BCBA Exam Review (MOCK; 5) BCBA Exam Review (MOCK; 4) BCBA Exam Review (MOCK; 1) BCBA Exam Review (MOCK; 3) BCBA Exam Review (MOCK; 2) BCBA Exam Review (MOCK; 1) 2021/2022 Philosophic ... doubt involves the continuous questioning of the truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory and knowledge. - True An empirical attitude demands objective observations based on a thorough description and precise quantification of the phenomena of interest. - True The following quotation is representative of which type of behaviorism: "...it is a mistake to rule out events that influence our behavior because they are not accessible to others." - Radical behaviorism The highest level of scientific understanding is: - control, showing how we can influence behavior by presenting or withdrawing variable(s). This formally began the experimental branch of behavior analysis. - Skinner's publication of The Behavior of Organisms Reinforcement strengthens responses that differ in topography from the response reinforced. - True There is a considerable generality across individuals in the events likely to serve as reinforcers because of our similar histories in a common culture. - True Operant conditioning, which encompasses ___________________ and ______________, refers to the process and selective effects of consequences on behavior. - Reinforcement, punishment The term for the state or condition of the environment prior to the emission of a response is technically referred to as: - Antecedent stimuli Applied behavior analysts more often study operant rather than respondent behavior. - True Selecting age-appropriate behaviors lessens the probability that other people will set the occasion for and reward adaptive behaviors that could lead to a more normal life. - False A behavior that produces corresponding modifications or co-variations in other adaptive, untrained behaviors is a(n) _____________________. - Pivotal behavior According to Van Houten (1979) one method for determining socially validated performance criteria is to select standards based on assessment of competent individuals. - True An ecological assessment is an essential component in applied behavioral analysis. - False Another name for anecdotal observation is: - - A diary record - ABC recording - Anecdotal report ________________ measurement facilitates data collection for inter-observer agreement and treatment integrity. - Permanent product A feature of an event that can be measured is called a(n): - Dimension If you are interested in amount of time it takes a student to begin a task after the teacher has given an instruction you would measure _________________. - Response latency Event recording can be used with non-discrete behaviors such as humming. - False An example of a permanent product is: - - Written assignment - Videotape - Audiotape The most common convention for reporting inter-observer agreement measures in applied behavior analysis is: - Percent agreement When observations change the way they employ the definition of behavior over the course of an investigation it is called: - Observer drift What time intervals should be used with momentary time sampling? - 60 seconds or less What is defined as the use of a series of symbols which are used to record the presence or absence of classes of behavior: - Observation code Observers must learn a common: - - Set of classes of behavior - Notation systems - Set of decision conventions Behavior analysts typically use _________________ ____________________ to interpret graphically displayed data. - Visual analysis In general, the more data the better. - False Increasing the distance on the vertical axis decreases the variability of the data displayed. - False Another name for a histogram is: - Bar graph Logarithmic scales are well suited to display and communicate ______________________ change. - Proportional Which of the following are the advantages of the changing criterion design? - - It does not require a withdrawal phase - It allows for experimental analysis while gradually improving behavior. In the multiple baseline design, verification of a predicted level of responding for one behavior cannot be made. - False The ______________ design can be used to evaluate the effects of treatment on the gradual improvement of behavior already in the participant's repertoire. - Changing criterion In which design do intermittent measurements serve as the basis for determining whether or not behavior change has occurred prior to intervention. - Multiple probe The length of the baseline phases for the different behaviors in a multiple baseline design should differ significantly. - True The generality of research findings in applied behavior analysis is assessed, established, and specified through. - Replication In order to evaluate the internal validity of applied behavior analysis research, all of the following should be considered except. - Conceptual sense Which of the following is not