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Juvenile Delinquency The Core 6th Edition Siegel Test Bank

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Juvenile Delinquency The Core 6th Edition Siegel Test Bank Juvenile Delinquency The Core 6th Edition Siegel Test Bank Juvenile Delinquency The Core 6th Edition Siegel Test Bank Copyright Ceng... age Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 1 True / False 1. According to Erik Erikson, ego identity is formed during early childhood when the ego learns to control the superego. a. True b. False ANSWER: False REFERENCES: The Risks and Rewards of Adolescence LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 2. Educational achievement scores between children in affluent and low-income families have been widening over the years. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: The Problems of Youth LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 3. Kids who leave foster care (age out) without family support are at an elevated risk of becoming homeless, unemployed, and incarcerated. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: The Problems of Youth LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 4. Among the policies identified by the Children’s Defense Fund that feed the cradle to prison pipeline are zero tolerance school policies and tougher sentencing guidelines. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: The Problems of Youth LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 5. While teen smoking and drinking rates are currently low, their use of heroin and crack cocaine is higher than in the past. a. True b. False ANSWER: False REFERENCES: The Problems of Youth Juvenile Delinquency The Core 6th Edition Siegel Test Bank Full Download: This sample only, Download all chapters at: AlibabaD Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 2 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 6. About 5.5 million youths under the age of 18 are arrested each year. a. True b. False ANSWER: False REFERENCES: Juvenile Delinquency LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 7. The concept of childhood as we know it today was firmly established in Europe during the Middle Ages. a. True b. False ANSWER: False REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 8. The medieval child has been described as a “miniature adult” who began to work and accept adult roles at an early age and was treated with great cruelty. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 9. The Elizabethan Poor Laws of 1601 created a system of church wardens and overseers who, with the consent of justices of the peace, identified vagrant, delinquent, and neglected children and put them to work. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 10. The master–apprentice relationship was dissimilar to the parent–child relationship in that the master did not have complete authority over the apprentice. a. True b. False ANSWER: False REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 3 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 11. Poor laws requiring poor and dependent children to serve apprenticeships were popular in England but never gained momentum in the American colonies. a. True b. False ANSWER: False REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 12. In the United States, early colonists viewed family violence as a sin, which led to the first child protection laws in the late 1630s. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 13. Prior to the twentieth century, little distinction was made between adult and juvenile offenders. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 14. Urbanization generated the belief that certain segments of the population (youths in urban areas, immigrants) were susceptible to the influences of their decaying environment. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 15. Child-saving organizations influenced state legislatures to enact laws to commit runaway children to institutions because they believed these children were a threat to the moral fabric of society. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 4 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 16. Although the child-saver movement was successful for a short period, state legislation in the lives of children died out by 1850 due to the Civil War and other political movements. a. True b. False ANSWER: False REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 17. The House of Refuge was developed to protect potential criminal youths by taking them off the street and providing a familylike environment. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 18. Charles Loring Brace was most known for his creation of the “Children’s Aid Society,” the concept of relocating orphaned children from urban environments to more rural environments to begin new lives. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 19. Unlike adult defendants, children do not have the right to consult an attorney or the right to confront witnesses. a. True b. False ANSWER: False REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 20. In 1967, the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice suggested that the juvenile justice system must provide underprivileged youths with opportunities for success, including jobs and education. a. True b. False ANSWER: True Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 5 REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 21. State control over a child’s noncriminal behavior supports the parens patriae philosophy, because it is assumed to be in the best interests of the child. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 22. Under early British jurisprudence, children under the age of 7 were legally incapable of committing crimes. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 23. Most states define minor child as an individual who falls under a statutory age limit, most commonly 13 years of age. a. True b. False ANSWER: False REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 24. According to the text, status offenders are never detained or incarcerated with delinquents. a. True b. False ANSWER: False REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 25. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is authorized to distribute grants and provide support to those states that developed alternate procedural methods to handle status offenders and improve the juvenile justice system? a. True b. False ANSWER: True Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 6 REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 26. The act that created the OJJDP was amended in 1987 to allow status offenders to be detained for violating valid court orders. