Iatrogenic effects Ans- An effect that is brought on by the healer, any consequence of a medical treatment or advice to the patient. Rule out FIRST with Somatoform Disorders Ans- Medical Condition ... (Then Substance Use) Somatoform disorders Ans- Ppl believe something is going on physically that doesn't make any physical sense. No "real" physical symptoms, or if there are symptoms, the person's reaction to them is out of proportion to them. Factitious Disorder Ans- Ppl also falsify symptoms, make themselves sick/injure themselves Malingering Ans- Ppl make up/exaggerate symptoms in order for external gain Factitious Disorder differs from Malingering Ans- No external gain for FD. Motivation for FD is to BE A PATIENT. Conversion Disorder Ans- Altered/loss of involuntary function (ex. Moving arm) 2 Categories of ADHD Ans- Inattentive and Hyperactive/Impulsive Innattentive Type ADHD Ans- Wandering off task, lacking persistence, having difficulty sustaining focus and being disorganized Hyperactive/Impulsive Type Ans- Refers to excessive motor activity (such as a child running about) when it is not appropriate, or excess fidgeting, tapping or talkativeness. RAD and DSED Ans- Childhood disorders under Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders in DSM-5 RAD and DSED Share common etiology Ans- Extreme neglect Reactive Attachment Disorder Ans- RAD children show diminished or absent expression of positive emotions during routine interactions with caregivers. Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder Ans- A pattern of behavior that involves culturally inappropriate, overly familiar behavior with relative strangers. Adjustment Disorder (DSM-5, Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders) Ans- Has to be a stress to which someone is adjusting and begins within 3 months of onset of a stressor and lasts no longer than 6 mos. How do Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder differ? Ans- ODD is milder, Conduct Disorder no respect of other people's risk, may be physical aggressive Acute Stress Disorder Ans- A minimum of two days and resolves within one month PTSD Ans- Symptoms more than 1 month, direct exposure to stressor Tourette's syndrome Ans- Multiple motor and one or more vocal tics Egosyntonic Ans- Acceptable to ego ideals Egodystonic Ans- In conflict with ego ideals Is all Dissociation pathological? Ans- No! There are normal dissociative experiences Pt. experienced sexual abuse in childhood, is aware of abuse, and able to lead productive life Ans- Non-pathological dissociation Depersonalization Ans- Being detached from one's body Derealization Ans- Being detached from one's environment/surroundings Dissociative identity disorder Ans- Two or more distinct identities, multiple personality disorder Psychosis Ans- A break from reality Delusion Ans- False belief, disorder of thinking Hallucination Ans- False perception of senses, disorder of perception Schizotypal Personality Disorder Ans- Criterion A: Acute discomfort in relationships, Criterion A1: Ideas of reference (not delusions of reference) Ideas of Reference Ans- Common, but not totally believed ideas that events refer to us when they do not. EGODYSTONIC Delusions of reference Ans- A person's convinced beliefs that events do refer to him or her when there is no evidence that they do. EGOSYNTONIC Criterion E for all personality disorders Ans- If we can better explain symptoms by other (any other) disorder, we rule out PD Delusional disorder Ans- Criterion A: Only delusions for a least 1 month Criterion B: Lifetime Exclusionary Criterion for Schizophrenia Criterion C: Functioning is NOT markedly impaired, and behavior is NOT obviously odd or bizarre. Schizophreniform disorder Ans- More than a month, less than six months, b/t Brief Psychotic and Schizophrenia, 2 or more Criteria A Schizophrenia, one positive symptom, NO impaired functioning Brief psychotic disorder Ans- More than a day, less than a month, one negative symptom, No impaired functioning Schizophrenia Ans- At least 6 months, w/ 1 month of Criterion A symptoms consisting of positive and negative symptoms Criteria A symptoms for schizophrenia Ans- Positive symptoms (Delusions, Hallucinations, Disorganized speech (word salad), Disorganized behavior) Negative symptoms (Alogia, Anhedonia, Affective Flattening, Avolition) Criterion B for Schizophrenia Ans- Functional Impairment Must people with schizophrenia have hallucinations? Ans- No, ppl without schizophrenia can have hallucinations Do hallucinations happen only with schizophrenia? Ans- No Schizoaffective Disorder Ans- Criteria A: Major mood episode 2 months concurrent with criterion A for schizophrenia Criteria B: Criteria A (delusions/hallucinations) for schizophrenia and NO mood symptoms for at least 2 weeks Criteria C: Mood episodes have been present for the majority of the total duration of the illness (about 8 to 10 months) What are the causes of schizophrenia? Ans- Must have "biological vulnerability" Causes include genetics, brain chemistry and structure, environment "Multiple-Hit" Theory Ans- There is some degree of genetic/biological predisposition in every person who develops Schizophrenia, but this vulnerability is not released until the person is "hit" with other B-P-S Vulnerabilities Prodromal Stage Ans- Early stage of schizophrenia, often starts in adolescences, person begins action strange/weird 4 A's of Dementia Ans- Agnosia, Apraxia, Aphasia. Amnesia Agnosia Ans- Inability to recognize known objects Apraxia Ans- Inability to carry out complex motor activities Aphasia Ans- Language disturbance Amnesia Ans- Memory disturbance Paranoid Personality Disorder Ans- A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others Schizoid Personality Disorder Ans- A pervasive pattern of DETACHMENT from social relationships Schizopytal Personality Disorder Ans- A pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits, as well as cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior Antisocial Personality Disorder Ans- A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, Adult version of Conduct Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Ans- A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects Histrionic Personality Disorder Ans- A pervasive pattern of attention-seeking behavior Narcissistic Personality Disorder Ans- A pervasive pattern of grandiosity in fantasy or behavior, need for admiration Avoidant Personality Disorder Ans- A pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation (want to be involved but afraid, Schizoid do not want to be involved) Dependent Personality Disorder Ans- A pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Ans- A pervasive preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control DEFENSES in PD's Ans- Fantasy, Sublimation, Projection/Projective Identification, Reaction formation, Identification w/ the aggressor, Turning against the self, Neurocognitive Disorders Ans- Tend to emerge towards the end of life (some cases earlier) as brain and mental functions start to decline 6 Domains of neurocognitive functioning Ans- Complex attention, executive functioning, learning and memory, language, perceptual/motor, social cognition Criterion for NCDs Ans- a knowable physiological causation Delirium Ans- Acute onset, disturbance in attention/awareness [Show More]
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