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Critical Care HESI Practice Exam Updated 2022 Questions and Answers

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a - ANSWER The nurse is providing postprocedure care to a client who had a cardiac catheterization. The client begins to manifest signs and symptoms associated with embolization. Which action should t... he nurse take? a. Notify the primary healthcare provider immediately b. Apply a warm, moist compress to the incision site c. Increase the intravenous fluid rate by 20 mL/hr d. Monitor vital signs more frequently b - ANSWER A nurse observes a window washer falling 25 feet (7.6 m) to the ground. The nurse rushes to the scene and determines that the person is in cardiopulmonary arrest. What should the nurse do first? a. Feel for a pulse b. Begin chest compressions c. Leave to call for assistance d. Perform the abdominal thrust maneuver d - ANSWER A client reports left-sided chest pain after playing racquetball. The client is hospitalized and diagnosed with left pneumothorax. When assessing the client's left chest area, the nurse expects to identify which finding? a. Dull sound on percussion b. Vocal fremitus on palpation c. Rales with rhonchi on auscultation d. Absence of breath sounds on auscultation c - ANSWER A client is admitted to the hospital with partial- and full-thickness burns of the chest and face sustained while trying to extinguish a brush fire. Which is the nurse's priority concern? a. Loss of skin integrity caused by the burns b. Potential infection as a result of the burn injury c. Inadequate gas exchange caused by smoke inhalation d. Decreased fluid volume because of the depth of the burns b - ANSWER During the first 48 hours after a client has sustained a thermal injury, which conditions should the nurse assess for? a. Hypokalemia and hyponatremia b. Hyperkalemia and hyponatremia c. Hypokalemia and hypernatremia d. Hyperkalemia and hypernatremia a - ANSWER A nurse is assessing a client's ECG reading. The client's atrial and ventricular heart rates are equal at 88 beats per min. The PR interval is 0.14 seconds, and the QRS width is 0.10 seconds. Rhythm is regular with normal P waves and QRS complexes. How will the nurse interpret this rhythm? a. Normal sinus rhythm b. Sinus tachycardia c. Sinus bradycardia d. Sinus arrhythmia b - ANSWER The nurse is caring for a client with a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. Which is the priority concern of the nurse when caring for this client? a. Fluid volume b. Skin integrity c. Physical mobility d. Urinary elimination c - ANSWER A client who had extensive pelvic surgery 24 hours ago becomes cyanotic, is gasping for breath, and reports right-sided chest pain. What should the nurse do first? a. Obtain vital signs b. Initiate a cardiac arrest code c. Administer oxygen using a face mask d. Encourage the use of an incentive spirometer c - ANSWER A nurse is caring for a client with severe burns. The nurse determines that this client is at risk for hypovolemic shock. Which physiologic finding supports the nurse's conclusion? a. Decreased rate of glomerular filtration b. Excessive blood loss through the burned tissues c. Plasma proteins moving out of the intravascular compartment d. Sodium retention occurring as a result of the aldosterone mechanism a - ANSWER The nurse is caring for a client with burns and reviews the client's laboratory results: blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 30 mg/dL (10.2 mmol/L); creatinine, 2.4 mg/dL (184 mcmol/L); serum potassium, 6.3 mEq/L (6.3 mmol/L); pH, 7.1; Po 2, 90 mm Hg; and hemoglobin (Hgb), 7.4 g/dL (74 mmol/L). Which condition does the nurse suspect the client has based upon these findings? a. Azotemia b. Hypokalemia c. Metabolic alkalosis d. Respiratory alkalosis d - ANSWER A nurse is caring for a client who experienced serious burns in a fire. Which relationship between a client's burned body surface area and fluid loss should the nurse consider when evaluating fluid loss in a client with burns? a. Equal b. Unrelated c. Inversely related d. Directly proportional c - ANSWER A burn client is receiving the open method for wound treatment. Which information will the nurse explain to the client? a. Bathing will not be permitted. b. Dressings will be changed daily. c. Personal protective equipment will be worn by staff. d. Room temperature will be kept below 72° F (22.2° C). a - ANSWER A client presents to the emergency department with weakness and dizziness. The blood pressure is 90/60 mm Hg, pulse is 92 and weak, and body weight reflects a 3-pound (1.4 kilogram) loss in two days. The weather has been hot. Which condition should the nurse conclude is the priority for this client? a. Deficient fluid volume b. Impaired skin integrity c. Inadequate nutritional intake d. Decreased participation in activities b - ANSWER A client is admitted with severe burns. The nurse is caring for the client 36 hours after the client's admission and