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Med Surg 2021 Hesi practice questions(Evolve Med-Surge Nursing_knowledge_Assessment_Practice_Exam Practice questions)

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The nurse is assessing a 48-year-old client with a history of smoking during a routine clinic visit. The client, who exercises regularly, reports having pain in the calf during exercise that disappe... ars at rest. Which of the following findings requires further? evaluation? 1. Heart rate 57 bpm. 2. SpO2 of 94% on room air. 3. Blood pressure 134/82. 4. Ankle-brachial index of 0.65. - ANSWER 4 An Ankle-Brachial Index of 0.65 suggests moderate arterial vascular disease in a client who is experiencing intermittent claudication. A Doppler ultrasound is indicated for further evaluation. The bradycardic heart rate is acceptable in an athletic client with a normal blood pressure. The SpO2 is acceptable; the client has a smoking history. An overweight client taking warfarin (Coumadin) has dry skin due to decreased arterial blood flow. What should the nurse instruct the client to do? Select all that apply. 1. Apply lanolin or petroleum jelly to intact skin. 2. Follow a reduced-calorie, reduced-fat diet. 3. Inspect the involved areas daily for new ulcerations. 4. Instruct the client to limit activities of daily living (ADLs). 5.Use an electric razor to shave - ANSWER 1,2,3,5 Maintaining skin integrity is important in preventing chronic ulcers and infections. The client should be taught to inspect the skin on a daily basis. The client should reduce weight to promote circulation; a diet lower in calories and fat is appropriate. Because the client is receiving Coumadin, the client is at risk for bleeding from cuts. To decrease the risk of cuts, the nurse should suggest that the client use an electric razor. The client with decreased arterial blood flow should be encouraged to participate in ADLs. In fact, the client should be encouraged to consult an exercise physiologist for an exercise program that enhances the aerobic capacity of the body. A client with peripheral vascular disease has undergone a right femoral-popliteal bypass graft. The blood pressure has decreased from 124/80 to 94/62. What should the nurse assess first? 1. IV fluid solution. 2. Pedal pulses. 3. Nasal cannula flow rate. 4. Capillary refill - ANSWER 2 With each set of vital signs, the nurse should assess the dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial pulses. The nurse needs to ensure adequate perfusion to the lower extremity with the drop in blood pressure. IV fluids, nasal cannula setting, and capillary refill are important to assess; however, priority is to determine the cause of drop in blood pressure and that adequate perfusion through the new graft is maintained. The nurse is caring for a client with peripheral artery disease who has recently been prescribed clopidogrel (Plavix). The nurse understands that more teaching is necessary when the client states which of the following: 1. "I should not be surprised if I bruise easier or if my gums bleed a little when brushing my teeth." 2. "It doesn't really matter if I take this medicine with or without food, whatever works best for my stomach." 3. "I should stop taking Plavix if it makes me feel weak and dizzy." 4. "The doctor prescribed this medicine to make my platelets less likely to stick together and help prevent clots from forming." - ANSWER 3 Weakness, dizziness, and headache are common adverse effects of Plavix and the client should report these to the physician if they are problematic; in order to decrease risk of clot formation, Plavix must be taken regularly and should not be stopped or taken intermittently. The main adverse effect of Plavix is bleeding, which often occurs as increased bruising or bleeding when brushing teeth. Plavix is well absorbed, and while food may help decrease potential gastrointestinal upset, Plavix may be taken with or without food. Plavix is an antiplatelet agent used to prevent clot formation in clients who have experienced or are at risk for myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, peripheral artery disease, or acute coronary syndrome. A client is receiving Cilostazol (Pletal) for peripheral arterial disease causing intermittent claudication. The nurse determines this medication is effective when the client reports which of the following? 1. "I am having fewer aches and pains." 2. "I do not have headaches anymore." 3. "I am able to walk further without leg pain." 4. "My toes are turning grayish black in color." - ANSWER 3 Cilostazol is indicated for management of intermittent claudication. Symptoms usually improve within 2 to 4 weeks o [Show More]

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