an advantage of presenting your research data in a poster session. - Audience participation is minimized With proper experimental design, the experimenter can control all aspects of a subject's behavior. - False Which is not a source of confounding variables. - - Setting - Independent variable - Measurement system - Subject Assume you give a student in your class a forced-choice preference assessment. On this preference assessment, computer time was ranked highest (that is, it was selected the most frequently). What can you say about computer time, based on this information? - Computer time may be a reinforcer for this child. The behavior that occurs temporally closest to the presentation of a reinforcer will be strengthened by its presentation. - True BCBA Exam Review (MOCK; 2) 2021/2022 The levels of understanding science include: *correct Ans*- Prediction, description, & control. This involves the repetition of experiments to determine the reliability of things: *correct Ans*- Replication This branch of behavior analysis concentrates on the philosophy of the science of behavior. *correct Ans*- Behaviorism This approach to understanding behavior attempts to explain all behavior, including private events. *correct Ans*- Radical behaviorism Which is NOT a characteristic of behavior analysis? *correct Ans*- - Effective - Displays Generality - Technological - **Conceptually diverse A behavioral consequence effects the response it follows. *correct Ans*- False ________ refers to a specific instance of behavior. *correct Ans*- Response "Being frightened" qualifies as a behavior since it fits both conditions for an interaction with the environment. *correct Ans*- False Which of the following is NOT a part of the definition for behavioral consequence? *correct Ans*- - Follows a given behavior - Alters the probability of future occurrences of that behavior - **Rate of the given behavior will increase - Is an environmental change A reflex is a _______ _______ relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the respondent behavior it elicits (e.g., knee-jerk to tap just below patella). *correct Ans*- Stimulus-response A(n) ________ behavior is a behavior that produces indirect benefits to clients by potentially increasing opportunities for participation in other environments. *correct Ans*- Access The preferred method of behavioral assessment to determine which behaviors to target for change is ____________ _____________. *correct Ans*- ABC Recording According to Linehan (1977) the purpose of behavioral assessment is to determine: *correct Ans*- A client's problem and how you change is for the better. An anecdotal observation is a form of direct, continuous observation of all behaviors of interest and the environmental conditions. *correct Ans*- True Which of the following is not one of the four methods for obtaining assessment information? *correct Ans*- - Interview - **Ecological assessment - Testing - Direct observation Behaviors that do not naturally produce permanent products can be recorded using: *correct Ans*- Videotape or audiotape. If you are interested in amount of time it takes a student to begin a task after the teacher has given an instruction you would measure ________ ________. *correct Ans*- Response latency One benefit of measurement is that it helps practitioners verify the legitimacy of different treatments. *correct Ans*- True Which of the following is not an advantage of event recording? *correct Ans*- - It always takes form of numerical products - It's easy - **Practitioners do not have to observe the behavior as it occurs - It does not interfere with ongoing activities Duration recording and latency recording are the same. *correct Ans*- False After an intervention is planned, the most _______ observation time should be selected. *correct Ans*- Conservative What is defined as the use of a series of symbols which are used to record the presence or absence of classes of behavior? *correct Ans*- Observation code Observers should receive feedback about the extent to which their data confirm or run counter to hypothesized results or treatment goals. *correct Ans*- False Applied behavior analysts report inter-observer agreement measures during the actual data collection. *correct Ans*- True Observers must learn a common: *correct Ans*- - Set of decision conventions - Notation system - Set of classes of behavior The horizontal axis is scaled in units of time. *correct Ans*- True Experimental control is achieved when a predictable change in an individual's behavior can be reliably and repeatedly produced by the systematic manipulation of some aspect of the person's environment. *correct Ans*- True Another name for a histogram is: *correct Ans*- A bar graph. The three fundamental properties of behavior illustrated on a graph include: *correct Ans*- Level, trend, & variability. Bar graphs enable variability to be graphically displayed. *correct Ans*- False All of the