*NURSING > QUESTIONS & ANSWERS > Rasmussen Pathophysiology Final Exam. Updated 2022/2023 review. (All)

Rasmussen Pathophysiology Final Exam. Updated 2022/2023 review.

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Rasmussen Pathophysiology Final Exam. Updated 2022/2023 review. Clinical manifestations that may result from diarrhea (Please use critical thinking to determine what is happening to fluid volume wi... th diarrhea) (Select all that apply) mod 1 - Ans-Frequent loose, watery stools. Abdominal cramps. Abdominal pain. Fever. Bleeding. Lightheadedness or dizziness from dehydration. Complications may result from diarrhea of any etiology. Fluid loss with consequent dehydration, electrolyte loss (sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride), and even vascular collapse sometimes occur. Lymph node locations (Select All) mod 2 - Ans-head, neck, armpits, groin What are the properties of benign tumors? (Select All)mod 2 - Ans-A benign neoplasm looks a lot like the tissue with normal cells from which it originated, and has a slow growth rate. Benign neoplasms do not invade surrounding tissues and they do not metastasize. Identify examples of types of malignant cells (Select All)mod 2 - Ans-1 carcinoma,2 sarcoma,3 melanoma,4 lymphoma, and 5 leukemia. Rheumatoid arthritis clinical manifestation? (Select all)mod 3 - Ans-Tender, warm, swollen joints. Joint stiffness that is usually worse in the mornings and after inactivity. Fatigue, fever and loss of appetite. Characteristics of a wound that is granulated (Select All)mod 3 - Ans-is defined as follows: a wound bed filled with granulation tissue to the level of the surrounding skin or new epithelium; no dead space; no avascular tissue; no signs or symptoms of infection; and with open wound edges (it is healing) Symptoms of a patient with a herniated disc (Select All)mod 3 - Ans-Pain areas: in the arm, back, foot, or legMuscular: muscle weakness, muscle spasms, or overactive reflexes Sensory: leg numbness, pins and needles, or uncomfortable tingling and burning Also common: foot numbness, hand numbness, or stiff neck Clinical manifestation of Addison's disease (Select all that apply) mod 4 - Ans-Pain areas: in the abdomen or muscles Whole body: dehydration, dizziness, fainting, fatigue, lightheadedness, loss of appetite, low blood pressure, low blood sugar, water-electrolyte imbalance, or sweating Gastrointestinal: nausea or vomiting Also common: absence of menstruation, craving salty foods, darkening of the skin, excess urination, muscle weakness, reduced sex drive, or weight loss Kidney failure or end-stage main electrolyte imbalance (Select All) mod 5 - Ans-hypervolemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and bicarbonate deficiency (metabolic acidosis). Hyponatremic. What happens during Hemostasis (Select All) mod 9 - Ans-is the physiological process by which bleeding ceases. Hemostasis involves three basic steps: vascular spasm, the formation of a platelet plug, and coagulation, in which clotting factors promote the formation of a fibrin clot. Fibrinolysis is the process in which a clot is degraded in a healing vessel. Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP) pathogenesis and clinical findings (Select all) mod 7 - Ans-Causes: compression of the brain, inflammation of the brain tissues, inability of the cranium to expand (adults), reduced blood flow to the brain from increased pressure. Symptoms: initial-headache, vomiting, altered LOC (drowsiness), blurred vision, edema of optic disc (papilledema). Higher levels of ICP-LOC decrease, impaired pupil responsiveness to light, altered respiratory patterns, unresponsive to stimulation, unable to move/verbalize/open eyes. What is gluconeogenesis? - Ans-production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sourcesWhat are two lab tests that help to determine kidney function (i.e. BUN and creatinine). Know the normal for these values. - Ans-BUN In general, around 7 to 20 mg/dL (2.5 to 7.1 mmol/L) is considered normal. Urea nitrogen levels tend to increase with age. The normal range for creatinine in the blood may be 0.84 to 1.21 milligrams per deciliter (74.3 to 107 micromoles per liter), Consequences of uncontrolled blood sugar - Ans-Heart disease and a higher risk for heart attack and stroke. Eye and vision problems, including blindness. Kidney disease that can lead to kidney failure. Neuropathy (nerve damage) that can cause tingling and pain the hands and feet. Infections. Dental problems. Amputations due to infections in the feet. What is diabetes insipidus? - Ans-A disorder of salt and water metabolism marked by intense thirst and heavy urination. Diabetes insipidus occurs when the body can't regulate how it handles fluids. The condition is caused by a hormonal abnormality and isn't related to diabetes. In addition to extreme thirst and heavy urination, other symptoms may include getting up at night to urinate or bed-wetting. effects of hipoxia (low oxygen in tissues) in brain injury - Ans-brain is starved from oxygen, can range from mild, short-term symptoms such as dizziness or concentration problems, through severe, longterm issues including vision, speech and memory. types of brain injuries - Ans-PRIMARY result of initial trauma/injury on brain cells. Focal injuries (coup) localized to site of impact. Polar injuries (coup contrecoup) caused by acceleration-deceleration movement of the brain within the skull resulting in double injury (usually opposite focal injury) Diffuse injury caused by movement of the brain within the skull resulting in widespread axonal injury. brain injury postures - Ans-DECORTICATE flexed wrists and arms, extended legs and feet.DECEREBRATE arm and leg extension Glasgow Coma Scale Scores - Ans-MILD (12+) MODERATE (9-12) SEVERE (8-) Symptoms of bacterial MENINGITIS - Ans-headache, fever, stiff neck (meningismus) gets worst when head is tilted forward, signs of cerebral dysfunction (confusion, delirium) Impact of HYPOXIA on brain cells - Ans-brain cells are extremely sensitive to oxygen deprivation and can begin to die within 5 minutes after oxygen supply has been cut off. Longer hypoxia coma, seizures and brain death. HEMORRHAGIC STROKE VS ISCHEMIC STROKE - Ans-Hemorrhagic caused by rupture of blood vessels and blood flows to the brain tissue. ISCHEMIC (most common type) It is usually caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. This keeps blood from flowing to the brain. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. Another cause is stenosis, or narrowing of the artery. What causes gout? - Ans-uric acid, depositing acid crystals in joint. Risk age hyperucemia-urate crystal induced arthritis 4 phases asymptomatic hyperucemia, acute gouty arthritis, intercritical gout and chronic tophaceus gout. Assessment findings for shingles - Ans-aka herpes zooster. linear unilateral rash, pruritus (itch) postherpetic neuralgia (pain nerve fibers and skin) [Show More]

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