1. You are treating a middle-aged man with chest discomfort. He has a history of three previous heart attacks and takes nitroglycerin as needed for chest pain. You have standing orders to administer a... spirin to patients with suspected cardiac-related chest pain or discomfort. While your partner is preparing to give oxygen to the patient, you should: A. ensure that the patient's systolic blood pressure is at least 100 mm Hg as aspirin dilates the blood vessels and can cause a drop in blood pressure. B. confirm that the patient is not allergic to aspirin, give him the appropriate dose of aspirin, and document the time and dose given. C. assist the patient in taking only his nitroglycerin. Aspirin should not be given in conjunction with nitroglycerin. D. contact medical control, apprise him or her of the patient's chief complaint and vital signs, and request permission to give him aspirin. - ANSWER B. confirm that the patient is not allergic to aspirin, give him the appropriate dose of aspirin, and document the time and dose given. 2. Why does the incidence of diabetes mellitus increase with age? A. Decreased food intake, decreased weight gain, and decreased blood sugar levels B. Decreased physical activity, increased weight gain, and decreased insulin production C. Increased physical activity, increased food intake, and increased insulin production D. Decreased physical activity, increased weight gain, and decreased blood sugar levels - ANSWER B. Decreased physical activity, increased weight gain, and decreased insulin production 3. How does respiration differ from ventilation? A. Respiration occurs when the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, whereas ventilation occurs when those same muscles relax. B. Respiration occurs when oxygen is delivered to the cells of the body, whereas ventilation occurs when carbon dioxide is removed. C. Respiration is the process of gas exchange, whereas ventilation is the movement of air between the lungs and the environment. D. Ventilation occurs when air is forced into the lungs, whereas respiration occurs when air is drawn or sucked into the lungs. - ANSWER C. Respiration is the process of gas exchange, whereas ventilation is the movement of air between the lungs and the environment. 4. During a 30-minute transport of a stable patient, you should reassess him or her at least ________ times. A. 2 B. 6 C. 4 D. 3 - ANSWER A. 2 5. Which of the following glands regulates the function of all other endocrine glands in the body? A. Pituitary B. Parathyroid C. Thyroid D. Adrenal - ANSWER A. Pituitary 6. Activated charcoal is an example of a(n): A. suspension. B. elixir. C. gel. D. solution. - ANSWER A. suspension. 7. In which of the following patients would the head tilt-chin lift maneuver be the MOST appropriate method of opening the airway? A. A 50-year-old male who is unconscious following head trauma B. A 37-year-old female who is found unconscious in her bed C. A 24-year-old male who is found unconscious at the base of a tree D. A 45-year-old male who is semiconscious after falling 20 feet - ANSWER B. A 37-year-old female who is found unconscious in her bed 8. A 19-year-old male was stung multiple times by fire ants. He is experiencing obvious signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock. You administer high-flow oxygen and give him epinephrine via intramuscular injection. Upon reassessment, you determine that his condition has not improved. You should: A. consider that he may actually be experiencing an acute asthma attack. B. request a paramedic unit that is stationed approximately 15 miles away. C. provide only supportive care en route to the hospital. D. repeat the epinephrine injection with the appropriate medical control. - ANSWER D. repeat the epinephrine injection with the appropriate medical control. 9. An infant's blood pressure typically increases with age because: A. the infant's total blood volume decreases with age. B. his or her normal heart rate usually increases with age. C. as the infant gets older, his or her blood vessels dilate. D. blood pressure directly corresponds to body weight. - ANSWER D. blood pressure directly corresponds to body weight. 10. A 51-year-old female presents with a sudden onset of difficulty breathing. She is conscious and alert and able to speak in complete sentences. Her respirations are 26 breaths/min and regular. You should: A. insert a nasal airway in case her mental status decreases. B. assist her ventilations with a bag-valve mask. C. administer oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask. D. perform a secondary assessment and then begin treatment. - ANSWER C. administer oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask. 11. You suspect that a pregnant 16-year-old girl has a broken leg after she was hit by a car. You explain that you plan to splint her leg, and she agrees to treatment. Which type of consent is her agreement considered? A. Minor's B. Informed C. Implied D. Expressed - ANSWER D. Expressed 12. Alkalosis is a condition that occurs when: A. dangerous acids accumulate in the bloodstream. B. the level of carbon dioxide in the blood increases. C. slow, shallow breathing eliminates too much carbon dioxide. D. blood acidity is reduced by excessive breathing. - ANSWER D. blood acidity is reduced by excessive breathing. 