following are variations of the multiple baseline design except _________. *correct Ans*- Multiple baseline across interventions. What are the advantages of the changing criterion design? *correct Ans*- - It does not require a withdrawal phase - It allows for experimental analysis while gradually improving behavior The changing criterion design can be used to evaluate the effects of reinforcement contingencies as they are applied in a graduated fashion to a single target behavior. *correct Ans*- True The design most appropriate for analyzing the effects of a shaping program is the: *correct Ans*- Multiple probe design. The ______________ design is the most widely used experimental design in applied behavior analysis. *correct Ans*- Multiple baseline design. BCBA Exam Review (MOCK; 3) updated 2021/2022 Philosophic doubt involves the continuous questioning of the truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory and knowledge. *ANS*- True This is the assumption upon which science is predicted. *ANS*- Determinism Determinism is: *ANS*- the belief that the universe is a lawful and orderly place, and events occur as the result of other events. There are three levels of understanding that persist in science, and each level contributes to the overall knowledge base in a given field. *ANS*- True Empiricism is: *ANS*- the objective observation of the phenomena of interest. Behavior that is elicited by antecedent stimuli is referred to as: *ANS*- Respondent behavior. Extinction is defined as removing a preferred item contingent upon inappropriate behavior. *ANS*- False A principle of behavior describes a(n) ___________ ___________ between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables. *ANS*- Functional relation Which of the following is neither a form that behavioral consequences might take nor a possible outcome of behavioral consequences: *ANS*- An already-present stimulus becomes part of the environment. Which of the following is considered a principle of behavior? *ANS*- Reinforcement Scientific definitions are important because the allow replication. *ANS*- True When prioritizing behaviors for change a chronic behavior ______ _______ when compared to a more recently acquired behavior. *ANS*- Takes precedence. Which method is most often used for gathering behavioral assessment data? *ANS*- Direct observation. According to the authors, practitioners concerned only with evaluating their efforts in terms of providing optimum service to their clients does not have to use scientific definition. *ANS*- False When selecting a target behavior, the assumption of mutual benefit and good will is permissible. *ANS*- False According to Baer and Fowler (1984), rate of response is an appropriate measure for all behaviors categorized as: *ANS*- Free operant. The number of response opportunities needed to achieve a predetermined level of performance is called trials-to-criterion. *ANS*- True A teacher is interested in measuring the engagement of groups of students at certain times of the day. An appropriate measurement procedure for this would be: *ANS*- Planned activity check. Measuring the length of elapsed time between the onset of a stimulus and the occurrence of a behavior is called _____ recording. *ANS*- Latency A feature of data that appears to exist because of the way the data is measured or examined is called an artifact. *ANS*- True When observations change the way they employ the definition of behavior over the course of an investigation it is called: *ANS*- Observer drift. Which is not one of the functions served by inter-observer agreement measures? *ANS*- Replicable procedures Inter-observer agreement measures are indicators of the _______ of the measurement system. *ANS*- Believability Observers should receive feedback about the extent to which their data confirm or run counter to hypothesized results or treatment goals. *ANS*- False If the goal is to increase a behavior, scheduling observations when the behavior is at the highest level is an example of choosing the most ________ time. *ANS*- Conservative A cumulative record should be used when the target behavior is one that can only occur or not occur once per each unit of time observed and recorded. *ANS*- True ____________ are relatively simple formats for visually displaying relationships among and between a series of measurements and relevant variables. *ANS*- Graphs Which is not a format for the graphic display of data used in applied behavior analysis? *ANS*- Polygraph The value on the vertical axis scale around which a set of repeated measures converge is called: *ANS*- Level. Behavior analysts typically use __________ ___________ to interpret graphically displayed data. *ANS*- Visual analysis BCBA Exam Review (MOCK; 4) updated 2021/2022. Psychology in the early 1900s was dominated by the study of behavior through: ANS✅- Interospection A parsimonious explanation of a phenomena is more complex and abstract than less