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USMLE UWorld Step 3 High Yield Facts complete test with all correct answers

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USMLE UWorld Step 3 High Yield Facts complete test with all correct answers What is the genetic inheritance pattern of Hemophilia A? Correct Answer: X-linked recessive: women born to fathers with ... X linked recessive disorder will be carriers. Males are 50% carriers if born to an affected mother. What is tx of Lewy body dementia? Correct Answer: Dopamine agonist therapy (PD) & AchE inhibitors (Alzeihmer's) - watch for dopamine agonist therapy causing complex visual hallucinations. A patient treated for LTBI and now has positive PPD. Asymptomatic and also has negative CXR. Correct Answer: Asymptomatic patients without radiographic evidence of active TB who have been treated previously for active TB or LTBI need no further treatment. Initial tx of lupus? Correct Answer: - steroids + hydroxychloroquine - remember that hydroxychloroquine reduces the risk of arthralgias and serositis - you use steroids to bridge until hydroxychloroquine takes affect - MTX if u have organ damage. - Rituximab causes PML. What is the IGRA used for? Correct Answer: Another means of diagnosing LTBI - cannot tell the difference between latent and active TB just like the TST. They are advantage when you have BCG vaccinated patient. Isotretinoin in a boy what do you look for? Correct Answer: - hyperglycemia, triglyceridemia, hepatotoxicity, mucocuteanous reaction, blood dyscrasias, and ocular toxicity. -tell them to avoid alcohol bc of pancreatitis. Pt with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (engorgement of eye BV, and stringey discharge), who has caries and submandibular mass. NBS? Correct Answer: Ro/La antibody for Sjogren's . 50% will be negative. A patient undergoing UGI and has mechanical valve. No active infection foci. What is the likely abx prophylaxis for endocarditis? Correct Answer: Valve + ONGOING GI/GU manipulation tract procedure gets SBE prophylaxis prior to procedure - if they did, you would give them ampicillin. What do you do to monitor the disease progression in patients with AS? Correct Answer: Radiographs of hip/chest/and pelvis + ESR markers Q3 months What is the relationship between alcoholics and pancreatitis? Correct Answer: Alcoholics - decreased Vit D, and alcohol itself damages proximal tubule reabsorption. - Alcholic compensates by pushing PO4 out of the cell, however once refed/hydrated - PO4 becomes intracellular and you get HYPOPO4 which can cause rhabdomyolasis and myopathy. - Especially in the setting of respiratory alkalosis What are the only requirements to hospice care? Correct Answer: only requirements of hospice are prognosis <6 months and the patient's willingness to forgo life sustaining treatment. What is verification bias? Correct Answer: AKA workup bias. It is when a study only SELECTIVELY uses the gold standard test in order to confirm a positive result of preliminary testing. This can result in overestimates and increase in sensitivity. How do you overcome this bias? Correct Answer: Use the gold standard in a control population as well. African man with UTI + blood on dipstick microhematuria and anemia. What is NBS? Correct Answer: The diagnosis of schistomiasis is demonstration of parasite eggs in the stool or urine. Patient with esophageal variceal bleed x 2 after banding. What is the NBS? Correct Answer: Repeat upper GI endoscopy to do treatment with sclerotherapy or banding. If not, then you should do shunt or TIPS. What is chance of adult who gets Hep B of going to chronic HBV? Correct Answer: Adults have <5% chance of chronic Hep B infection - however perinatal transmission is 90%. After starting HAART what do you expect VL of HIV in 6 months? Correct Answer: <200 copies / mL otherwise resistance or non-compliance. Preventive management of a cluster headache? Correct Answer: Verapamil is the only preventative measure in RCT. What epidemiological parameter does not vary with disease prevalence and is based on Sn, and Sp? Correct Answer: Likelihood ratio For a positive test result: sensitivity / (1-specificity). For a negative test result: (1-sensitivity) / specificity. What is the definition of likelihood ratio? Correct Answer: Probability of a given test result occurring in a patient with a disorder compared to the probability of the same result occurring in a patient without the disorder. What is cataplexy treated with? Correct Answer: SNRI (venlafaxine) SSRI or sodium oxybate. When a patient has a stroke - dysphagia and aspiration causes in an increased risk of death. What is NBS? Correct Answer: Make sure to do a quick swallow evaluation (water swallow test or Toronto Bedside Swallowing Screening test). What is the insulin administration in DKA? Correct Answer: Continuous insulin. What is the fluid management in DKA? Correct Answer: Add K to fluids if K is less than <5.2 meQ/L. How long should IV insulin be continued in DKA? Correct Answer: Until anion gap