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 27. Research studies have consistently found that strict enforcement of curfew laws actually increases juvenile crime rates during curfew hours. a. True b. False ANSWER: False REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 28. Since 1990, there have been no cases in which parents have been ordered to serve time in jail because their children have been truant from school. a. True b. False ANSWER: False REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 29. Juvenile courts do not have jurisdiction over noncriminal status offenders. a. True b. False ANSWER: False REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 30. Status offenses are illegal only because of the minority status of the offender. a. True b. False ANSWER: True REFERENCES: Status Offenders Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering Multiple Choice 31. Today there are __________________ children in the United States. a. 45 million b. 65 million c. 75 million d. 105 million ANSWER: c REFERENCES: The Risks and Rewards of Adolescence LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 32. A hundred and fifty years ago girls matured sexually at age 16. Today they do so at _____ years of age. a. 11 b. 12.5 c. 13 d. 15 ANSWER: b REFERENCES: The Risks and Rewards of Adolescence LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 33. __________________ is formed when youths develop a firm sense of who they are and what they stand for. a. Alter ego b. Ego identity c. Role diffusion d. Ego transformation ANSWER: b REFERENCES: The Risks and Rewards of Adolescence LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 34. According to Erik Erikson, role diffusion occurs when youths: a. develop a firm sense of who they are and what they stand for b. experience personal growth through extensive parental intervention c. experience uncertainty when they place themselves at the mercy of leaders who promise to give them a sense of identity they cannot develop for themselves d. realize that they have developed a spoiled identity ANSWER: c REFERENCES: The Risks and Rewards of Adolescence LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 35. Which of the following statements about children in the United States is false? a. Children who grow up in low-income homes are less likely to achieve in school. b. Proportionately Hispanic and Black children are about three times as likely to be poor than their white peers. Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 8 c. The younger the child, the more likely they are to live in extreme poverty. d. It is now estimated that only 10 percent of fourth-graders in U.S. public schools cannot read at grade level. ANSWER: d REFERENCES: The Problems of Youth LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 36. Which of the following is false about the long-lasting negative effects of child poverty? a. Educational achievement scores have been closed between children in affluent and low-income families. b. Family wealth is an increasingly important determinant of high school graduation and college attendance. c. Mental and physical health is impaired due to poverty. d. Social behavior differs because of socioeconomic status. ANSWER: a REFERENCES: The Problems of Youth LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 37. According to the text, U.S. children and adolescents experience various health and mortality problems. Which of the following statements is false? a. Less than 20 percent of homes have parks within a half-mile, less limiting physical fitness. b. About 10 percent of youth do not have health care coverage. c. The percent of children born at low birth weight has increased. d. Children spend an all-time high of 2.5 hours a day in front of a screen (TV, computer, games). ANSWER: d REFERENCES: The Problems of Youth LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 38. Adults 25 years of age and older with less than a high school diploma earn ______ percent less than those who have earned a high school diploma. a. 5 b. 10 c. 30 d. 20 ANSWER: c REFERENCES: The Problems of Youth LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 39. Cyberbullying is the willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text. According to the text, which of the following statements is false with regard to this phenomenon? a. Adolescent girls are significantly more likely to experience cyberbullying. b. Boys are more likely to spread rumors online. Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 9 c. A cyberbully’s online power may stem from Net proficiency. d. Research indicates that one out of every five kids has been cyberbullied. ANSWER: b REFERENCES: The Problems of Youth LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 40. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults. Which of the following is true about youth health-risk behaviors from 20 years ago (roughly 1994) compared to 2013? a. Fights in high schools have increased by 35 percent. b. The percentage of students who are sexually active has risen by 18 percent. c. Condom usage has increased from 51 percent to nearly 80 percent for sexually active teens. d. The percentage of high school students watching 3 or more hours of television a day has declined by roughly 10 percent. ANSWER: d REFERENCES: The Problems of Youth LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 41. According to the text, youths who have been arrested four or more times and perpetuate a striking majority of serious criminal acts are known as the: a. chronic juvenile offenders b. terminally criminal c. deviant minority d. recidivists 10 percent ANSWER: a REFERENCES: Juvenile Delinquency LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 42. A family style wherein the father is the final authority on all family matters and exercises complete control over his wife and children is: a. paternalistic b. maternalistic c. egalitarian d. matriarchal ANSWER: a REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 43. Which of the following statements about children in the Middle Ages is false? a. Children of all classes were subjected to stringent rules and regulations. b. Girls were educated at home and married in their early teens. c. Children were expected to undertake responsibilities early in their lives. d. The parent–child relationship was particularly close and loving. ANSWER: d Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 10 REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 44. Voltaire’s, Rousseau’s, and Locke’s vision produced