scientific explanations. ANS✅- False The idea that simple, logical explanations must be ruled out, experimentally or conceptually, before more complex or abstract explanations are considered. ANS✅- Parsimony Behaviorism is the science of human behavior. ANS✅- False Which of the following is not a component specified in the definition of applied behavioral analysis? ANS✅- Applied behavior analysis seeks to produce statistically significant results. Operant conditioning encompasses both reinforcement and punishment. ANS✅- True When certain stimuli increase the future probability of a behavior when they are terminated immediately following a response, what has occurred is terminated: ANS✅- Negative reinforcement A ________________ _____________ is a group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment. ANS✅- Response class Behavior that is elicited by antecedent stimuli is referred to as: ANS✅- Respondent behavior Operant conditioning is best described as a stimulus-response relationship, where the stimulus _____ the response. ANS✅- Evokes An all-too common error in education is to teach a related behavior, not the behavior of interest. ANS✅- True Target behaviors should be selected to maintain the status quo. ANS✅- False When selecting a target behavior, the assumption of mutual benefit and good will is permissible. ANS✅- False A behavior that produces corresponding modifications or co-variations in other adaptive, untrained behaviors is a(n) _____________________. ANS✅- Pivotal behavior The relevance of behavior rule refers to selecting target behaviors which are: ANS✅- Functional A feature of data that appears to exist because of the way the data is measured or examined is called an artifact. ANS✅- True A feature of an event that can be measured is called a(n): ANS✅- Dimension Which of the following is not a consideration when using event recording? ANS✅- Data are always expressed as the number of occurrences. Duration recording and latency recording are the same. ANS✅- False What term refers to the number of times a behavior occurs in the same period of time. ANS✅- False ________________ _____________ is the biggest threat to the accuracy and reliability of data. ANS✅- Human error Accuracy statements are indicators of the believability of the measurement system ANS✅- False If the goal is to increase a behavior, scheduling observations when the behavior is at the highest level is an example of choosing the most ________ time. ANS✅- Conservative A false statement about the requirements of IOA? ANS✅- IOA observers must always score videotapes together. ______________ ______________ is the degree to which two or more independent observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events ANS✅- Inter-observer agreement (IOA) Behavior change is considered a ________ and _______ process, therefore it is important to maintain direct and continuous contact with the behavior under investigation. ANS✅- Dynamic, on-going Graphs are a major tool for ______ the results of applied behavior analysis. ANS✅- - Organizing - Communicating - Storing - Interpreting The three fundamental properties of behavior illustrated on a graph include. ANS✅- Level, Trend, & Variability. The social significance of the behavior change does not play a role in scaling the vertical axis. ANS✅- False Data points falling on either side of a phase line are not counted. ANS✅- True Which is not a design factor to consider when implementing a changing criterion design? ANS✅- Magnitude of intervention. When each behavior changes when, and only when, the independent variable is applied then _______________ has been demonstrated. ANS✅- Experimental control The multiple baseline design provides the strongest evidence of a functional relationship. ANS✅- False All of the following are variations of the multiple baseline design except _________. ANS✅- Multiple baseline across interventions The multiple probe design is effective for situations in which: ANS✅- Prolonged baselines are not appropriate. A measure of the extent and regularity to which the actual application if the independent variable over the course of an experiment matches its description in the method section of a research report is called: ANS✅- Procedural reliability BCBA Exam Review (MOCK; 5) updated 2021/2022. 1. This approach to understanding behavior assumes that inner causes or phenomena directly cause or at least mediate some forms of behavior, and strongly relies on hypothetical constructs or explanatory fiction. ✓ANS- Mentalism 2. Statements that describe the occurrence of the phenomena under study as a function of the operation of specific variables are called: ✓ANS- Functional relation 3. A study is analytic when: ✓ANS- The experimenter has demonstrated control over the occurrence and nonoccurence of the behavior and The experimenter has demonstrated a functional relationship between the manipulated events and the behavior of interest. 