13. Inadequate circulation of blood throughout the body is called ________. A. hypotension B. shock C. hypoxia D. perfusion - ANSWER B. shock 14. An infant or small child's airway can be occluded if it is overextended or overflexed because: A. the tongue is proportionately small and can fall back into the throat. B. he or she has a long neck, which makes the trachea prone to collapse. C. the back of the head is flat, which prevents a neutral position. D. the occiput is proportionately large and the trachea is flexible. - ANSWER D. the occiput is proportionately large and the trachea is flexible. 15. Major risk factors for AMI include all of the following, EXCEPT: A. hypoglycemia. B. hypertension. C. diabetes mellitus. D. elevated cholesterol. - ANSWER A. hypoglycemia. 16. Which of the following conditions or situations would MOST likely make excited delirium worse? A. Alcohol withdrawal B. Limited physical contact C. Dimly lit environment D. Elevated blood glucose - ANSWER A. Alcohol withdrawal 17. Nitroglycerin, when given to patients with cardiac-related chest pain: A. increases blood return to the right atrium. B. constricts the veins throughout the body. C. increases myocardial contraction force. D. relaxes the walls of the coronary arteries. - ANSWER D. relaxes the walls of the coronary arteries. 18. The body's backup system of respiratory control, which is based on low concentrations of oxygen in the blood, is called the: A. oxyhemoglobin drive. B. hypocarbic drive. C. hypoxic drive. D. pneumotaxic drive. - ANSWER C. hypoxic drive. 19. An area of swelling or enlargement in a weakened arterial wall is called: A. a thrombus. B. atherosclerosis. C. an aneurysm. D. an embolism. - ANSWER C. an aneurysm. 20. You respond to a residence for a patient with a severe leg injury following an accident with a chainsaw. When you arrive, you find the patient, a 44-year-old male, lying supine in the backyard. He has a partial amputation of his right lower leg that is actively bleeding. The patient is conscious and breathing adequately; however, he is restless and his skin is diaphoretic. You should: A. immediately splint his leg B. assess the rate and quality of his pulse. C. immediately evaluate his airway. D. administer 100% supplemental oxygen. - ANSWER C. immediately evaluate his airway. 21. The term "supraventricular tachycardia" means: A. a rapid heart rate that originates from within the ventricles. B. a slow heart rate that originates from within the ventricles. C. a rapid heart rate that originates from above the ventricles. D. a slow heart rate that originates from above the ventricles. - ANSWER C. a rapid heart rate that originates from above the ventricles. 22. Which of the following medication routes delivers a drug through the skin over an extended period of time, such as a nitroglycerin or nicotine patch? A. Subcutaneous B. Intraosseous C. Transcutaneous D. Sublingual - ANSWER C. Transcutaneous 23. A patient with spontaneous respirations is breathing: A. at a normal rate. B. with shallow depth. C. without difficulty. D. without assistance. - ANSWER D. without assistance. 24. In order for efficient pulmonary gas exchange to occur: A. the percentage of inhaled carbon dioxide must exceed the percentage of inhaled oxygen. B. there must be low quantities of pulmonary surfactant to allow for full alveolar expansion. C. oxygen and carbon dioxide must be able to freely diffuse across the alveolar-capillary membrane. D. the pulmonary capillaries must be completely constricted and the alveoli must be collapsed. - ANSWER C. oxygen and carbon dioxide must be able to freely diffuse across the alveolar-capillary membrane. 25. Which of the following descriptions MOST accurately portrays emergency medical services (EMS)? A. A vast network of advanced life support (ALS) providers who provide definitive emergency care in the prehospital setting B. A system composed exclusively of emergency medical responders (EMRs) and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) who are responsible for providing care to sick and injured patients C. A team of health care professionals who are responsible for providing emergency care and transportation to the sick and injured D. A team of paramedics and emergency physicians who are responsible for providing emergency care to critically injured patients - ANSWER C. A team of health care professionals who are responsible for providing emergency care and transportation to the sick and injured 26. Crackles (rales) are caused by _________. A. air passing through fluid B. severe bronchoconstriction C. mucus in the larger airways D. narrowing of the upper airways - ANSWER A. air passing through fluid 27. When assessing the skin of an unresponsive patient, you note that it has a bluish tint to it. This finding is called: A. flushing. B. pallor. C. mottling. D. cyanosis. - ANSWER D. cyanosis. 28. An elderly patient has fallen and hit her head. Your initial care should focus on: A. gathering medical history data. B. providing immediate transport. C. airway, breathing, and circulation. D. obtaining baseline vital signs. - ANSWER C. airway, breathing, and circulation. 29. According to the National EMS Scope of Practice Model, an EMT should be able to: A. interpret a basic (ECG) rhythm and treat accordingly. B. insert a peripheral IV line and infuse fluids. C. administer epinephrine via the subcutaneous route. D. assist a patient with certain prescribed medications. - ANSWER D. assist a patient with certain prescribed medications. 