Biology > EXAM > BIO 202L Lab 13 The Respiratory System (GRADED A+) Questions and Answer Solutions | 100% correct (All)

BIO 202L Lab 13 The Respiratory System (GRADED A+) Questions and Answer Solutions | 100% correct

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Student Name: Click here to enter text. Access Code (located on the lid of your lab kit): Pre-Lab Questions 1. Name two functions of the nasal cavity mucosa. It traps debris from the air. It h... umidifies (and warms) the air being brought into the respiratory system. 2. Why is the trachea reinforced with cartilaginous rings? To protect and support the trachea, allowing it to stay open for the movement of air. 3. Describe the path a molecule of oxygen takes to get to body tissue, starting with the nares. Nares, meatus (superior, middle, or inferior), nasopharynx, laryngopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli, interstitial space, pulmonary capillaries (now on red blood cell), pulmonary veins, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, (leaves red blood cell) interstitial space, and finally the body tissue. 4. What is asthma? A condition that causes the contriction of the bronchioles (and the trachea), which increases the resistance to air flow, making it harder to breathe. Experiment 1: Microscopic Anatomy of the Respiratory System Table 1: Experimental Observations Respiratory Image Description of Visible Structure(s) Trachea The cilia are small in comparison to the other structures. Closest to the lumen is the cilia. Moving away, there are goblet cells, columnar cells, a basement membrane, and connective tissue of the lamina propria. Lung Multiple openings of bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar sacs, and alveoli are visible within the cross-section. Upon further magnification, the thinness of the simple squamous epithelium of the alveoli is visible. Post-Lab Questions 1. Label the arrows in the slide images below. A- Goblet cell B- Basement membrane C- Connective tissue of the lamina propria D- Cilia E- Blood vessel F- Bronchi G- Alveolar sac H- Alveoli 2. What structural features of alveoli make them an ideal place for gas exchange? The thinnesss of their simple squamous epithelium. The bulbous nature of the alveoli also increases the surface area and allows for maximum gas exchange. 3. Why is mucus present in the trachea? It traps foreign particles such as dust and microorganisms that are inhaled. 4. What is the specific function of the cilia on the walls of the trachea? It moves the mucus (and now trapped foreign particles) up into the larynx, where it is then moved into the pharynx and eventually swallowed. The stomach acid kills foreign microorganisms. The mucus and cilia of the trachea essentially provide protection from foreign matter. Experiment 2: Virtual Model – The Respiratory System Insert screenshot of the epiglottis: Insert screenshot of the middle lobe of the lung: Insert screenshot of the nasal caviy: Post-Lab Questions 1. How many diaphragm(s) exist in the human body? There are 5 diaphragms, but only the one separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities that is involved in respiration is called the diaphragm. 2. Does deoxygenated blood become oxygenated in the upper respiratory tract, the lungs, or the diaphragm? The lungs. 3. Is the trachea superior or inferior to the diaphragm? Superior. 4. Which component is more medial: the right lung or the tracheal bifurcation? The tracheal bifurcation. 5. What is the most inferiorly located organ of the respiratory system? The diaphragm. Experiment 3: Understanding Lung Mechanics Table 2: Understanding Lung Mechanics Observations Squeezed Bottle Observations (Step 3) Released Bottle Observations (Step 4) The balloon deflates and squishes down. The balloon reinflates to the level it was before squeezing. Post-Lab Questions 1. What happens to the balloon? Why? It deflates as the bottle is squeezed. By squeezing the bottle, the volume of air within the bottle decreases. Because the amount of air molecules within the bottle is the same, the pressure increases inside the bottle. This increased pressure inside the bottle is higher than the pressure of air inside the balloon, and therefore the walls of the balloon are pushed together and the balloon deflates as the air inside the balloon is pushed out through the straw. When releasing the bottle, the air pressure inside the bottle decreases as volume is increased. The pressure inside the balloon is now higher, and pushes the walls of the balloon back out to where they were until the pressure inside the balloon and bottle are equal. 