4. Approach to understanding behavior assumes that inner causes or phenomena directly cause or at least mediate some forms of behavior, and strongly relies on hypothetical constructs or explanatory fiction. ✓ANS- Mentalism 5. Philosophic doubt requires the scientist to continually question the truthfulness of what is regarded as fact. ✓ANS- True 6. Which of the following is neither a form that behavioral consequences might take nor a possible outcome of behavioral consequences: ✓ANS- An already-present stimulus becomes part of the environment. 7. Respondent behaviors are part of the genetic endowment of each organism. ✓ANS- True 8. _____ refers to a specific instance of behavior. ✓ANS- Response 9. There are many principles of behavior but so far, only a few behavior change procedures. ✓ANS- False 10. Extinction is defined as removing a preferred item contingent upon inappropriate behavior. ✓ANS- False 11. Learning a pivotal behavior can result in modification of other behaviors that have not yet been learned. ✓ANS- True 12. An anecdotal observation is a form of direct, continuous observation of all behaviors of interest and the environmental conditions. ✓ANS- True 13. Explicit behavior definitions are important to the practitioner of applied behavior analysis for all of the following except: ✓ANS- Increased likelihood of behavior change. 14. What approach to replacing unwanted behavior focuses primarily on developing desirable replacement behaviors? ✓ANS- Constuctional 15. When interviewing a significant other about a client's behavior, the behavior analyst should ask variations of all of the following types of questions except: ✓ANS- Why 16. A major disadvantage of using interval recording is that it requires the undivided attention of an observer. ✓ANS- True 17. Which of the following is not an advantage of event recording? ✓ANS- Practitioners do not have to observe the behavior as it occurs. 18. Interval recording cannot provide an estimate of the number of times a behavior occurs in the duration of the behavior. ✓ANS- True 19. Decision making in education and treatment must be based on: ✓ANS- Performance data. 20. Any operant behavior that results in minimal displacement of the organism in both time and space is called a(n) _____ operant. ✓ANS- Free 21. Measurement is accurate when observed values, the data produced by measuring an event, match the true state, or true values, of the event. ✓ANS- True 22. When independent observers obtain high agreement, __________ in the study increases. ✓ANS- Confidence 23. Standardized observation times do not require consistent conditions from observation session to the next. ✓ANS- False 24. A method for training observers is to record: ✓ANS- - Sample vignettes - Sequences from videotapes - Narrative descriptions of behavior 25. What term refers to the difference in agreement that results when observers are aware that their observations will be checked as opposed to how they record when their observations are not checked: ✓ANS- Reactivity 26. ___________ are relatively simple formats for visually displaying relationships among and between a series of measurements and relevant variables. ✓ANS- Graphs 27. Behavior change is considered a ________ and _______ process, therefore it is important to maintain direct and continuous contact with the behavior under investigation. ✓ANS- Dynamic; on-going 28. Bar graphs sacrifice the presentation of the ____________ and ___________ in behavior. ✓ANS- Trend; validity 29. Whenever space permits, condition labels should be placed parallel to the horizontal axis. ✓ANS- True 30. On most graphs the proportion of the vertical axis to the horizontal axis should be approximately: ✓ANS- 2:3 31. The ______________ design is the most widely used experimental design in applied behavior analysis. ✓ANS- Multiple baseline 32. The ______________ design can be used to evaluate the effects of treatment on the gradual improvement of behavior already in the participant's repertoire. ✓ANS- Changing criterion 33. An advantage of the changing criterion design is that the behavior must already be in the participant's repertoire. ✓ANS- False 34. In which multiple baseline design is one target behavior selected for two or more individuals in the same setting? ✓ANS- Across subjects 35. In a changing criterion design, reinforcement is usually contingent upon: ✓ANS- Performance at a specified level. 36. In which type of replication are the conditions of interest purposefully varied? ✓ANS- Systematic 37. How is the generality of research finding established in behavior analytic research through: ✓ANS- Replication of experiments. 38. The right to be informed about about _________ is not one of the learner's minimum rights. ✓ANS- Alternative techniques 39. The generality of research findings in applied behavior analysis is assessed, established, and specified through. ✓ANS- Replication [Show More]
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