Software Engineering > EXAM > Arizona State University - CIS 105 Exam Review. Contains Over 500 Questions and Answers. (All)

Arizona State University - CIS 105 Exam Review. Contains Over 500 Questions and Answers.

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Arizona State University - CIS 105 1. Will Google Earth become Google Live? 2. Technology, inventions, concepts, and knowledge are advancing so fast that it is simply an 3. Information technolog... y is firmly based in 4. Information technology (IT) is the study, design, development, implementation, support, and management of computer-based information systems, particularly 5. Without a computer is just a plastic box of microchips and wires. 6. People use computers and are called the 7. Smarter people will have a decided advantage over those who mistakenly assume a computer is 8. Information technology everywhere. 9. is the knowledge that enables a person to understand something. 10. towards information technology plays a pivotal role towards gaining computer competency. 11. A computer should never be thought of as a mysterious box with a mind of its own, it is plainly a tool whose boundaries are only limited by the and of its user. 12. Critically thinking people have the to understand a task can always be done better and more efficiently, and this same thinking can be applied to business computing as well. 13. is a way of thinking that involves analysis and evaluation and includes considering all possible outcomes in order to form a solid decision. 14. In business, is a management process, technique, or method that is most effective at arriving at a desired outcome, or best outcome than any other process, technique, or method. 15. An in computing is something with a practical use and expected outcome. 16. to accomplish a task can be counterproductive to the learning process. 17. are by far the best resources when learning a computing system. 18., one of the founding fathers of Intel made the astounding observation in 1965 called 19. If a business purchases a microcomputer today, in eighteen months, there is a microcomputer available that is. 20. Another term for a leader is a 21. Some organizations hold off buying new technology and wait for it to improve from its original version and also deciding there is no competitive advantage to be gained. These businesses are called 22. How does the pharmaceutical company know if they will get a competitive advantage 23. Today’s astounding technology with promises of competitive advantages can be tomorrow’s 24. To prepare for a career in business, it becomes important to understand information technology and its 25. It’s a misnomer to think you need to know about IT. 26. the tangible or physical aspects of a computer, like circuit boards, chipsets, and keyboards. 27. rarely changes during the life of a computer, but certain components can be added on to enhance its power and usability. 28. are massive room-sized computers that process and store enormous amounts of bulk data and information, and are typically used by very large organizations like credit card processers that employ them for transaction processing and vital applications. 29. Mainframes require a huge amount of physical space. 30. Midrange computers (sometimes called minicomputers) are less powerful and smaller in physical size than mainframe computers, but do many of the same things, simply on a smaller scale. 31. Microcomputers are smaller than mainframes and midrange computers, and are so common that they are most commonly referred to as simply computers, and sometimes just referred to as a box. 32. They are the least powerful computer in terms of processing and come in three typical configurations; A desktop, laptop, and handheld. 33. Handheld computers often referred to as Personal Digital Assistants or PDAs are compact, but far less powerful than desktops or laptops. 34. A computer is made up of hardware and uses system software to make it work. 35. Hardware is the physical part of the computer and software is collection of computer programs that accomplish a specific task. 36. When a computer is turned on, hundreds of routines, or programs execute to carry out technical details that make a computer run properly and begin to become useful to the end-user, and typically, with no human interaction. 37. The most important aspects of system software is that an operating system is enabled and becomes a platform for application software to work. 38. An operating system is the software that manages the resources of a computer, like memory and application programs. 39. Application software does not work without system software or an operating system. 40. An operating system (OS), often called a platform is a collection of computer programs working together that manage the hardware and software of a computer so they work properly. 41. Some of the more popular platforms in today’s market are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, Linux, and UNIX 42. One of the most important jobs of an OS is file management; a way to store and organize computer files to the memory of a computer. 43. Operating systems are made up of a hierarchy of directories, typically called folders. 44. Microsoft Windows represents its file management system visually with a graphical user interface (GUI) environment 45. A file manager is a part of an operating system that a computer uses to display the filing system. 46. When a computer can run more than one process at a time it is referred to as multitasking. 47. RAM is a type of memory that allows data to be accessed in any order without physical movement of the silicone media. 48. Virtual memory is memory the operating system uses to coordinate, track, and efficiently allocate the use of CPU cache, registers, RAM, and disk storage. 49. Disk storage is non-volatile, secondary storage that is recorded to a physical device, like a hard drive or optical disk with a read/write apparatus. 50. The FAT directs the read/write arm of the hard drive to where data exists and accesses it upon the user’s request. 51. Application software performs particular tasks people need, like creating a budget for accounting or supply chain, creating a resume, or making a professional presentation for a business proposal. 52. Application software is extremely powerful, and often underestimated by most computer users. 