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The Anus, Rectum, and Prostate Bates’ Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking, 11th Edition questions and answers solution 2020

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The Anus, Rectum, and Prostate Bates’ Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking, 11th Edition questions and answers solution 2020 Chapter 15: The Anus, Rectum, and Prostate Multip... le Choice 1. A 36-year-old married bank teller comes to your office, complaining of pain with defecation and occasional blood on the toilet paper. She states that last week she had food poisoning with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. She had runny stools but no black or bloody stools. Ever since her illness, she has continued to have severe pain with bowel movements. She now tries to put off defecation as long as possible. Although she is having constipation she denies any further diarrhea or leakage of stool. She has a past medical history of hypothyroidism and two spontaneous vaginal deliveries. She has had no other chronic illnesses or surgeries. She does not smoke and rarely drinks. She has two children. There is no family history of breast or colon cancer. She has had no weight gain, weight loss, fever, or night sweats. On examination she is afebrile, with a blood pressure of 115/70 and a pulse of 80. On abdominal examination she has active bowel sounds, is nontender in all quadrants, and has no hepatosplenomegaly. Inspection of the anus reveals inflammation on the posterior side with erythema. Digital rectal examination is painful for the patient but no abnormalities are palpated. Anoscopic examination reveals no inflammation or bleeding. What is the anal disorder that best describes her symptoms? A) Anorectal fistula B) External hemorrhoids C) Anal fissure D) Anorectal cancer 2. A 42-year-old house painter comes to your clinic, complaining of pain with defecation and profuse bleeding in the toilet after a bowel movement. He was in his usual state of health until 2 weeks ago, when he was injured in a car accident. After the accident he began taking prescription narcotics for the pain in his shoulder. Since then he has had very few bowel movements. His stool is hard and pebble-like. He states he has always been “regular” in the past, with easy bowel movements. His diet has not changed but he states that he is exercising less since the accident. His past medical history includes hypertension and he is on a low-dose diuretic. He has had no other chronic illnesses or surgeries. He has a family history of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes but no cancer. He is divorced and has three children. He smokes two packs of cigarettes per day and quit drinking more than 10 years ago. He has had no recent weight loss, weight gain, fever, or night sweats. On examination he appears muscular and healthy; he is afebrile. His blood pressure is 135/90 with a pulse of 80. His cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are normal. He is wearing a sling on his left arm. On observation of his anus you find a swollen bluish ovoid mass that appears to contain a blood clot. Digital rectal examination is extremely painful for the patient. No other mass is palpated within the anus or rectum. What disorder of the anus is this patient likely to have? A) Anal fissure B) External hemorrhoid C) Anorectal cancer D) Internal hemorrhoid 3. A 75-year-old retired construction worker comes to your clinic, complaining of bright red blood in the toilet for the last several months. He has no pain with defecation but has occasional constipation. He states he eats a healthy diet with fruits and vegetables and walks 2 miles a day. He has had a 10-pound weight loss over the last 3 months. He denies fever or night sweats. His medical history includes high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, and arthritis. He has also had an appendectomy. He smoked for 40 years, two packs a day, but quit 15 years ago. He used to drink alcohol but doesn't now. His father died in his 60s of a heart attack and his mother had breast cancer in her 70s. On examination he appears his stated age and sits comfortably on the examining table. His blood pressure is 150/85 and his pulse is 88. He is afebrile. His cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are normal. Visualization of the anus shows no erythema, masses, or inflammation. Digital rectal examination elicits an irregular, firm mass on the posterior side of the rectum. After you remove your finger you notice frank blood on your glove. What anal or rectal disorder is this patient most likely to have? A) Anal fissure B) Internal hemorrhoid C) Prostate cancer D) Anorectal cancer 4. A 60-year-old coach comes to your clinic, complaining of difficulty starting to urinate for the last several months. He believes the problem is steadily getting worse. When asked he says he has a very weak stream and it feels like it takes 10 minutes to empty his bladder. He also has the urge to go to the bathroom more often than he used to. He denies any blood or sediment in his urine and any pain with urination. He has had no fever, weight gain, weight loss, or night sweats. His medical history includes type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure treated with medications. He does not smoke but drinks