*NURSING > QUESTIONS & ANSWERS > VATI Medical-Surgical Questions with answers. 100% proven pass rate. (All)

VATI Medical-Surgical Questions with answers. 100% proven pass rate.

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What natural supplement/homeopathic remedy is used to help heal burns and wounds? - ✔✔Aloe vera What is lavage? - ✔✔Washing out of a body cavity, such as a colon or stomach with water or a ... medicated solution What is a peritoneal lavage? - ✔✔a diagnostic test in which a catheter is inserted into peritoneal cavity and fluid is aspirated with a syringe. It is most commonly performed to assess for bleeding in abd cavity in clients who have experienced blunt trauma. What are catecholamines? - ✔✔adrenal hormones: dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine that help with fight or flight reactions Bag holding formula and other feeding equipment for intermittent enteral feedings should be discarded how often? - ✔✔Every 6 hours to prevent bacterial contamination What are the S/S of addison's disease? - ✔✔-Muscle or joint pain -N/V -abd pain -Postural hypotension -Fatigue -Salt craving -Weight loss Postural hypotension and salt craving may occur with what disease? - ✔✔Addison's disease Skin pigmentation is a specific feature of what disease? - ✔✔Addison's disease. Caused by increased production of melanin Adverse effect of echinacea? - ✔✔Anaphylaxis, specifically in people with asthma What is St. John's wort used for and what is its adverse effect? - ✔✔Depression *Precipitates serotonergic crisis with SSRIs *Precipitates HTNsive crisis with digoxin What is echinacea used for? - ✔✔Colds and flu (boosts immune system) What is Kava used for and what is its adverse effect? - ✔✔Anxiety reduction, insomnia Can cause severe liver damage What herbal supplements increase risk of bleeding? - ✔✔-Garlic -Ginseng -Ginger -Feverfew -Ginkgo biloba What are some complications of untreated growth hormone deficiency? - ✔✔-Delayed sexual development -Short stature -Delayed epiphyseal closure -Stunted bone age -Premature aging What is the primary focus of group therapy? - ✔✔Personal feelings that affect behavior. Group setting allows for feedback that may enhance discovery of how feelings and situations can drive behavior A nurse is caring for a client with reduced mobility who has RA. To help hip flexion deformities associated with RA; the nurse should help the client assume which of the following positions in bed several times a day? - ✔✔Prone. It will help keep the hips and knees in an extended position The nurse is providing care for a client who was admitted with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). On assessment the nurse finds the client to be pale, short of breath, and their lung sounds reveal rhonchi. What is the best initial action by the nurse? - ✔✔Encourage the client to take several deep breaths and perform diaphragmatic coughing. The deep breaths will loosen secretions and coughing deeply will allow these secretions to be expectorated A charge nurse is planning a staff education session to discuss the meds used during the care of a client experiencing GI bleeding. What med should the charge nurse include in discussion? - ✔✔Vasopressin (manmade ADH). It is a vasopressor that can constrict the arterioles and reduce inflow to portal vein What is protamine sulfate used for? - ✔✔Antidote to heparin for clients experiencing a severe bleeding episode What should be done with unused portion of formula used in intermittent enteral feedings? - ✔✔Refrigerated (up to 24 hrs) to prevent bacterial contamination How long should the nurse elevate the HOB for a client after an intermitting feeding? - ✔✔30-60 minutes Intermittent feedings are administered how often and for how long? - ✔✔4-6x times/day in equal portions 30-45 min. What material is used for deep granulation of a pressure ulcer? - ✔✔Impregnated gauze and alginate to promote packing of the tissue Pressure wounds with minimal to moderate exudates can be dressed with what? - ✔✔Thin hydrocolloid What is the granulation phase of the healing process (of pressure ulcers)? - ✔✔Initial repair of new tissues are formed to facilitate remodeling of the affected area What is the leading type of healthcare-associated infection? - ✔✔Pneumonia Encephalitis occurs most frequently d/t what? - ✔✔Viruses (e.g. herpes simplex I and II, varicella zoster (chickenpox and shingles); measles, mumps, and rubella How long should a nurse hold direct pressure on puncture sites after administering alteplase? - ✔✔30 min. or until oozing of blood stops Pramipexole has what adverse effect? - ✔✔Hallucinations. It is used for parkinson's to stimulate brain's DA receptors to decrease tremors and rigidity associated with disease In what trimester do uterine pain and significant bleeding occur? - ✔✔Plot twist! They're never normal and should not occur in any trimester In what trimester will a woman experience frequent urination? - ✔✔3rd trimester In what trimester will a woman feel the first fetal movements? - ✔✔2nd trimester In what trimester will a woman feel a renewed sense of energy? - ✔✔2nd trimester In what trimester will a woman develop breast tenderness? - ✔✔1st trimester How does STI risk affect boys relative to girls? - ✔✔Women are biologically more receptive than men to infection by sexually transmitted organisms. E.g. girls will get them more readily In most circumstances, when there is a med error, the initial appropriate response will be to? - ✔✔Contact the primary care provider, so that an appropriate order can be given to counteract the med What is a gastric lavage? - ✔✔flushing out the contents or excess fluid from stomach What is the purpose of leucovorin? - ✔✔Folic acid derivative that is used to protect healthy cells from the cytoxic affects of methotrexate A nurse is preparing to initiate IV therapy on a client. What solution is the best choice for preparing the client's skin at the insertion site? - ✔✔Chlorhexadine What is murophobia? - ✔✔Fear of mice What is acrophobia? - ✔✔fear of heights What is mysophobia? - ✔✔fear of dirt and germs How does