2. What would happen if the seal at the base of the bottle leaked? When squeezing the bottle, the increase in pressure would force air out of the leak. When releasing the bottle, the pressure in the bottle would decrease and air would enter back into the bottle through the leak. 3. What causes a collapsed lung? The piercing or tearing of the parietal pleura. This allows air into the pleural cavity, increasing the pleural pressure. Lung recoil then is uninhibited and causes the lung to collapse and pull away from the thoracic wall. This can be caused by penetrating, or non-penetrating trauma. 4. Is a collapsed lung functional? Why or why not? No. There is no gas exchange occurring within the alveoli. As the thoracic cavity expands during inspiration and the pressure decreases, air enters the pleural cavity through the damaged parietal pleura rather than into the collapsed lung. Experiment 4: Spirometry Patient A Table 1: Patient A Spirometry Data Predicted Values Resting Value Exercise Value FVC 4.93-5.91 5.319 5.012 FEV1 4.88 4.63 4.02 FEV1/FVC 83.3% 87% 80.2% Observations of spirometry graph shapes: The curves representing post exercise are all smaller than the resting curves. The exhaling exercise curve is slightly more convex than at rest. Curves show decreased FVC and FEV post exercise. Patient B Table 2: Patient B Spirometry Data Predicted Values Resting Value Exercise Value FVC 2.16-2.74 2.69 2.48 FEV1 2.45 2.48 0.86 FEV1/FVC 89.7% 92.3% 34.7% Observations of spirometry graph shapes: Exercise curves are significantly smaller than resting curves. Exercise curve is much more convex than at rest and peak flow doesn’t reach nearly as high. FVC is slightly decreased in the exercise curve and FEV is dramatically decreased in exercise curve. Flow rate is dramatically decreased in exercise and time taken to reach FVC in exercise is dramatically increased. Patient C Table 3: Patient C Spirometry Data Predicted Values Resting Value Exercise Value FVC 2.74-3.65 3.2 3.18 FEV1 2.73 2.43 2.24 FEV1/FVC 76.1% 75.9% 70.4% Observations of spirometry graph shapes: Graphs of resting and exercise look very similar. The only difference being that the peak flow of the exercise curve is slightly less than at rest, but maintains a similar shape. Patient D Table 4: Patient D Spirometry Data Predicted Values Resting Value Exercise Value FVC 2.52-3.17 2.02 2.06 FEV1 2.47 1.06 1.09 FEV1/FVC 78.9% 52.5% 52.3% Observations of spirometry graph shapes: Curves are relatively shallow, indicating a long time to reach FVC. Post medication (exercise) curve indicates a slightly higher peak flow, but maintains the same shape as the resting curve. The inhaling curves are much larger in magnitude, in regards to flow rate, than the exhaling curves. Patient E Table 5: Patient E Spirometry Data Predicted Values Resting Value Exercise Value FVC 2.29-2.97 2.89 2.82 FEV1 2.68 2.48 2.40 FEV1/FVC 88.6% 85.8% 85.1% Observations of spirometry graph shapes: Post-Lab Questions 1. Based on the results of the spirometry test, is Patient A effectively managing his asthma symptoms with his inhaler medication? Explain your answer using the data collected during the test. **It won’t let me enter observations for graph shapes for patient E, so here they are: Exhaling exercise curve has relatively the same shape as at rest, but a lower peak flow. The inhaling exercise curve is much shallower and reaches a similar peak flow, but much more gradually than at rest. FVC and FEV seem very similar at rest and exercise.** Post- lab question 1 response: While I am unsure as to what degree is considered effective, I would say that he is managing it fairly well, yes. The flow chart is not severely convex, which would indicate asthma if it was. Additionally the peak flow does not seem that low, and the FEV1/FVC ratio is above 70% indicating that the FEV1 is not dramatically lower as is seen during asthma attacks. Overall, the shape of the graphs do not seem to indicate asthma, so it would seem as though he is managing his asthma relatively effectively. 2. Based on the results of the spirometry test, is Patient B suffering from asthma? Explain your answer using the data collected during the test. It is very likely, yes. The exercise curve shows a servely convex flow chart with a low peak flow, which indicates an airway obstruction. Additionally, the patient’s FEV is significantly lowered in exercise, and much less than 80% of the predicted value. This leads to a FEV1/FVC ratio that is dramatically lower than 70%, indicating a blockage of the airway. 3. Based on the results of the spirometry test, does Patient C qualify for lung surgery? Explain your answer using the data collected during the test. Answer should be in terms of physiology and not simply a list of types of injuries. I am unaware of what safe levels/values post-surgery are, but if qualifying for surgery entails having a normal spirometry test, then yes, I would assume Patient C would qualify. Obviously having surgery and removing part of his lung would decrease the volume of his lung, and therefore most likely decrease the FVC, but I’m not sure if it would decrease it below the predicted value. I would assume removing part of the lung would also decrease the FEV. Nothing on his test indicates an abnormality. The FVC value is within the range of the predicted value, the FEV is more than 80% of the predicted value, and the FEV/FVC ratio is above 70%. 