a period known as the _____________________, which stressed a humanistic view of life, freedom, family, reason, and law. a. Dark Ages b. Enlightenment c. Renaissance d. Classical period ANSWER: b REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 45. These allowed for the appointment of overseers to place destitute or neglected children as servants in the homes of the affluent, where they were trained in agricultural, trade, or domestic services. a. Poor Laws b. Primogeniture c. Parens patriae legislation d. CHINS Doctrine ANSWER: a REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 46. Under the _______________ movement, children were placed in the care of adults who trained them in specific skills. a. binding over b. apprenticeship c. chancery court d. primogeniture ANSWER: b REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 47. During the Middle Ages in Great Britain, the chancery courts were established to do all of the following except: a. protect property rights and seek equitable solutions to disputes and conflicts b. operate on the proposition that children were under the protective control of the king c. safeguard orphans’ property and inheritance rights and appoint a guardian to protect them until they reached the age of majority d. have jurisdiction over children charged with criminal conduct ANSWER: d REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 11 48. Nineteenth-century reformers, known as ________________, developed programs for troubled youth and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system; today some critics view them as being more concerned with control of the poor than with their welfare. a. The League of Progressive Voters b. child savers c. The United Youth Council d. Up with People ANSWER: b REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 49. Which of the following best describes the parens patriae philosophy of the juvenile court ? a. Best interests of the child b. Best interests of the government c. Best interests of the community d. Deterrence, retribution, and rehabilitation ANSWER: a REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 50. Several events led to reforms and nourished the eventual development of the juvenile justice system. Which of the following is not one of those events? a. Urbanization b. The child-saving movement c. Institutions for the care of delinquent and neglected children, including houses of refuge d. Passage of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 51. Which of the following statements best describes the child savers? a. They relocated needy urban children to foster families in the Western United States. b. They lobbied to close the juvenile justice system because of its record of abuses. c. They raised the standard of living for the urban poor by providing job training. d. They lobbied for a separate legal status for children. ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 52. Which of the following is not among the first juvenile institutions and organizations? a. Children’s Aid Society b. Orphan trains Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 12 c. Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children d. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 53. The legislation passed to form the first juvenile court was: a. Illinois Juvenile Court Act b. Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control (JDP) Act c. Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act d. Elizabethan Poor Laws ANSWER: a REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 54. According to the text, what established juvenile delinquency as a legal concept? a. Illinois Juvenile Court Act b. Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control (JDP) Act c. Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act d. Elizabethan Poor Laws ANSWER: a REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 55. The principles motivating reformers who sought a separate justice system for juveniles included all but which of the following? a. Children should not be held as accountable as adult transgressors. b. The objective of the juvenile justice system is to treat and rehabilitate rather than punish. c. Disposition should not take into consideration special circumstances and needs of the youth. d. The system should avoid the trappings of the adult criminal process with all its confusing rules and procedures. ANSWER: c REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 56. Which key provision of the Illinois Juvenile Court Act is false? a. A separate court was established for delinquent and neglected children. b. Special procedures were developed to govern the adjudication of juvenile matters. Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 13 c. Children were to be separated from adults in institutional programs only. d. Probation programs were to be developed to assist the court in making decisions in the best interests of the state and the child. ANSWER: c REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 57. The philosophical viewpoint that encourages the state to take control of wayward children and provide care, custody, and treatment to remedy delinquent behavior is: a. parental inefficacy b. best interest of the child c. in loco parentis d. none of the above ANSWER: b REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 58. Which of the following statements is false regarding the initial establishment of juvenile courts? a. Jurisdiction was based primarily on a child’s noncriminal actions and status, not strictly on a violation of criminal law. b. Parens patriae philosophy predominated. c. The process was paternalistic rather than adversarial. d. Verdicts were based on beyond a reasonable doubt. ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 59. In what year did the Illinois Juvenile Court Act begin? a. 1899 b. 1925 c. 1946 d. 1967 ANSWER: a REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 60. In the 1960s and 1970s, the U.S. Supreme Court radically altered the juvenile justice system when it issued a series of decisions that established the right of juveniles to receive due process of law. Which right is false? a. The right to counsel b. The right to confront witnesses c. The right to notice of charges d. The right to bail ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 14 61. In 1967, the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, organized by President Lyndon Johnson, helped change the shape of juvenile justice in all but which of the following ways? a. Suggesting that the juvenile justice system must provide underprivileged youths with opportunities for success, including jobs and education b. Recognizing the need to develop effective law enforcement procedures to control hard-core offenders while also granting them due process. c. Acting as a catalyst for passage of the federal Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control (JDP) Act of 1968 d. Passing the Omnibus Safe Streets and Crime Control Act ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 62. “__________________” minors is the original early designation of youths who violate the law because of their minority status. a. Reckless b. Offending c. Deviant d. Wayward ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 63. Under the JJDPA and its subsequent reauthorizations, what were states required to do in order to receive federal funds? a. Remove status offenders from secure detention and lockups b. Waive a determined amount of juveniles to the adult system c. Provide written guidelines for juvenile court judge d. Detain status offenders in secure facilities ANSWER: a REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 64. Many states enacted or strengthened existing parental liability statutes that make parents criminally liable for the actions of their delinquent children. These laws can generally fall into one of three categories. Which category is false? a. Vicarious involvement b. Civil liability c. General involvement d. Criminal liability ANSWER: a REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 15 65. Which of the following statements about parental liability laws is false? a. Some states require parents to reimburse the government for the costs of detention or care of their children. b. Some states require parents to make restitution payments to victims. c. All states have yet to place limits on the amount recovery victims can receive. d. Some states require parents and children to participate in counseling and community service activities. ANSWER: c REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering Jennifer is a 15-year-old female found in a local park by police at 1 A.M. drinking alcohol. She was taken into the police station and reported that she ran away from home because of physical and sexual abuse by her stepfather. 66. Running away and underage consumption of alcohol represent: a. delinquent offenses b. status offenses c. stepping stones to delinquency d. category one crimes ANSWER: b REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Applying 67. States classify status offenders using different terms. Which term listed is false? a. Unruly child b. Incorrigible child c. Minor in need of supervision d. Delinquent ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 68. By being out at 1 A.M., what additional law has Jennifer broken? a. CHINS law b. Wayward minor law c. Curfew laws d. Bindover law ANSWER: c REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering Paul is 14 years old and was involved in vandalizing the local high school he attends causing $1,500 in damages. He was arrested and is set to appear in juvenile court. 69. What is the term that refers to a minor child who has been found to violate the penal code? a. Juvenile delinquent b. Status offender Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 16 c. Wayward minor d. Chronic offender ANSWER: a REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Applying 70. Whereas adults are tried in court, juveniles are: a. disposed b. treated c. adjudicated d. bound ANSWER: c REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Applying 71. If found delinquent, his case disposition ideally will be based on what? a. Community desires b. Victim preference c. Need for treatment d. Need for punishment ANSWER: c REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Applying Steven is a 17-year-old male who murdered a fellow classmate while at school with a firearm. He was arrested by police and is currently in the county jail awaiting charges and a potential trial. 72. Due to the seriousness of the crime, state legislation mandates transferring legal jurisdiction over the most serious and experienced juvenile offenders to the adult court for criminal prosecution. This process is known as: a. waiver b. parens patriae c. primogeniture d. lex talionis ANSWER: a REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Applying 73. Which of the following statements is false? Juveniles transferred to adult courts: a. are often punished more severely than they would have been if treated as a minor b. may find themselves serving time in adult prisons c. find that the parens patriae concept is still applied to them d. can be treated in a manner similar to adults ANSWER: c REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Applying Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 17 74. Depending upon case circumstances, Steven’s parents may be held civilly responsible for his conduct because he is a minor, under the concept of: a. stare decisis b. osmosis c. bad apples d. vicarious liability ANSWER: d REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Applying Completion 75. According to Erik Erikson, ______________ is formed when persons develop a firm sense of who they are and what they stand for. ANSWER: ego identity REFERENCES: The Risks and Rewards of Adolescence LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 76. ______________________ occurs when youths experience uncertainty and place themselves at the mercy of leaders who promise to give them a sense of identity they cannot mold for themselves. ANSWER: Role diffusion REFERENCES: The Risks and Rewards of Adolescence LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 77. “________________ youths” are young people who are extremely vulnerable to the negative consequences of school failure, substance abuse, and early sexuality. ANSWER: At-risk REFERENCES: The Risks and Rewards of Adolescence LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 78. ____________ is the willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text. ANSWER: Cyberbullying REFERENCES: The Problems of Youth LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 79. _________________ is defined as criminal behavior engaged in by a minor. ANSWER: Juvenile delinquency REFERENCES: Juvenile Delinquency LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 18 80. As defined by the textbook, the term _________________ refers to youths who have been arrested four or more times during their minority and perpetuate a striking majority of serious criminal acts. ANSWER: chronic delinquents REFERENCES: Juvenile Delinquency LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 81. The _______________ family could be exemplified by that of