immobility affect urinary output? - ✔✔Urinary output decreases resulting in urinary stasis, renal stones, urinary retention, and UTIs What is Trousseau's sign? - ✔✔Inflating a BP above systolic pressure that elicits wrist and hand flexion (carpal spasm), indicating hypocalcemia because of nerve excitability What are the manifestations of autonomic dysreflexia? - ✔✔-Bradycardia -Severe HA -Flushing -HTN -Tachypnea What is glossitis and what causes it? - ✔✔Smooth red tongue indicates pernicious anemia What supplement treats nausea caused by vertigo? - ✔✔Ginger root What supplement decreases the risk and severity of symptoms of migraines? - ✔✔Feverfew *It also increases risk of bleeding by decreasing platelet aggregation What supplement treats joint pain by reducing inflammation and promotes the body's ability to make cartilage and synovial fluid? - ✔✔Glucosamine What is cardiogenic shock? - ✔✔Occurs when the heart is damaged (large portion of left ventricle dies) after an MI and is unable to supply sufficient blood to the body, resulting in hypotension What electrolyte changes occur with pancreatitis? - ✔✔Decreased calcium and magnesium levels d/t fat breakdown What is the major adverse effect of calcium antacids? - ✔✔Constipation A nurse is assessing a client who has a diagnosis of RA. What nonpharmacological intervention should the nurse suggest to the client to reduce pain? - ✔✔Alternate application of heat and cold to affected joints. Cold can relieve joint swelling and heat can decrease joint stiffness and pain What supplement interferes with the effectiveness of levothyroxine? - ✔✔Calcium-can serve as an antacid. Should not be taken within 4 hours of levothyroxine administration What is urography? - ✔✔Imaging of the renal drainage or collecting system (kidneys, ureter, and bladder) What is lactulose used for? - ✔✔Lactulose works by stimulating the production of excess stools to rid the body of excess ammonia from cirrhosis. These excessive stools can result in hypokalemia and dehydration. How do opioids affect urine output? - ✔✔Cause urinary retention, so decreases it A nurse is providing discharge instructions to a client following an upper GI series with barium contrast. What teaching should the nurse provide? - ✔✔Increase fluid intake to facilitate removal of barium used during the test A nurse should avoid what type of dressing for a pressure ulcer? - ✔✔Wet-to-dry gauze dressing because they interrupt viable, healing tissues when removed What is a common adverse effect of epoetin alfa? - ✔✔HTN and can lead to hypertensive encephalopathy Expected Hct range for females? - ✔✔37-47% What is the expected range for magnesium? - ✔✔1.3-2.1 mEq/L What is the normal aPTT value for a client on heparin? - ✔✔45-80 seconds (normal is 30-40 seconds) What normal bicarbonate (HCO3) range? - ✔✔22-26 mEq/L What is the expected Hct range for males? - ✔✔42-53% Hypernatremia causes what S/S? - ✔✔Weakness, dry lips, and muscle twitching What route is epinephrine given for anaphylaxis? - ✔✔IM injection into anterolateral aspect of thigh A nurse is planning care for a client who has anorexia and nausea d/t cancer treatment. What intervention should the nurse perform? - ✔✔Limit drinking fluids with food. Drinking leads to early satiety and bloating which results in the client consuming fewer calories What is sallow skin? - ✔✔Yellow or brown tone to skin (especially face) that is losing its natural complexion A nurse should expect what S/S with opioid withdrawal? - ✔✔Muscle aches Insomnia Diarrhea Pupillary dilation *occurs within 6-8 hours of the last dose of opioid Foul, fatty, frothy stools are a manifestation of what disease? - ✔✔Celiac disease. This is steatorrhea How often should antiembolitic stockings be removed? - ✔✔Once per shift to inspect the skin and check circulation A nurse is caring for a client who is undergoing conservative treatment for deep-vein thrombosis. The client asks the nurse what will happen to the clot. What should the nurse say? - ✔✔Your body has a process called fibrinolysis that will eventually dissolve/break down the clot over time Client should ingest adequate intake of what when on epoetin alpha? - ✔✔Iron, folic acid, and Vit B12 Incontinence is a manifestation of what? - ✔✔Anaphylactic reaction What is clonidine (Catapres) used for? - ✔✔Hypertension, ADHD (and opioid withdrawal) What are normal lead levels in children? - ✔✔<10 mcg/dl What is exstrophy of the bladder and what should the nurse do? - ✔✔Bladder disorder in which it is exposed externally and must be surgically repaired b/c it did not develop properly in abd during embryo *Place a protective non-adherent plastic film, such as saran wrap, to maintain moistness and prevent infection What is insensible fluid loss? - ✔✔The amount of fluid lost that is not easily measured on a daily basis from the lungs, skin, respiratory tract, and water excreted in the feces How is a hydatidiform mole characterized? - ✔✔Dark brown vaginal bleeding during 2nd trimester. NO abd pain What is an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) used for? - ✔✔V-fib and V-tach A nurse is assisting a physician who is removing a client's central line. What instruction should the nurse give as the physician removes the catheter? - ✔✔Take a deep breath and hold it. This will increase the intrathoracic pressure, reducing occurrence of air embolus What condition is likely to lead to a high platelet count and increased risk of blood clots? - ✔✔Splenectomy. Spleen is a reservoir for platelets. A splenectomy may release a bunch into the bloodstream What is the pathophys for myasthenia gravis? - ✔✔Chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by weakness of the skeletal muscles of the body. In this disorder, the body produces autoantibodies that block, alter, or destroy acetylcholine receptors at the NMJ. This prevents muscular contraction (spec. of eye/eyelid movement, facial expression, chewing, talking, and swallowing). Muscle weakness increases during periods of activity and improves during rest [Show More]

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