identifies the client's potassium level of 6.0 mEq/L (6.0 mmol/L). Which drink will the nurse recommend be included in the client's diet? a. Milk b. Tea c. Orange juice d. Tomato juice a - ANSWER A woman comes to the office of her healthcare provider reporting shortness of breath and epigastric distress that is not relieved by antacids. To which question would a woman experiencing a myocardial infarction respond differently than a man? a. "Do you have chest pain?" b. "Are you feeling anxious?" c. "Do you have any palpitations?" d. "Are you feeling short of breath?" b - ANSWER During a vertex vaginal birth the nurse notes meconium-stained amniotic fluid. What is the priority nursing intervention for the newborn? a. Stimulating crying b. Suctioning the airway c. Using an Ambu bag with oxygen support d. Placing the infant in the reverse Trendelenburg position c - ANSWER While receiving a blood transfusion, the client suddenly shouts, "I feel like someone is lowering a heavy weight on my chest. I feel like I'm going to die!" Which actions are priority? a. Administer nitroglycerin and aspirin b. Slow the rate and monitor the vital signs c. Stop the transfusion and administer normal saline through new IV tubing d. Ask the client to further describe the feeling and rate the pain d - ANSWER A client who was hospitalized with partial- and full-thickness burns over 30% of the total body surface area is to be discharged. The client asks the nurse, "How will my spouse be able to care for me at home?" How should the nurse interpret this statement? a. Readiness to discuss the client's deformities b. Indication of a change in family relations c. Need for more time to think about the future d. Beginning realization of implications for the future b - ANSWER A nurse is assessing a client with a cast to the extremity. Which assessment finding is the priority? a. Warmth b. Numbness c. Skin desquamation d. Generalized discomfort b - ANSWER Which color of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may indicate subarachnoid hemorrhage in the client? a. Hazy b. Yellow c. Brown d. Colorless c - ANSWER A client arrives in the emergency department with multiple crushing wounds of the chest, abdomen, and legs. Which are the priority nursing assessments? a. Level of consciousness and pupil size b. Characteristics of pain and blood pressure c. Quality of respirations and presence of pulses d. Observation of abdominal contusions and other wounds b - ANSWER Which color tag will be given by the triage nurse to a client assigned to class IV, during a mass casualty situation? a. Red b. Black c. Green d. Yellow a - ANSWER A client who sustained a burn injury involving 36% of the body surface area is receiving hydrotherapy. Which is the best nursing intervention when providing wound care? a. Use a consistent approach to care and encourage participation. b. Prepare equipment while doing the procedure and explain the treatment to the client. c. Rinse the burn area with 105° F (40.6° C) water to prevent loss of body temperature. d. Arrange for a change of staff every 4 to 5 days and have the client select the time for the procedure to be done. b - ANSWER Which clinical manifestation can a client experience during a fat embolism syndrome (FES)? a. Nausea b. Dyspnea c. Orthopnea d. Paresthesia b - ANSWER A client was admitted with full-thickness burns 2 weeks ago. Since admission, the client has lost an average of 1 lb (0.5 kg) of weight each day. Which action will the nurse most likely take based upon the adjusted dietary plan? a. Provide low-sodium milk. b. Provide high-protein drinks. c. Provide foods that are low in potassium. d. Provide 10% more calories in the form of fats. d - ANSWER A burn victim has waxy white areas interspersed with pink and red areas on the anterior trunk and all of both arms. The nurse calculates the percentage of total body surface area (TBSA). Which percentage will the nurse report? a. 20 b. 25 c. 30 d. 36 d - ANSWER A nurse places a client with severe burns on a circulating air bed. Which goal is the nurse trying to achieve? a. Increasing mobility b. Preventing contractures c. Limiting orthostatic hypotension d. Preventing pressure on peripheral blood vessels a - ANSWER Which noninvasive assessment and management skills certification would the nurse be required to use for airway maintenance and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)? a. Basic Life Support (BLS) b. Certified Emergency Nurse (CEN) c. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) d. Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) b - ANSWER The nurse is caring for different clients in a mass casualty event. Which client is assigned the lowest priority for care? a. Client with red tag b. Client with black tag c. Client with green tag d. Client with yellow tag b - ANSWER On the morning of surgery a client is admitted for resection of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. While awaiting surgery, the client suddenly develops symptoms of shock. Which nursing action is priority? a. Prepare for blood transfusions. b. Notify the surgeon immediately. c. Make the client nothing by mouth (NPO). d. Administer the prescribed preoperative sedative. a - ANSWER A nurse understands that value clarification is a technique useful in therapeutic communication because initially it helps clients do what? a. Become aware of their personal values b. Gain information related to their needs c. Make correct decisions related to their health d. Alter their value systems to make them more socially acceptable b - ANSWER An Asian client arrives at the mental health clinic with symptoms of anxiety and panic. While speaking with the client, the nurse notes that the client makes very little eye contact. What does this assessment data suggest? a. Shyness b. Cultural variation c. Symptom of depression d. Shame regarding treatment d - ANSWER Before effectively responding to a sexually abused victim on the phone, it is essential that the nurse in the rape crisis center do what? a. Get the client's full name and address. b. Call for assistance from the psychiatrist. c. Know some myths and facts about sexual assault. d. Be aware of any personal bias about sexual assault. c - ANSWER Which ethnic group has a greater incidence of osteoporosis due to musculoskeletal differences? a. Irish Americans b. African Americans c. Chinese Americans d. Egyptian Americans a - ANSWER The preschool-age client is learning sociocultural mores. What should this imply to the nurse regarding this client? a. The child is developing a conscience. b. The child is learning about gender roles. c. The child is developing a sense of security. d. The child is learning about the political process. c - ANSWER A client who has a hemoglobin of 6 gm/dL (60 mmol/L) is refusing blood because of religious reasons. What is the most appropriate action by the nurse? a. Call the chaplain to convince the client to receive the blood transfusion. b. Discuss the case with coworkers. c. Notify the primary healthcare provider of the client's refusal of blood products. d. Explain to the client that they will die without the blood transfusion. b - ANSWER Obesity in children is an ever-worsening problem. What concept should a nurse consider when caring for school-aged children who are obese? a. Enjoyment of specific foods is inherited. b. There are familial influences on childhood eating habits. c. Childhood obesity is usually not a predictor of adult obesity. d. Children with obese parents are destined to become obese themselves. d - ANSWER After determining that the nurses on the psychiatric unit are uncomfortable caring for clients who are from different cultures than their own, the nurse manager establishes a unit goal that by the next annual review the unit will have achieved what? a. Increased cultural sensitivity b. Decreased cultural imposition c. Decreased cultural dissonance d. Increased cultural competence a - ANSWER A client who only speaks Spanish is being cared for at a hospital in which nursing personnel only speak English. What communication technique would be appropriate for the nurse to use when discussing healthcare decisions with the client? a. Contact an interpreter provided by the hospital. b. Contact the client's family member to translate for the client. c. Communicate with the client using Spanish phrases the nurse learned in a college course. d. Communicate with the client with the use of a hospital-approved Spanish dictionary. b - ANSWER During a routine checkup a patient reports concerns over weight gain despite trying juice cleanses and other trend diets. The nurse records the patient's weight and BMI at a healthy range, but the patient states, "I wish I were as thin as my co-workers." The patient is at risk for what culturally-bound condition? a. Neurasthenia b. Anorexia nervosa c. Shenjing shuairuo d. Ataque de nervios a - ANSWER The nurse is caring for an Asian client who had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy six hours ago. When asked whether there is pain, the client smiles and says, "No." What should the nurse do? a. Monitor for nonverbal cues of pain b. Check the pressure dressing for bleeding c. Assist the client to ambulate around his room d. Irrigate the client's nasogastric tube with sterile water a - ANSWER A 5-year-old child who is newly arrived from Latin America attends a nursery school where everyone speaks English. The child's mother tells the nurse that her child is no longer outgoing and has become very passive in the classroom. What is the probable reason for the child's behavior? a. Culture shock b. Social immaturity c. Experience of discrimination d. Lack of interest in school activities d - ANSWER A nurse manager works on a unit where the nursing staff members are uncomfortable taking care of clients from cultures that are different from their own. How should the nurse manager address this situation? [Show More]

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