the Middle Ages, when the father exercised complete control over his wife and children. ANSWER: paternalistic REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 82. Under the _________________ movement, children were placed in the care of adults who trained them in specific skills. ANSWER: apprenticeship REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 83. The ________________ Poor Laws of 1601 created a system of church wardens and overseers who identified delinquent children. ANSWER: Elizabethan REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 84. Chancery courts were founded on the proposition that children were under the protective control of the king, or _________________, which is the Latin phrase that refers to the role of the king as father of his country. ANSWER: parens patriae REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 85. _____________________ were established to protect property rights and seek equitable solutions to disputes and conflicts, including safeguarding property and inheritance rights of orphans. ANSWER: Chancery courts REFERENCES: The Development of Childhood LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.02 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 86. A group known as the ______________ created community programs to service needy children and lobbied for a separate legal status for children, which ultimately lead to the creation of the juvenile justice system. ANSWER: child savers Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 19 REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 87. The ________________ Society is a child-saving organization that took children from the streets of large cities and placed them in rural families in the Midwest. ANSWER: Children’s Aid REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 88. The _________________________ was founded on the concept of protecting potential criminal youths by taking them off the streets and reforming them in a family like environment. ANSWER: House of Refuge REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 89. Believing the urban environment was injurious to children, families were provided an option to send their delinquent children to western farming communities to be cared for and find a home. This practice was commonly known as ____________________. ANSWER: orphan trains REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 90. While adults are tried in court, children are ________________. ANSWER: adjudicated REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 91. Transferring legal jurisdiction over the most serious and experienced juvenile offenders to the adult court for criminal prosecution is called _____________. ANSWER: waiver bindover removal REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 92. The term, which became popular at the onset of the twentieth century, _________________ is used to explain any juvenile who has been adjudicated by a judicial officer of a juvenile court. ANSWER: delinquent REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 20 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 93. Established in 1968 by the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, the ________________ is a unit of the U.S. Department of Justice that administers grants and provides guidance for crime prevention policies and programs. ANSWER: Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 94. In the case of _____________________, the Court held that it was cruel and unusual punishment to execute a person who was under the age of 18. ANSWER: Roper v. Simmons REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 95. The criteria on which juvenile sentencing is based is “____________________.” ANSWER: need for treatment REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 96. In the case of _____________________, the use of mandatory life sentences for juveniles convicted of murder was struck down. ANSWER: Miller v. Alabama REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 97. The differences between the adult and juvenile system are very clear. Adults are tried, juveniles adjudicated; adults can be punished, while juveniles are typically _______________. ANSWER: treated REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 98. In 1974, the U.S. Congress passed the _____________________________ that provides the major source of federal funding to improve states’ juvenile justice systems. ANSWER: Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 21 99. Parents may be held civilly liable, under the concept of _______________, for the damages caused by their child. ANSWER: vicarious liability REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 100. A _____________ refers to conduct that is illegal only because the child is under age. ANSWER: status offense REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 101. Parental liability statutes traditionally fall into three categories. _____________ applies when an injured party may bring a case against the parents for property damage or personal injury caused by their child. ANSWER: Civil liability REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Remembering 102. Parental liability statutes traditionally fall into three categories. _____________ applies when the guardian may be held criminally responsible for contributing to the delinquency of a minor. ANSWER: Criminal liability REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 Essay 103. According to the text, the most pressing problems facing American youth revolve around five issues. Briefly list and discuss these five issues. ANSWER: Poverty Health and Mortality Problems Family Problems Substandard Living Conditions Inadequate Education REFERENCES: The Problems of Youth LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understanding 104. Adolescents engage in a variety of risky behaviors. Provide five examples of risk taking by teens based on findings of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and discuss three social, economic, and /or political circumstances that increase adolescent risk taking. ANSWER: Answers will vary ∙ ∙ ∙ Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 22 ∙ REFERENCES: The Problems of Youth LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understanding 105. List and discuss the four major developments that lead to the recognition of children’s rights as presented in the text. ANSWER: Throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a number of developments in England heralded the march toward the recognition of children’s rights. Among them were changes in family style and child care, the English