectual disability? Correct answer- Organic causes (genetics or brain damage) Social-cultural causes (Normal variation of intelligence with below-average environment) How is intellectual disability with an IQ >50 classified? Correct answer- Mild What is the most likely cause of mild intellectual disability? Correct answer- Sociocultural factors (Lack of stimulating environment or economic factors) The specific cause of mild intellectual disability is not found in what % of cases? Correct answer- 30-50% What are common organic causes of mild intellectual disability? Correct answer- Genetic syndromes Fetal deprivation prematurity Perinatal insults Intrauterine exposure to drugs Sex chromosomal abnormalities What is the most common genetic cause of severe intellectual disability? Correct answer- Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) What is the most common inherited cause of severe intellectual disability? Correct answer- Fragile X Syndrome What is the most common preventable cause of severe intellectual disability? Correct answer- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Severe intellectual disability is classified with an IQ of what? Correct answer- 20-34 Moderate intellectual disability is classified with an IQ of what? Correct answer- 35-49 Profound intellectual disability is classified with an IQ of what? Correct answer- <20 What are dysmorphisms? Correct answer- The common facial features of different forms of intellectual disability based on the genetic syndrome Patients with Down Syndrome are at higher risk for what when being dealt with in emergent settings? Correct answer- Neck instability, you always have to be careful with these patients and should liberally consider neck x-rays Pathophysiology of Down Syndrome? Correct answer- Trisomy 21 Chromosomal Abnormality Pathophysiology of Fragile X Syndrome? Correct answer- Inactivation of FMR-1 gene Pathophysiology of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome? Correct answer- Maternal Alcohol consumption What are common comorbidities of intellectual disability syndrome? Correct answer- Mental and Neurodevelopmental disorders Cerebral Palsy Seizure disorder (epilepsy) What are some neuroimaging studies you can order when ruling out intellectual disability? Correct answer- MRI or CT scan What is dyslexia? Correct answer- Difficulty reading, where the brain either reverses, inverts, or missequences information. What must be ruled out in patients with suspected dyslexia? Correct answer- A vision problem There is a form of dyslexia where the mind "sees" a word, but is slow to connect its meaning. In what age groups is these form se [Show More]
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