normalized. DKA patient with glucose <200 but still elevated anion gap. What do you do? Correct Answer: Half the rate of continuous insulin and add dextrose to the fluids. What is first step in pheochromocytoma work up? Correct Answer: Get MRI of abdomen - if this is negative, you get MIBG - control BP for 10-14 days with alpha blocker. What has best long term outcome when behavior modifications fail for enuresis? Correct Answer: Enuresis alarm. Cocaine ingestion patient with persistent chest pain and new neurologic finding of right sided weakness in upper arm. What is suspicion and what is NBS? Correct Answer: Suspect acute dissection of aorta, and get CT angiography of the chest. A patient with hypermobility, h/o velevty hyperextensible skin with easy bruisability and atrophic scars and has hyperdynamic precordium. What is the suspicion? Correct Answer: Acute mitral regurgitation, with myxomatous degeneration and rupture of chordae. Later life depression (occuring after age 65) has been found to be a significant risk factor for the development of what condition? Correct Answer: Alzeihmer's disease. A pt with asymptomatic high TSH and normal t4 NBS? Correct Answer: TPO Ab testing. warranted tx if: - +antithyroid ab - abnormal lipid profile - sx of hypothyroidism - ovulatory dysfunction. What should you assess for in the days following a stroke? Correct Answer: After stroke make sure you also assess for DVT prophylaxis - risk of DVT is highest2-7 days following a stroke and particularly high in patients with hemiparessis. Subsequent PE is MCC death after this. What are the BP guidelines after stroke? Correct Answer: Permissive htn (<220/120 mmHg) and aspirin. If you got thrombolysis then <185/105 BP. A patient with asymptomatic CHF who presents with a low EF but no sx should have what test? Correct Answer: Cardiac stress test - because ischemic heart disease is the most common etiology for heart failure. What is the NBS in a patient with acute coronary syndrome NSTEMI? Correct Answer: - dual antiplatelet: aspirin + P2Y12 clopidogril prasugruel or ticagrelor - beta blocker - statin, - anticoagulant therapy. In NSTEMI use heparin not thrombolytics. Multiple skin tags are associated with what disease? Correct Answer: Insulin resistance. A pt on azithromycin for ngu chlamydia and does not get better think of other causes of ngu such as trichomonas, ureaplasma, etc. What is the tx? Correct Answer: Metronidazole. What is the management of somatic symptom disorder? Correct Answer: Regular follow up with provider. A patient who has h/o of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer that was treated with thyroidectomy and then with RAIU. TSH is borderline high. What is tx? Correct Answer: Levothyroxine treatment to normal-ish values of TSH. If highly malignant consider treating TSH to <0.1 TSH. What is the preferred treatment for botulism toxin? Correct Answer: Equine derived botox antitoxin is preferred tx of wound and foodborne botulism however it is usually avoided in infants due to the risk of lifelong hypersenstivity so use human. If a patient has increasing glucose concentrations, at bedtime what is the likely treatment? Correct Answer: The most appropriate insulin adjustment to make in patients who have hyperglycemia at bedtime is to increase pre-dinner short-acting insulin, such as insulin lispro. Other factors, may help like dec meal size. Entamoeba presents how? Correct Answer: A patient with fever RUQ and hypoechoic liver lesion - causes liver absess. Watch for recent travel to SA. How do you diagnose entameoba? Correct Answer: serology. Dont aspirate the anchovy paste area. Hydatid cysts are due to what infection? Correct Answer: Echinococcus - no fever without cyst rupture. What is the treatment for a male patient with perineal pain and weak urinary stream. Correct Answer: Empiric TMPSMX or Fluroquinolone for 4 to 6 weeks due to poor penetration of abx into the prostate gland. Fluoroquinolone ESP, cephalasporin, and clinda most frequently associated with long term Cdiff infection. A old man afib with high pitched bowel sounds no leukocytosis, and a small tender mass in the right groin. He has abdominal cramping and vomiting. NBS? Correct Answer: Surgery - incarcerated hernia causing SBO. What is the treatment for a spiral femur fracture? Correct Answer: Spica cast - remember that spiral femur fractures are suspicious for child abuse. A patient who had an MI and is on simvastatin - should be swtiched to what medication? Correct Answer: Rosuvustatin, and atorvastatin are HIGH dose statins. What is the most common cause of erythema multiforme? Correct Answer: Herpes simplex virus. A patient after surgery who has peripheral wedge shaped opacity in the lung may have suffered what pathology? Correct Answer: Pulmonary embolism. A patient with normal AFP and high alkphos with history of hepatitis B who on ultrasound has 3 cm lesion is concerning for malignancy arising from what structure? Correct Answer: Hepatocyte. [Show More]

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