a six pack of beer weekly. He has been married for 35 years. His mother died of a myocardial infarction in her 70s and his father is currently in his 80s with high blood pressure and arthritis. On examination you see a mildly obese male who is alert and cooperative. His blood pressure is 130/70 with a heart rate of 80. He is afebrile and his cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are normal. On visualization of the anus you see no inflammation, masses, or fissures. Digital rectal examination reveals a smooth, enlarged prostate. No discrete masses are felt. There is no blood on the glove or on guaiac testing. An analysis of the urine shows no red blood cells, white blood cells, or bacteria. What disorder of the anus, rectum, or prostate is this most likely to be? A) Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) B) Prostatitis C) Prostate cancer D) Anorectal cancer 5. A 24-year-old graduate student comes to your clinic, complaining of burning during urination and increased urinary frequency. He has had a low-grade fever (100.5 degrees) and does not feel very well. He is very worried about sexually transmitted diseases because he had a drunken encounter 2 weeks ago and did not use a condom. He has had no recent weight loss, weight gain, or night sweats. His past medical history includes knee surgery in high school and genital warts in college. He does not smoke but drinks six beers every Friday and Saturday night. He denies using any IV drugs but has tried marijuana in the past. His father has high cholesterol but his mother is healthy. On examination he appears tired. His temperature is 99.5 degrees and his blood pressure is 110/70. His abdominal examination is normal. Visualization of the anus shows no masses, inflammation, or fissures. Digital rectal examination reveals a warm, boggy, tender prostate. No discrete masses are felt and there is no blood on the glove. The scrotum and penis appear normal. Urinalysis shows moderate amounts of white blood cells and bacteria. What disorder of the anus, prostate, or rectum best describes this situation? A) Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) B) Prostatitis C) Prostate cancer D) Epididymitis 6. A 45-year-old African-American minister comes to your clinic for a general physical examination. He has not been feeling very well for about 3 months, including night sweats and a chronic low-grade fever of 100 to 101 degrees. He denies any upper respiratory symptoms, chest pain, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, blood in his stool, or urinary tract symptoms. He has had some lower back pain. He has a past history of difficult-to-control high blood pressure and high cholesterol. He has had no surgeries in the past. His mother has diabetes and high blood pressure. He knows very little about his father because his parents divorced when he was young. He knows his father died in his 50s, but he is unsure of the exact cause. The patient denies smoking, drinking, or drug use. He is married and has three children. On examination he appears his stated age and is generally fit. His temperature is 99.9 degrees and his blood pressure is 160/90. His head, ears, nose, throat, and neck examinations are normal. His cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are also normal. On visualization of the anus there is no inflammation, masses, or fissures. Digital rectal examination elicits an irregular, asymmetric, hard nodule on the otherwise normal posterior surface of the prostate. Examination of the scrotum and penis are normal. Laboratory results are pending. What disorder of the anus, rectum, or prostate is mostly likely in this case? A) Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) B) Prostatitis C) Prostate cancer D) Anorectal cancer 7. A 26-year-old woman comes to your clinic, complaining of leakage of stool despite generally normal, pain-free bowel movements. She denies any blood in her stool or on the toilet paper. She has had no recent episodes of diarrhea. Her past medical history includes a spontaneous vaginal delivery 3 months ago. She had a fourth-degree tear of the perineal area (from the vagina through the rectum) that was surgically repaired after delivery. A few days later the patient developed an abscess in the anal area that had to be incised and drained. She denies using any tobacco, alcohol, or illegal drugs. Her mother and father are both in good health. She denies any weight gain, weight loss, fever, or night sweats. She is still breast-feeding without any problems. On examination you visualize a small opening anterior to the anus with some surrounding erythema. There is not a mass or other inflammation on inspection. Digital rectal examination reveals smooth rectal walls with no blood. She has no pain during the rectal examination. Bimanual vaginal examination is also normal. What anal or rectal disorder is the most likely cause of her symptom? A) Anal fissure B) External hemorrhoids C) Internal hemorrhoids D) Anorectal fistula 8. A 22-year-old nurse comes to your clinic, complaining of severe constipation and pain during defecation. She has also seen blood on the toilet paper. She states that she eats a healthy diet and does some light exercising. She is currently at the beginning of her third trimester of an unremarkable pregnancy. Her past medical history is unremarkable. Her mother