30. You are assisting an asthma patient with his prescribed metered-dose inhaler. After the patient takes a deep breath and depresses the inhaler, you should: A. immediately reapply the oxygen mask and reassess his condition. B. allow him to breathe room air and assess his oxygen saturation. C. instruct him to hold his breath for as long as he comfortably can. D. advise him to exhale forcefully to ensure medication absorption. - ANSWER C. instruct him to hold his breath for as long as he comfortably can. 31. Worn-out blood cells, foreign substances, and bacteria are filtered from the blood by the: A. liver. B. kidney. C. spleen. D. pancreas. - ANSWER C. spleen. 32. If an EMT candidate has been convicted of a felony or misdemeanor, he or she should: A. contact the state EMS office and provide its staff with the required documentation. B. recognize that any such conviction will disqualify him or her from EMT licensure. C. wait at least 24 months before taking another state-approved EMT class. D. send an official request to the National Registry of EMTs (NREMT) to seek approval to take the EMT exam. - ANSWER A. contact the state EMS office and provide its staff with the required documentation. 33. Prior to applying a nonrebreathing mask to a patient, you must ensure that the: A. flow rate is set at 6 L/min. B. one-way valve is sealed. C. patient has reduced tidal volume. D. reservoir bag is fully inflated. - ANSWER D. reservoir bag is fully inflated. 34. When caring for a 65-year-old male with respiratory distress, you place him in a comfortable position but do not apply oxygen. The patient's condition continues to deteriorate and he develops cardiac arrest and dies at the hospital. This scenario is an example of: A. battery. B. negligence. C. abandonment. D. assault. - ANSWER B. negligence. 35. You respond to the home of a 59-year-old man who is unconscious; has slow, shallow breathing; and has a weak pulse. The family states that the patient has terminal brain cancer and does not wish to be resuscitated. They further state that there is a DNR order for this patient, but they are unable to locate it. You should: A. decide on further action once the DNR order is produced. B. transport the patient without providing any treatment. C. begin treatment and contact medical control as needed. D. honor the patient's wishes and withhold all treatment. - ANSWER C. begin treatment and contact medical control as needed. 36. A 23-year-old male experienced severe head trauma after his motorcycle collided with an oncoming truck. He is unconscious, has rapid and shallow breathing, and has copious bloody secretions in his mouth. How should you manage his airway? A. Insert a nasopharyngeal airway and provide suction and assisted ventilations. B. Alternate 15 seconds of oral suctioning with 2 minutes of assisted ventilation. C. Provide continuous ventilations with a bag-valve mask to minimize hypoxia. D. Suction his oropharynx with a rigid catheter until all secretions are removed. - ANSWER B. Alternate 15 seconds of oral suctioning with 2 minutes of assisted ventilation. 37. You are caring for a driver who struck a light pole. She admits to drinking alcohol but orders you not to tell anyone. You should report the information to __________. A. law enforcement personnel B. your medical director C. the state motor vehicle department D. the receiving nurse or doctor - ANSWER D. the receiving nurse or doctor 38. The diastolic blood pressure represents the: A. average pressure against the arterial walls during a cardiac cycle. B. increased arterial pressure that occurs during ventricular contraction. C. minimum amount of pressure that is always present in the arteries. D. difference in pressure between ventricular contraction and relaxation. - ANSWER C. minimum amount of pressure that is always present in the arteries. 39. Your primary assessment of an elderly woman reveals that she is conscious and alert, but is experiencing difficulty breathing. She has a history of emphysema, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. As you assess the patient's circulatory status, you should direct your partner to: A. perform a head-to-toe secondary assessment. B. assess her oxygen saturation and blood pressure. C. administer oxygen with the appropriate device. D. retrieve the stretcher and prepare for transport. - ANSWER C. administer oxygen with the appropriate device. 40. You are summoned to a convalescent center for an 88-year-old female with an altered mental status. A staff nurse advises you that the patient has terminal cancer and her physician stated that she would probably die within the next few hours; a valid do not resuscitate (DNR) order is presented to you. When caring for this patient, you should: A. begin chest compressions if she experiences cardiac arrest. B. provide no interventions and transport to the hospital. C. make her comfortable and provide emotional support. D. depart the scene and allow her to die with dignity. - ANSWER C. make her comfortable and provide emotional support. 41. An 81-year-old female fell and struck her head. You find the patient lying on her left side. She is conscious and complains of neck and upper back pain. As you are assessing her, you note that she has a severely kyphotic spine. What is the MOST appropriate method of immobilizing this patient? A. Leave her on her side and use blanket rolls to immobilize her to the long backboard. B. Utilize a direct carry to bring her to the stretcher. C. Move her to a supine position and immobilize her with a scoop stretcher and padding. D. Immobilize her in a supine position on a long backboard and secure her with straps. - ANSWER A. Leave her on her side and use blanket rolls to immobilize her to the long backboard. 