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BMS 300 FINAL EXAM Questions and Answers 2022

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Dipole Moment - ANSWER Partial negative and partial positive charge What causes surface tension? - ANSWER Hydrogen bonding Hydrophilic - ANSWER "water loving" Hydrophobic - ANSWER "water fear... ing" Hydration Shell - ANSWER Water surrounding the ions Diffusion - ANSWER Movement of ions from high to low concentrations Osmosis - ANSWER Diffusion of water Amphipathic - ANSWER "both loving" Characteristics of the head group - ANSWER Hydrophilic, charged, phosphodiestor bonds Characteristics of the tail - ANSWER Hydrophobic, uncharged, ester bonds. Characteristics of proteins - ANSWER Made up of amino acids, have polypeptides, includes enzymes, structural elements, and transmembrane proteins Characteristics of Transmembrane Proteins - ANSWER Has a lumen that is a hydrophilic pathway, allows movement of ions, and has R-groups. Hydrophobic interacts with lipid bilayer and hydrophilic interacts with pathway/lumen Characteristics of prokaryotes - ANSWER Archea and bacteria. Single celled, no membrane bound "organs", free floating DNA (circular) Eukaryotes - ANSWER Fungus plants and animals. Multi-cell, organelles, nucleus (DNA compacted) What is contained in the nucleus? - ANSWER DNA Nuclear pores - ANSWER Transport of molecules. It is selective to protein and RNA What makes the rough endoplasmic reticulum rough? - ANSWER Ribosomes What does glycosylation mean? - ANSWER It has sugars on it Where does final processing occur? - ANSWER Golgi Apparatus Ribosome - ANSWER Where proteins are made Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum - ANSWER Folding, glycosylating, and packaging of proteins Transmembrane proteins - ANSWER Cross the membrane and are on both the inside and outside of the cell Lysosomal proteins - ANSWER Destined for delivery to the lysosome Secreted proteins - ANSWER Destined to leave the cell What is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum responsible for? - ANSWER Fat processing Characteristics of the mitochondira - ANSWER It is ATP. Is double layered, and is passed down from the mom only What is the lysosome similar to? - ANSWER A garbage disposal Characteristics of long transport - ANSWER Polymer: microtubules. Monomer: tubulin. Motor protein (vesicle transporting ATPase): kinesin is positive directed and dynein is negative directed Characteristics of local transport - ANSWER Polymer: filamentous actin. Monomer: globular actin. Motor protein (vesicle transporting ATPase): mysoin. Central Dogma - ANSWER DNA ---replication---> DNA ---transcription---> RNA ---translation---> protein What part of the central dogma occurs in the nucleus? - ANSWER Replication and Transcription What part of the central dogma occurs in the cytoplasm? - ANSWER Translation What part of the central dogma is semi-conservative? - ANSWER Replication What does semi-conservative mean? - ANSWER When creating more DNA we don't destroy the original two strands, rather we keep them. Helicases - ANSWER Unwinds the DNA, and breaks hydrogen bonds Characteristics of DNA polymerase - ANSWER Reads 3' to 5'. Adds 5' to 3'. Has phosphodiester bonds. What is RNA synthesized from? - ANSWER DNA What are the DNA bases? - ANSWER A, T, G, C What are the RNA bases? - ANSWER A, U, G, C What is the promoter in DNA - ANSWER TATA box Characteristics of RNA polymerase - ANSWER 3' to 5'. Breaks hydrogen bonds between DNA strands. Add appropriate bases, and results in phosphodiester bonds between ribose sugars. Splicing - ANSWER Removal of introns and joining of exons Introns - ANSWER These stay in the nucleus Exons - ANSWER These exit the nucleus and are expressed What are codons? - ANSWER 3 bases on mRNA What is the start codon? - ANSWER AUG What does the stop codon do? - ANSWER Stops translation Characteristics of the ribosome - ANSWER 5' to 3'. Links amino acids via peptide bonds tRNA - ANSWER Transfer RNA. Has the anti-codon and carries amino acids to the ribosomes. Signal Recognition Particle - ANSWER (SRP). Stops translation and moves the rough ER SRP receptor characteristics - ANSWER Located on the rough ER membrane and binds to SRP to help guide ribosomes to protein translocater (translocon) Characteristics of translocon - ANSWER Transmembrane protein (on rough ER), aid proteins entering the lumen of the ER (to integrate proteins into ER membrane) If there is a signal peptide where does it go? - ANSWER Lysosome If there is no signal peptide where does it go? - ANSWER Cytoplasm rRNA - ANSWER Ribosomal RNA [Show More]

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