AP Euro Exam Review 2022 with complete solution Cosimo de Medici -Answer- supported education and the arts, made many business connections in Europe Lorenzo Medici -Answer- gave power to the low... er classes of Italy, but he let his family business decline. Savonorola -Answer- bonfire of Vanities and Ruled Florence STRICTLY, later exectued by the Pope Petrarch -Answer- coined the term renaissance, , (1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization. Pico della Mirandola -Answer- Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish. Giovanni Bocaccio -Answer- Decameron, Federigo's Falcon, timelessness and university, 1300s, Humanism Castiglione -Answer- Wrote "The Courtier" describing all of the major things that a man must have in order to be a functioning societal person Machiavellli -Answer- Wrote the Prince, a book about using politics as a science. "feared rather than loved" and "fox and lion" Desiderius Erasmus -Answer- Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe, Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536) Jan Van Eyck -Answer- Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441) Thomas More -Answer- English statesman who opposed Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded, He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437) Jerome Bosch -Answer- He was a Flemish painter whose works display the confusion and anguish of the end of the Middle Ages. Jerome Bosch frequently used religious themes, colorful imagery, and grotesque fantasies in his works of art. (p.439) New Monarchies -Answer- Historians' term for the monarchies in France, England, and Spain from 1450 to 1600. The centralization of royal power was increasing within more or less fixed territorial limits. (p. 414) John Wycliffe -Answer- (c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope. Martin Luther -Answer- Known by many as the creater or the reformation, he broke away from the Catholic Church and then later began to question the popes role in the church and the sale of indulgences. Frederich the Wise of Saxony -Answer- Supporter of Marthin Luther, he hid him from the Catholic Church when he refused to repent. Charles V -Answer- This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation Anabaptists -Answer- A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization. Zwingli -Answer- Leader of Swiss Reformation. Agreed to disagree with Luther about communion. He thought it was only a symbol, and that it wasn't Christ's body or blood untill it touched your mouth, only symbolic. Found on the battlefield of the Swiss Civil War wounded and the Lutherans found him, cut him up into little pieces, then burn them and scattered the ashes over the land. Luther said Zwingli got what he deserved. John Calvin -Answer- Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564) Henry VIII -Answer- Creator of the Church of England, he married 6 wives and divorced or had them killed since none could produce a male heir. Thomas Cromwell -Answer- (1485-1540) Became King Henry VII's close advisor following Cardinal Wolsey's dismissal. He and his contemporary Thomas Cranmer convinced the king to break from Rome and made the Church of England increasingly more Protestant., (1485-1540) King Henry III's Chief Minister; he confiscated the wealth of the Catholic church and divided administration according to its functions by creating separate departments of state Elizabeth I -Answer- Queen of England from 1558 to 1603, This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England ignatius Loyola -Answer- Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises. Vasco da Gama -Answer- Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route. Magellan -Answer- Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain [Show More]
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