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Pathophysiology Final (HESI), Exam preview questions and answers. 100% comprehension

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when maintained well, maintains skin and mucous membranes and is also essential in reducing host susceptibility - nutrition pts with advanced cancer are often ____ - malnourished involves the ad... ministration of a nutrient mixture directly into a peripheral vein - total parenteral nutrition asymptomatic disease with mild discomfort, diarrhea, or constipation and flatulence which can be excused for other reasons - diverticulosis during acute episodes, food intake should be reduced along with antimicrobial drugs taken as needed; treated by increasing the bulk in the diet, omitting foods such as seeds or popcorn, and encouraging regular bowel movements without constipation - diverticulosis includes the pituitary gland, the two adrenal glands, the thyroid gland, the four parathyroid glands, the endocrine portion of the pancreas, the gonads, the pineal gland, and the thymus - endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood, in contrast to exocrine glands that secrete into a duct - endocrine glands chemical messengers that affect blood glucose levels, including insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone - hormones develops more frequently in patients with Type 2 diabetes; often the patient is an older person with an infection or one who has overindulged in carbs, thereby using more insulin than anticipated - HHNC condition may be difficult to diagnose initially; severe cellular dehydration results in neurologic deficits, muscle weakness, difficulties with speech, and abnormal reflexes - HHNC hyperglycemia and dehydration develop because of the relative insulin deficit, but sufficient insulin is available to prevent ketoacidosis - HHNC #1 nursing intervention with a patient who has HHNC is: - maintain a patent airway! low __ ___ is a risk factor for osteoporosis - bone mass have higher risk for osteoporosis - women 2 most critical stages of life in which osteoporosis can develop - children and elderly osteoporosis is common in older individuals, especially ____ women with ___ deficiency - postmenopausal, estrogen activity is less effective with advancing age - osteoblastic activity decreased ____, ____ factors, ___ deficits, low vitamin ___, or low ___ are all factors of osteoporosis - mobility, hormonal, calcium, D, protein excessive ___ intake is a contributor to osteoporosis - caffeine positive results of a pregnancy test are based on the presence of this - hCG some pregnancy tests can detect pregnancy as early as: - the first day following a missed period a second pregnancy test is recommended within a ___ if the first test is negative - week this kind of pregnancy test should be performed if it is ectopic - serum pregnancy test this level is expected to double about every 48 hours in a normal pregnancy; if failed to double, the pregnancy may be ectopic - beta- hCG administered to newborns to prevent hemorrhagic disorders - vitamin K the sterile gut of a newborn lacks intestinal bacteria necessary for the synthesis of this vitamin - vitamin K required for the production of clotting factors such as prothrombin and fibrinogen - Vitamin K results from fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac, constriction of the pericardium by tumor, or pericarditis secondary to radiation therapy to the chest - cardiac tamponade manifestations include heavy feelings over the chest, shortness of breath, tachycardia, cough, dysphagia, hiccups, hoarseness, nausea, vomiting, excessive perspiration, decreased level of consciousness, pulses paradoxes, distant or muted heart sounds, and extreme anxiety, neck vein distension - cardiac tamponade a medical emergency; pericardiocentesis with surgical repair as appropriate is needed (16-18 gauge needle inserted into pericardial space to relieve pressure and analyze fluid) - cardiac tamponade states that, to a point, the more myocardial fibers are stretched, the greater their force of contraction - Frank Starling's Law is increased with exercise - HDL levels the "good" lipoprotein; has a low lipid content and is used to transport cholesterol AWAY from the peripheral cells to the liver, where it undergoes catabolism and excretion - HDL protects women until after menopause - HDL decreases HDL levels - smoking indicative of angina pectoris; condition in which the heart has outgrown its blood supply - hypertrophy right ventricular hypertrophy occurs in this condition - Tetralogy of Fallot can lead to ventricular hypertrophy; - afterload, hypertension an increase in the muscle mass and cardiac wall thickness in response to overwork and strain; occurs slowly because it takes time for increased muscle tissues to develop; generally follows persistent or chronic dilation and thus further increases the contractile power of the muscle fibers - hypertrophy will lead to an increase in CO and maintenance of tissue perfusion - hypertrophy used when heart failure occurs - intraaortic balloon pump therapy necessary when drugs have failed; is a short term bridge to cardiac transplantation; needed if acute myocardial infarction occurs with ventricular aneurysm accompanied by ventricular dysrhythmias, acute ventricular septal defect, acute mitral valve dysfunction, cardiogenic shock, or refractory chest pain with or without ventricular dysrhythmias - intraaortic balloon pump therapy dislodging of plaque, aortic dissection, and compromised distal circulation are common complications - IABP patients with this in place are prone to infection - IABP a "clot-busting agent" used to reduce the effects of CVA in some individuals - tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) contraindicated for anticoagulant drugs - tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) a microvascular complication associated with damage to the small blood vessels that supply the glomeruli of the kidney - diabetic nephropathy the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the US; about the same in patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes - diabetic nephropathy risk factors include hypertension, genetic predisposition, smoking, and chronic hyperglycemia - diabetic nephropathy if a diabetic patient is alert, they may develop this - diabetic polydipsia nonspecific S/S include: tachycardia, palpitations, fatigue, or altered mood - diabetic polydipsia most common nonspecific symptoms include: fatigue and depression, accompanied by other manifestations such as changes in energy level, alertness, sleep patterns, mood, affect, weight, skin, hair, personal appearance, and sexual function - diabetic polydipsia a nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it - stress factors affecting this among individuals include external and internal influences - stress response three stages of the general adaptation syndrome to stress - alarm reaction, stage of resistance, stage of exhaustion activated in the endocrine system in response to stress - hypothalamus prepare the body for flight-or-flight response - epinephrine and norepinephrine the hypothalamus releases this in response to stress - CRH(corticotropin releasing hormone) essential for the stress response and play an important role in "turning off" or blunting aspects of the stress response - corticosteroids initiates starch digestion - salivary amylase splits starch and glycogen into disaccharides - salivary amylase involves a progressive demyelination of the neurons in the brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves - multiple sclerosis characterized by remissions and exacerbations, but nevertheless is marked by progressive degeneration; second most common cause of disability in the US - multiple sclerosis [Show More]

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