The one thing that all cells have in common is - membrane The membrane is composed of - phospholipids Transport holes - Proteins that help certain molecules and ions move in and out of the cell ... The cell is filled with the fluid called - cytoplasm/cytosol Plant and animal cells are____cells - Eukaryotic The nucleus is surrounded by __________ in both types of animal and plant cells - Rough and smooth er Smooth ER processes - Lipids or fats for cell use The cell wall of a plant cell has a cell junction sides called - Plasmodesmata Animal cells are________ than plant cells - Smaller Photosynthesis - Occurs in chloroplast, to convert carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight directly from the atmosphere into usable energy in the form of glucose Photosynthesis formula - 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight ---> C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 Between the two processes of glycolysis and Krebs cycle _____ is produced in total - 6CO2 , 10 NADH, 2 FADH2 During cellular respiration as a whole glucose is oxidized to produce - 6CO2+ 6H20+ 38ATP Gregor Mendel - The father of genetics - Experimented with pea plants Mitosis - part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides Mitosis vs. Meiosis - Mitosis: one division forming 2 identical cells (clones); Meiosis: two divisions forming 4 genetically different cells Meiosis - Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms Mitosis - Where a diploid cell, or two copies of each chromosome, divides to form two identical diploid daughter cells diploid cell - A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent. Meiosis - A process by which diploid cells undergo meiosis into stages, meiosis one and meiosis two, resulting in four haploid gametes. Plants have two generations - Sporophytes and gametophytes sporophytes produce - Spores asexually (meiosis) asexual reproduction - Process by which a single parent reproduces by itself gametophyte produce - gametes by mitosis (produce sex cells, reproduce sexually) An organelle is - a small structure within a cell ________ are primarily found in animal cells - Centrioles from meiosis and mitosis All cells contain - DNA and RNA and can synthesize proteins. Cells are grouped together in: - tissues Tissues are grouped together in - organs Organs are grouped together in: - systems An organism is a - complete individual Ribosomes and the cytoskeleton are not enclosed by membranes and are found in - Both Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic reproduce by simple process called - Binary fission Eukaryotic cells undergo a method of division called - Mitosis Peptidoglycan cell wall - Prokaryotic Polysaccharide cell wall - Eukaryote Mitotic spindle mitosis cell division - Eukaryotic cells Binary fission reproduction - Prokaryotic 80S ribosomes - Eukaryotes 70s ribosomes - prokaryotes Paired chromosomes in nuclear membrane - Eukaryote One circular chromosome not in membrane - prokaryote Eukaryotic cells are ___________ than prokaryotic cells - larger Prokaryotic's have no - Nucleus or organelles Ribosones - Synthesize proteins from amino acids Golgi apparatus (complex) - Synthesizes materials such as proteins that Are transported out of the cell. It is located near the nucleus and consist of layers of membranes. Vacuoles - Sacks used for storage, digestion, and waste removal. Plant cells have _____ vacuoles - Large Animal cells have ________ and sometimes números vacuoles. - Small Vesicle - A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell. Cytoskeleton - This consist of micro tubules that help shape and support the cell. Microtubules - Part of the cytoskeleton; they support the cell, and they form the centrioles, the mitotic spindle, cilia, and flagella. Cytosol - liquid material in the cell Cytoplasm - A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended but not within the nucleus. cell membrane - A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell. Endoplasmic Reticulum - A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another. Two types of ER - rough and smooth Mitichondria - Powerhouses of a cell. Converts the chemical energy of glucose into ATP. Mitochondria contain their own______ That is separate from that contained in the nucleus - DNA Four primary tissues - muscle, nervous, epithelial, connective The three types of muscle tissue are - skeletal, cardiac, smooth Four types of connective tissue - connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood Golgi apparatus - A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell The Golgi apparatus is found in all______ cells - Eukaryotic Three places that the vesicles travel from the Golgi apparatus - Lysosomes, membrane, outside the cell Lysosomes - An organelle containing digestive enzymes Golgi apparatus is closely associated with the - ER Lysosomes - Organelles that function in the breakdown of various substances. Lysosomes play a vital role in cell_______ - Homeostasias Licensomes are active at a low pH of around_____ - 5 ______ ions are pumped into a lysom to maintain the acidic environment - Hydrogen Without lysosomes the cell undergoes______ and severe damage necrosis. - Apoptosis necrosis - tissue death Apoptosis - programmed cell death Cytoskeleton - A membraneless structure found in all cell types, and is made of various types of protein fibers. In a eukaryotic cell the cytoskeleton has three major components - Microfilament, intermediate fibers, and microtubules. Cell division would be impossible without the_________ - Cytoskeleton Used to separate sister chromatids - Cytoskeleton Pinches the cell into daughter cells during cytokinesis - Cytoskeleton Microfilaments - Long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the cell Microfilaments - The thinnest components of the cytoskeleton, averaging about 6 to 8 and M in diameter. Microfilaments are involved in maintaining cell shape and events like - Cytokinesis, muscle contraction, and movement of the cell itself. Microfilaments are also involved in muscle contraction, the Protein myosin binds to actin filaments forming - Myofibrils Microphone mints also ate in the gross movement of a cell by elongating the plus end (_____________) while shortening the minus end (_________). - Actin polymerization, actin depolymerization Microtubules - The thickest components of the cytoskeleton. __________ Are made of globular proteins known as tubulin, which is a dimer made of a-tubulin and b-tubulin. - Microtubules intermediate fibers - mid-sized, low myoglobin, more capillaries than fast fibers, slower to fatigue Intermediate fibers are composed of over____ types of protein. - 50 The proteins and intermediate fibers are specific to certain types of cells for example - Microfilaments made of keratine are found in epithelial cells, and microfilaments made of Desmin are found in muscle cells. Intermediate fibers helped prevent - Cell distortion under mechanical stress. Intermediate filaments do not_________ and _________ The way microtubules and microfilaments do. - Polymerize, depolymerize S.J. Singer and G. Nicolson - proposed the fluid mosaic model in 1972 fluid mosaic model - Describes a membrane as a fluid phospholipid bilayer containing a mix of proteins, cholesterol, and carbohydrates. There are two main types of transport proteins - Channels and carriers Passive transport (simple diffusion) - net movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to one of low contration carrier proteins - a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane Carrier proteins can become - Saturated Carrier proteins are used when substances cannot diffuse directly to the __________ and need help - Membrane Carrier proteins used in active transport which move substances __________ the gradient, often should write a high concentration in the cell. - Against facilitated diffusion (passive transport) - You to transfer items down their concentration gradient that cannot move directly to the cell membrane, from higher to lower concentration no ATP required. active transport - Requires a transporter protein and ATP, salutes move from an area of a low concentration to an area of high concentration. Osmosis - Movement of water across a selectively Premable membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of lower water. And plant cells have three layers - Primary cell wall, secondary cell wall, and middle lamella The primary cell wall of a plant cell is made mostly from three polysaccharides - Cellulose, which forms long, linear chains hemicellulose which is smaller branch polysaccharide And pectin. The secondary cell wall of in plant cell is primarily - Cellulose, xylan, and lignin. The middle lamellar, cell wall of a plant cell is mostly - Pectin CONTINUES [Show More]
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