42. A diabetic patient has polydipsia. This means that she: A. is excessively thirsty. B. is unable to swallow. C. has low blood sugar. D. urinates frequently. - ANSWER A. is excessively thirsty. 43. Acute pulmonary edema would MOST likely develop as the result of: A. right-sided heart failure. B. severe hyperventilation. C. toxic chemical inhalation. D. an upper airway infection. - ANSWER C. toxic chemical inhalation. 44. During your assessment of a 20-year-old man with a severe headache and nausea, you ask him when his headache began, but he does not answer your question immediately. You should: A. repeat your question because he probably did not hear you. B. ask him if he frequently experiences severe headaches and nausea. C. allow him time to think about the question and respond to it. D. tell him that you cannot help him unless he answers your questions. - ANSWER C. allow him time to think about the question and respond to it. 45. The right coronary artery supplies blood to the: A. right ventricle and inferior wall of the left ventricle. B. right atrium and posterior wall of the right ventricle. C. left ventricle and inferior wall of the right atrium. D. left ventricle and posterior wall of the right ventricle. - ANSWER A. right ventricle and inferior wall of the left ventricle. 46. A crackling sound produced by air bubbles under the skin is called: A. Korotkoff sounds. B. rhonchi. C. crepitus D. subcutaneous emphysema. - ANSWER D. subcutaneous emphysema. 47. Critical incident stress management (CISM) can occur at an ongoing scene in all of the following circumstances, EXCEPT: A. before personnel are preparing to reenter the scene. B. when patients are actively being assessed or treated. C. before leaving the scene after the incident is resolved. D. when personnel are assessed during periods of rest. - ANSWER B. when patients are actively being assessed or treated. 48. When assessing a 62-year-old female with crushing chest pain, you note that her pulse is rapid and irregular. You should administer supplemental oxygen if needed and then: A. transport at once and consider requesting a paramedic unit. B. document your findings and perform a detailed assessment. C. conclude that the irregular pulse is normal based on her age. D. apply the AED and analyze her cardiac rhythm. - ANSWER A. transport at once and consider requesting a paramedic unit. 49. If a patient develops difficulty breathing after your primary assessment, you should immediately: A. reevaluate his or her airway status. B. begin assisting his or her breathing. C. determine his or her respiratory rate. D. auscultate his or her breath sounds. - ANSWER A. reevaluate his or her airway status. 50. The diaphragm is unique because it: A. does not receive impulses from the brain. B. does not have striations like skeletal muscle. C. is both a voluntary and an involuntary muscle. D. is the exclusive muscle of breathing. - ANSWER C. is both a voluntary and an involuntary muscle. 51. To protect vital organs, the body compensates by directing blood flow away from organs that are more tolerant of low flow, such as: A. the brain. B. the lungs. C. the heart. D. the skin. - ANSWER D. the skin. 52. Which of the following organs or structures lies within the retroperitoneal space? A. Kidneys B. Gallbladder C. Ascending aorta D. Spleen - ANSWER A. Kidneys 53. A 30-year-old male presents with acute shortness of breath, widespread hives, and facial swelling. He denies any past medical history and takes no medications. During your assessment, you hear wheezing over all the lung fields. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg and his heart rate is 110 beats/min. In addition to giving him high-flow oxygen, the MOST important treatment for this patient is: A. an antihistamine. B. a beta-antagonist. C. albuterol. D. epinephrine. - ANSWER D. epinephrine. 54. Kussmaul respirations are an indication that the body is: A. severely hypoxic and is eliminating excess CO2. B. trying to generate energy by breathing deeply. C. compensating for decreased blood glucose levels. D. attempting to eliminate acids from the blood. - ANSWER D. attempting to eliminate acids from the blood. 55. After assisting your patient with prescribed nitroglycerin, you should: A. perform a secondary assessment before administering further doses. B. avoid further dosing if the patient complains of a severe headache. C. reassess his or her blood pressure within 5 minutes to detect hypotension. D. place the patient in a recumbent position in case of fainting. - ANSWER C. reassess his or her blood pressure within 5 minutes to detect hypotension. 56. Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors results in: A. dilation of the blood vessels. B. constriction of the blood vessels. C. increased heart rate. D. increased cardiac contractility. - ANSWER B. constriction of the blood vessels. 57. You respond to a call for an unknown emergency. When you arrive at the scene, the patient's husband meets you at the door and states that his wife has been depressed and has locked herself in an upstairs bedroom. He further tells you that he keeps his handgun in the bedroom. You should: A. get in your ambulance and leave the scene immediately. B. remain in a safe place and request law enforcement. C. go upstairs with caution and attempt to talk to the patient. D. ask the husband to attempt to reason with his wife. - ANSWER [Show More]
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