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MUTATION AND VARIATION NOTES

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MUTATION AND VARIATION CUT OBJECTIVE 26!!! NON-MENDELIAN INHERITANCE - Mendelian = Complete Dominance - Only the dominant allele’s protein is produced - When a yellow and purple parent produce ... a purple offspring - Not all traits are simply determined by a single dominant and a single recessive allele. - Incomplete Dominance (see Diana’s picture) - A little of each allele’s protein is produced. - Codominance - A lot of each allele’s protein is produced. - Polygenic - Multiple genes determine the trait - Eye color - Bell Peppers - Colon Cancer - Human needs to have mutations in about 7 different genes. - Sex-Linked Traits - Gene for trait is on portion of “X” chromosomes not matched by “Y” COMPLEXITY - Variable Expression: All cells in an organism have the same genes, but only some are used. - Muscle Cell - Pancreatic Cell - Molecular “bookmarks” are put in each cell’s DNA to indicate which genes should be active. - Modifier Genes: Some genes can modify the effect of another gene. - Albino: Gene stops production of pigment proteins - Master Control Genes: Activate numerous genes to control complex tasks - Environmental Effects: A cell’s surroundings can impact how genes function - Diet and hormones - Which is a bigger influence: Genetics or Environment? (Nature vs Nurture) - Heterochromia: your eye has 2 distinct color MUTATIONS - Mutations produce new alleles (versions of genes) - Mutation: DNA is altered - “Big” Chromosomal Mutations - structured changes or irregular number (uncommon) - Base “Point” Mutation - common - Mutations in sperm and eggs can be passed on to future generations. - Causes of Mutations - Mistakes during DNA replication [Show More]

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