53. Commercial application software has been developed by hundreds, even thousands of people and is constantly evolving to meet the infinite needs of the end-user, so the chances of application software not fulfilling a user’s needs are remote. 54. The most commonly used application software in business is are email, word processors, spreadsheets, databases, presentation software, and project management software. 55. Other common application software in business is a browser to access the Internet. 56. Software is the programs that enable a computer to work. 57. There are two basic categories of software; application software and system software. 58. Application software is designed to serve the user and carry out whatever task they can imagine, like create a document or a spreadsheet 59. Business computing software is concerned with four basic applications; spreadsheets, word processors, databases, and presentation software, many times sold as a software suite, or application suite. 60. Software suite manufacturers like Microsoft who makes Office 2010 know it can be more economical to buy suites as one large package than to buy software individually. 61. Attitude towards application software is as important as is it when learning a computing system. 62. Commercial application software on today’s market are simply astounding tools, often grossly underestimated by most users. 63. Simply concluding that word processing software only creates, edits, and updates documents like resumes and contracts would be closed-minded and ultimately a mistake. 64. An important and very powerful characteristic of a productivity suite is the capability to share data and information between application software. 65. Productivity suites offer three ways of sharing data and information. The most basic is “Cut and Paste”. 66. The second and third method of sharing information and data is called Object Linking and Embedding (OLE). 67. Object embedding is static, and only takes a snapshot. 68. Object linking is similar to object embedding, but differs in one very important way. Object linking is dynamic. 69. A word processor like Microsoft Word 2010® is an application software used to create, compose, edit, format and print documents. 70. Adobe Acrobat® is another very powerful word processor that allows a user to create, edit, format and print portable document files (PDF) and has enormous business implications. 71. A spreadsheet like Microsoft Excel 2010® is an electronic grid of columns and rows often used to create, model, and manipulate numerical and often financial information. 72. Many businesses would argue that spreadsheets are the most powerful and useful business application software because of its ability to model financial information and perform “what-if” analysis. 73. Database software or a database management system (DBMS) software is a collection of related files called tables that consist of records (rows) of data separated by fields (columns) that can be queried to produce subsets of information. 74. Presentation software is used to present information in a slide show format. Presentations are usually displayed on-screen, and often are projected for an audience. 75. Business application software is not just the domain of software suites. Two applications software not typically included in software suites but just as important to business are browser software and network software. 76. Browsers are software that allows a user to view the Internet and the World Wide Web. 77. Network software allows computers to communicate with each other. 78. Browsers also include hyperlinks, which is a clickable navigation element that lets the user navigate from one web page to another. 79. A computer network is simply two or more computers connected together for resource sharing and communication. 80. Resources refer to computer files, folders, software, and also peripheral hardware like printers, scanners, webcams, etc. 81. It requires thoughtfulness and imagination to truly leverage its vast potential, and in the business environment where stakes are high, the smartest and brightest typically win. 82. In business, it may seem inconsequential to know the physical inner workings of a microcomputer’s system unit until you’re called upon to purchase hundreds of computers to replace hundreds of old computers, which is not unusual. 83. You don’t have to be an expert at system units, just an intelligent part of the conversation when they relate to business. 84. The system unit is the main body of a computer, containing a motherboard. 85. The system unit is the inner workings or insides of a computer, essentially everything inside the box. 86. Purchasing ten computers can be a daunting decision, so a misinformed choice can be devastating to a business 87. On the inside of a microcomputer, the core component is the system board commonly referred to as the _the motherboard (Apple computers refer to motherboards as logic boards). 88. A motherboard is the primary circuit board. 89. A circuit board, sometimes called a printed circuit board (PCB), is a logical and economical way to replace what would be loose wiring by applying copper wires directly to a sheet of non conductive plastic. 90. Contained within the microprocessor is the central processing unit (CPU). 91. The CPU is what gives a microcomputer to ability to be programmed. 92. A microcomputer’s speed is measured by clock rate which is the cycles per second that a computer can perform its most basic tasks, measured in gigahertz. 93. The first truly useful personal computers processed 8 bits at a time, eventually doubling to 16 bits, then 32 bits, and then to 64 bit. 94. Microprocessor manufacturers are constantly trying to improve processing speed, and one novel way is through the development of multicore chips, which are simply many chips encased on one chip package working together. 95. RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) architecture chips are designed for efficiency, and were the first 64 bit processors. 96. Bus lines are the pathways (or roads in our analogy) that transfer data and power between components inside of a computer, and sometimes between computers. 97. Bus lines are measured in bus width. 98. A two state system on a computer is called binary system. 