Poor Laws, the apprenticeship movement, and the role of the chancery court. REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understanding 106. Describe and discuss what childhood was like in the American colonies. ANSWER: The colonies were a haven for people looking for opportunities denied them in England and Europe. Along with the adult early settlers, many children came not as citizens but as indentured servants, apprentices, or agricultural workers. They were recruited from workhouses, orphanages, prisons, and asylums that housed vagrant and delinquent youths. At the same time, the colonists themselves produced illegitimate, neglected, and delinquent children. The initial response to caring for such children was to adopt court and Poor Law systems similar to those in England. It was also possible, as in England, for parents to voluntarily apprentice their children to a master for care and training. The master in colonial America acted as a surrogate parent, and in certain instances apprentices would actually become part of the family. In the United States, as in England, moral discipline was rigidly enforced. Stubborn child laws were passed that required children to obey their parents. It was not uncommon for children to be whipped if they were disobedient or disrespectful to their families. Children were often required to attend public whippings and executions, because these events were thought to be important forms of moral instruction. Parents referred their children to published writings on behavior and expected them to follow their precepts carefully. The early colonists, however, viewed family violence as a sin, and child protection laws were passed as early as 1639. REFERENCES: 13-14 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.01 107. List and describe the four events that led to reforms and nourished the eventual development of the juvenile justice system. ANSWER: Several events led to reforms and nourished the eventual development of the juvenile justice system: urbanization, the child-saving movement and growing interest in the concept of parens patriae, and development of institutions for the care of delinquent and neglected children. REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 23 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understanding 108. Describe who the child savers were and the impact the group had on the creation of the concept of delinquency in the United States. ANSWER: Child savers were concerned that the moral training of children of the dangerous classes was inadequate. Their focus was on extending government control over youthful activities (drinking, vagrancy, and delinquency) that had previously been left to private or family control. Poor children could become a financial burden, and the child savers believed these children presented a threat to the moral fabric of society. Child-saving organizations influenced state legislatures to enact laws giving courts the power to commit children who were runaways or criminal offenders to specialized institutions, such as the House of Refuge, which opened in New York in 1825, and reform schools, devoted to the care of vagrant and delinquent youths. Under the Children’s Aid Society in 1853, delinquent youths were rescued from the harsh environment of the city and provided with temporary shelter through the placing-out plan to send these children to western farms where they could be cared for and find a home (orphan trains). Although reform groups continued to lobby for government control over children, the committing of children under the doctrine of parens patriae without due process of law began to be questioned by members of the child-saving movement. This concern and consequent political activity culminated in passage of the Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899. The designation delinquent became popular at the onset of the twentieth century when the first separate juvenile courts were instituted. The child savers believed that treating minors and adults equally violated the humanitarian ideals of American society. Consequently, the emerging juvenile justice system operated under the parens patriae philosophy. REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.03 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understanding 109. The Illinois Juvenile Court Act was a major event in the juvenile justice movement. Provide the motivating principles and key provisions of the act. ANSWER: The principles motivating the Illinois reformers were these: 1. Children should not be held as accountable as adult transgressors. 2. The objective of the juvenile justice system is to treat and rehabilitate rather than punish. 3. Disposition should be predicated on analysis of the youth’s special circumstances and needs. 4. The system should avoid the trappings of the adult criminal process with all its confusing rules and procedures. The key provisions of the act were these: 1. A separate court was established for delinquent and neglected children. 2. Special procedures were developed to govern the adjudication of juvenile matters. Copyright Cengage Learning. Powered by Cognero. Page 24 3. Children were to be separated from adults in courts and in institutional programs. 4. Probation programs were to be developed to assist the court in making decisions in the best interests of the state and the child. REFERENCES: Developing Juvenile Justice LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.01.04 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understanding 110. What are status offenses? How does the juvenile justice system rationalize its involvement with this type of offense? ANSWER: The Juvenile Court Act recognized a second classification of youthful offender, the wayward minor or status offender, a child who is subject to state authority by reason of their having committed an act forbidden to youth and is illegal solely because the child is considered “under age,” for example, underage drinking, underage smoking, et cetra State control over a child’s noncriminal behavior supports the parens patriae philosophy, because it is assumed to be in the best interests of the child. Usually, a status offender is directed to the juvenile court when it is determined that his parents are unable or unwilling to care for or control him and that the adolescent’s behavior is self-destructive or harmful to society. REFERENCES: Status Offenders LEARNING OBJECTIVES: JUVE.SIEG.17.02.05 KEYWORDS: Bloom's: Understanding Juvenile Delinquency The Core 6th Edition Siegel Test Bank Larry J.Siegel Brandon C.Welsh [Show More]

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