4. Based on the results of the spirometry test, what do you think is the cause of Patient D’s respiratory symptoms? Explain your answer using the data collected during the test. Conduct your own external research if necessary. Most likely COPD, specifically emphysema. With emphysema, alveoli are damaged along with their elasticity. This causes air to become trapped within the lungs and causes shortness of breath and a chronic cough. As the airways become damaged, they begin to collapse. This is why air becomes trapped, and it makes exhaling difficult. Patient D’s graphs indicate a significant difficulty in exhaling with values much lower than the predicted values. Additionally, while the bronchodilator help a little bit, it makes sense that there was no significant change in the result after administering. While the bronchodilator helped to dilate the bronchioles, the damage from emphysema mainly affects the alveoli. The alveoli have lost their elasticity and ability to expel air. Her symptoms and test all indicate emphysema. 5. Based on the results of the spirometry test, is Patient E suffering from asthma? Explain your answer using the data collected during the test. It’s possible, but I don’t believe so. Mainly due to the values of her test. FVC values are towards the upper limit of the predicted values, and the FEV/FVC ratio is well above 70%. The peak flow curves are somewhat convex, but I wouldn’t say that they are severely convex. Nothing on the Volume vs time graph indicates anything abnormal either. 6. What are some potential drawbacks to relying on spirometry to diagnose respiratory conditions? Conduct your own external research if necessary. It is not effective for all respiratory conditions, just a few. Some patients may get lightheaded after the test. People who have heart conditions or have recently had a heart attack are not recommended to take the test. Also, it somewhat relys on an equation/algorithm to diagnose, which isn’t always the most accurate way to do so. Experiment 5: Fetal Pig Dissection: The Respiratory System Post-Lab Questions 1. Describe the interior lining of the trachea. I actually thoroughly enjoyed observing this. When viewed, you just see longitudinal striations/lines. I couldn’t even see any of the cartilage rings (including on the lateral and anterior sides. But when you touch it and run your finger along the interior lining it slides right along and you can feel every single cartilage ring. While I’m aware the fetal pigs were preserved in liquid, I found the interior lining of the trachea to be surprisingly slipperly. It was also very clean and uniform. 2. Were there many or few vessels serving as conduits between the lungs and the heart? Why is this important? I actually struggled to find many. I initially thought they obviously had to be there, but I think that due to the nature of how the fetal pigs anatomy is structured, a lot of said conduits actually extend deeper/more ventral from the heart, making them more difficult to view without destroying all the structures. I noticed the pulmonary trunk was one of the few conduits I could see, and it left the heart at a sharper angle (sloping more ventral quicker). But I believe a more logical reason is there would be less is because the pig is still a fetal pig, meaning that it wasn’t even breathing! There fetal pig would not have been relying on respiration to supply it’s body tissues with oxygen. Therefore it would put its energy into building other vessels and tissues that would be more critical at the time. 3. Describe the function of the diaphragm during inhalation and exhalation. The diaphragm functions to alter the volume within the thoracic cavity. Which consequently alters the pressure within the thoracic cavity. As the diaphragm contracts it moves downward, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity. This decreases the pressure within the cavity, and essentially the lungs. Atmospheric pressure, now being higher than in the lungs, moves into the lungs resulting in inhalation. As the diaphragm relaxes it moves up and decreases the volume in the thoracic cavity. This causes lung pressure to now be higher than atmospheric pressure and so air moves out of the lungs in exhalation. Insert photo of your pig’s exposed lungs with your name and access code handwritten clearly in the background: [Show More]

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