99. Binary means something is made up of two parts, and in a computer, either a “1” or a “2”. 100. When eight bits are combined, they become a byte. 101. Most microcomputers use the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) coding scheme. 102. A PSU is typically converts 100-120 volt or 220-240 volt alternating current to a lower voltage direct current that can be used by the internal components of the system unit. 103. There are two types of memory; primary storage (volatile) and secondary storage (non-volatile) 104. Memory holds information electronically stored on a computer like data files, programming, and software. 105. In a computing system, primary storage can be analogized as what a user is currently working on and secondary storage is where the user stores their work when they are finished. 106. Data and information pre-loaded on a computer that requires no user interaction is stored in secondary storage. 107. In the “motherboard as land” analogy, primary and secondary storage are like inventory processing and storage warehouses. 108. Primary storage can be analogized as a place inventory (memory) is processed before it is put away and secondary storage is where inventory (memory) is stored after processing. 109. In the system unit, primary storage is random access memory (RAM) in the form of RAM chipsets that are mounted on the motherboard 110. RAM allows data and information to be accessed in any order. 111. Because RAM has no moving parts and can be accessed in any order, it is extremely fast. 112. RAM is volatile memory, which means it does not retain its data and information after the computer is turned off. 113. All data and information in RAM must be saved to secondary storage if it to be retained. 114. The programming information to perform this startup task resides in a chip called a complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor, or CMOS chip. 115. CMOS does not lose its contents and is therefore non-volatile memory. 116. Since the programming on ROM chips is unchangeable, they are sometimes called firmware. 117. Secondary storage is non-volatile which means it retains its data and information even when the system unit loses power, and is somewhat slower than primary storage as it does not have a direct connection to the microprocessor. 118. Motherboards have expansion slots to receive expansion cards. 119. In the system unit, a port is a specific outlet that serves as a connection, or interfaces between a computer and other devices like digital cameras, keyboards or printers and provides signal transfer, or communication between the computer and the device. 120. Ports use a system called Plug and Play which are designed so a device automatically works when it is plugged in to a system unit, which has not always been the case. 121. Devices that plug into computer systems units can be categorized as either an input device, or an output device, and are often called peripheral devices. 122. A computer understands only one real language called machine code or _ machine language. 123. Input is data and information that enters a computer system and translated for processing. 124. Output is data and information that exits a computer system and translated for a human to comprehend. 125. When a computer provides data and information to an end-user, it is called output. 126. When a computer is powered up, hundreds of system software programs automatically run to configure the computer so it operates as it was intended. One of the main tasks of these system programs is to load the operating system (OS). 127. A job or task a computer performs is called a _ process. 128. CPU Cache (CPU – central processing unit) is small, very quick memory because it stores copies of information and data from the most regularly used parts main memory. 129. Random Access Memory (RAM) is primary storage. RAM is a type of storage that allows stored data to be accessed in any (random) order without physical movement of the storage media. 130. Registers are extremely fast very small amounts of memory used to quicken the implementation of computer programs by providing access to commonly used calculated values. 131. Virtual memory is memory the operating system uses to coordinate, track, and efficiently allocate the use of CPU cache, registers, RAM, and disk storage. Virtual memory is actually a technique that lets application programs like a spreadsheet use fragmented pieces of memory and makes it easier for large applications to use physical memory. 132. Disk storage is non-volatile, secondary storage that is recorded to a physical device, like a hard drive or optical disk with a read/write apparatus. 133. A sort of table of contents for the disk is called a file allocation table, or FAT. 134. Microsoft Windows® represents its file management system visually with a graphical user interface (GUI) environment. 135. Files are displayed in a hierarchy, in a computer system, sometimes called a tree. A hierarchy is a way to rank and organize files. 136. Computers that are not connected to any other computer are referred to as stand-alone. 137. Operating systems need to be able to offer networking, and do so through a set of rules called transmission control protocol and Internet protocol (TCP/IP). 138. Operating systems are in charge of device drivers that are computer programs that allow peripheral hardware devices like printers or scanners to interface with a computer system and work properly. 139. Embedded computing refers to a computing system or device that performs a dedicated function. 140. Open source software is when software’s source code or programming is open to anyone who cares to access and perhaps even modify it. 141. The software developer’s main asset is her intellectual property, essentially her innate ability to create business solution software that is better than anyone else can produce, or at least good enough to be very profitable. 142. Once a product or software for instance is accepted by the market, it is called diffusion. 143. Leading and following are considered business strategies, and one is not better than the other, although each has its advantages and disadvantages. 144. An operating system or platform is the most important system software, without which application software cannot exist. [Show More]

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