has high cholesterol but her father is in good health. She does not smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. She is married and expecting her first child. On examination she appears healthy and is afebrile, with a blood pressure of 110/60. Her abdominal examination reveals a gravid uterus but is otherwise unremarkable. On visualization of the anus there is a slight red, moist-appearing protrusion from the anus. As you have her bear down, the protrusion grows larger. On digital rectal examination you can feel an enlarged tender area on the posterior side. There is some blood on the glove after the examination. What disorder of the anus or rectum best fits this presentation? A) Anal fissure B) External hemorrhoids C) Internal hemorrhoids D) Anorectal fistula 9. A 55-year-old retired property manager comes to your clinic, concerned that she may have a tumor in her rectum. When asked why, she states that after straining at a bowel movement she felt a mass around her rectum. She denies any blood in her stool, black stools, or pain with defecation. She admits to having had chronic constipation for 30 years. She often uses laxatives to be able to have a bowel movement. She denies any recent weight gain, weight loss, fever, or night sweats. Her past medical history consists of hypothyroidism, and she has had two spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Her mother died recently of colon cancer and her father has high blood pressure but is otherwise healthy. She denies any smoking and only occasionally drinks alcohol. On examination she seems nervous. Her blood pressure is 140/90 and her pulse is 100. Her cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are normal. On visualization of her anus, no inflammation, masses, or fissures are noted. When she is asked to bear down, you see a rosette of red mucosa prolapsing from the anus. On digital rectal examination there are no masses and no blood is found on the glove. What disorder of the anus or rectum is this likely to be? A) Prolapse of the rectum B) Internal hemorrhoids C) Anorectal cancer D) Prostate cancer 10. A 50-year-old truck driver comes to your clinic for a work physical. He has had no upper respiratory, cardiac, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, urinary, or musculoskeletal system complaints. His past medical history is significant for mild arthritis and prior knee surgery in college. He is married and just changed jobs, working for a different trucking company. He smokes one pack of cigarettes a day, drinks less than six beers a week, and denies using any illegal drugs. His mother has high blood pressure and arthritis and his father died of lung cancer in his 60s. On examination, his blood pressure is 130/80 and his pulse is 80. His cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are normal. He has no inguinal hernia, but on his digital rectal examination you palpate a soft, smooth, nontender pedunculated mass on the posterior wall of the rectum. What anal, rectal, or prostate disorder best fits his presentation? A) Internal hemorrhoid B) Prostate cancer C) Anorectal cancer D) Rectal polyp 11. Which is true of the pectinate or dentate line? A) It is a palpable landmark. B) It demarcates the areas supplied by the central nervous system from the peripheral nervous system. C) It is the border between the anal canal and the rectum. D) It is not visible on proctoscopic examination. 12. Which is a sign of benign prostatic hyperplasia? A) Weight loss B) Bone pain C) Fever D) Nocturia 13. Which is true of prostate cancer? A) It is commonly lethal. B) It is one of the less common forms of cancer. C) Family history does not appear to be a risk factor. D) Ethnicity is a risk factor. 14. Important techniques in performing the rectal examination include which of the following? A) Lubrication B) Waiting for the sphincter to relax C) Explaining what the patient should expect with each step before it occurs D) All of the above 15. Dawn is a 55-year-old woman who comes in today for her yearly wellness examination. You carefully perform the rectal examination in the lithotomy position and feel a mass against the bowel wall which is firm and immobile. Which of the following is most likely? A) Colon cancer B) Hemorrhoid C) Anal fissure D) Valve of Houston 16. Mr. Jackson is a 50-year-old African-American who has had discomfort between his scrotum and anus. He also has had some fevers and dysuria. Your rectal examination is halted by tenderness anteriorly, but no frank mass is palpable. What is your most likely diagnosis? A) Prostate cancer B) Colon cancer C) Prostatitis D) Colonic polyp 17. An elderly woman with dementia is brought in by her daughter for a “rectal mass.” On examination you notice a moist pink mass protruding from the anus, which is nontender. It is soft and does not have any associated bleeding. Which of the following is most likely? A) Rectal prolapse B) External hemorrhoid C) Perianal fistula D) Prolapsed internal hemorrhoid 18. A 56-year-old homosexual man presents with itching, anorectal pain, and tenesmus of 1 week's duration. Rectal examination reveals generalized tenderness without frank prostate abnormalities. Which of the following is most likely? A) Acute prostatitis B) External hemorrhoid C) Proctitis D) Colon cancer [Show More]

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