Pathophysiology > QUESTIONS & ANSWERS > NUR 2063 Pathophysiology Exam 2 All questions and answers. Latest 2022/2023. (All)

NUR 2063 Pathophysiology Exam 2 All questions and answers. Latest 2022/2023.

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NUR 2063 Pathophysiology Exam 2 All questions and answers. Latest 2022/2023. What is gastritis? - Ans-Inflammation of the stomach lining. The lining will be red and inflamed and irritated What ar... e the causes of gastritis? - Ans-Ingestion of irritating substances such a alcohol, aspirin, NSAIDS, viruses and bacteria What is GERD? - Ans-the back flow of gastric contents into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter. The inflammation occurs from the reflex of highly acidic stomach acid that comes up. What are the causes of GERD? - Ans-Any condition or agent that alters closure of the lower esophageal sphincter or increases in abdominal pressure, fatty food, caffeine, large amounts of alcohol, smoking, pregnancy and anatomical features like hiatal hernia What are complications of GERD? - Ans-Barrett's esophagus where columnar tissue replaces normal squamous tissue in the distal esophagus that carries a high risk for cancer. Progression can lead to ulcers and scarring. Esophageal strictures, pulmonary symptoms such as cough, asthma and laryngitis from reflux in breathing passages. What are the signs and symptoms of peptic ulcer disease? - Ans-epigastric burning pain that is usually relieved by food or antacids (gastric ulcers present on empty stomach but can be after food, duodenal ulcers present 2-3 hours after food and is relieved by food). Can also be life threatening as GI bleeding can occur without warning and cause a drop in H/H and dark tarry stools and hematemesis. What is the role of H.pylori in peptic ulcer disease? - Ans-promotes both gastric and duodenal ulcer formation and thrives in acidic areas. It slows down ulcer healing and can reoccur frequently, and taking it away can help ulcers heal.What is pseudomembranous colitis?(C.diff) - Ans-acute inflammation and necrosis of large intestine. The intestinal lining cannot absorb well. What is the cause of pseudomembranous colitis? - Ans-clostridium difficile, exposure to long term antibiotics that off set the e.coli and c.diff balance in intestine What are the manifestations of pseudomembranous colitis? - Ans-foul smelling/bloody stool, abdominal pain, fever, leukocytosis, sepsis, colonic perforation. How do we treat pseudomembranous colitis? - Ans-stop current antibiotics, treat ischemia and contributing conditions, give oral antibiotics like metronidazole or vancomycin, fecal transplant or colectomy if severe How do we prevent the spread of pseudomembranous colitis? - Ans-wearing appropriate PPE and washing hands with soap and water only What are the signs and symptoms of appendicitis? - Ans-Periumbilical pain, RLQ pain, presence of a positive McBurneys point with pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, diarrhea, RLQ tenderness, systemic signs of infection How do we assess for appendicitis? - Ans-McBurney's point technique when pressing on the belly button and RLQ hip region and removing the pressure causes intense pain, indicates positive appendicitis What are the causes of bowel obstructions? - Ans-previous surgery of the intestines with adhesions, congenital abnormalities of the bowel, metastatic cancer of the intestinal tract or female reproductive organs, accumulation of fluid, gas, water and electrolytes in the bowel. What is a functional bowel obstruction? - Ans-a problem with the act of the bowel actually moving, such as things that inhibit movement from surgery, medications, opioids, low fiber diets that can slow motility or shut off the GI system from the SNS stimulation.What is a mechanical bowel obstruction? - Ans-due to adhesions, hernia, tumors, impacted feces, volvus or twisting of the intestines, intussusception What are the signs and symptoms of liver disease? - Ans-hepatocellular failure (jaundice, decreased clotting, hypoalbuminemia, decreased vitamin D and K) and portal hypertension (GI congestion due to blockage of blood, more esophageal or gastric varies, hemorrhoids, enlarged spleen,) Explain what jaundice is? - Ans-green- yellow staining of tissues from increased level of bilirubin as the liver cannot metabolize extra bilirubin Where can you find jaundice on assessment? - Ans-eyes, skin, and mouth Explain what ascites is? - Ans-pathological accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity due to the loss of albumin in the liver, causing fluid to be free amongst the cells. It can cause a lot of pain in the abdomen, and it must be drained with a parenthesis Explain hepatic encephalopathy? - Ans-neuropsychiatric syndrome from too much ammonia in the blood as the liver cannot break it down. results in dementia and psychotic symptoms common along with jerking What is another name for end stage liver disease? - Ans-cirrhosis What are the signs and symptoms of gallstones? - Ans-sudden pain in the RUQ/ center of the abdomen, back pain, and nauseas and vomiting. Why do gallstones occur? - Ans-due to often a blockage of a duct from a cholesterol filled stone What are the three stages of gallstone formation? - Ans-supersaturation, nucleation, hypo motility Explain supersaturation phase - Ans-bile is saturated with cholesterol, causing precipitation of cholesterol [Show More]

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