Statistics > eBook-PDF > [eBook] [PDF] Statistics Informed Decisions Using Data, 6th Edition By Michael Sullivan (All)

Statistics Informed Decisions Using Data Contents Preface to the Instructor Integration of Technology Companion Website Contents Key Chapter Content Changes Flexible to Work with Your Syllabus ... MyLab Statistics for Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data, 6e (access code required) Resources for Success Applications Index Accounting Aeronautics Agriculture Animals/Nature Anthropometrics Archaeology Astronomy Banking Biology Biomechanics Business. See also Work Chemistry Combinatorics Communication(s) Computer(s). See also Internet Construction Consumers Crime(s) Criminology Demographics Dentistry Drugs. See also Pharmaceuticals Economy Education. See also Test(s) Electricity Electronics Energy Engineering Entertainment. See also Leisure and recreation Environment Exercise Family Farming. See also Agriculture Fashion Finance. See also Investment(s) Firearms Food. See also Nutrition Forestry Gambling. See also Game(s) Game(s). See also Gambling Gardening Gender Genetics Geography Geology Government Health. See also Exercise; Medicine Height(s) Houses and housing Insurance Intelligence Internet Investment(s) Landscaping Language Law(s) Law enforcement Leisure and recreation. See also Entertainment Manufacturing Marriage Math Media Medicine. See also Drugs; Health; Pharmaceuticals Military Miscellaneous Money. See also Finance; Investment(s) Morality Mortality Motor vehicle(s). See also Transportation Music Nutrition. See also Food Obstetrics. See also Pediatrics Pediatrics. See also Obstetrics Pets Pharmaceuticals. See also Drugs; Medicine Physics Politics Polls and surveys Psychiatry Psychology Psychometrics Reading Religion Sex and sexuality Social work Society Sports Statistics Temperature Test(s) Time Transportation. See also Motor vehicle(s) Travel Weather Weight(s) Work. See also Business Part 1 Getting the Information You Need 1 Data Collection Outline 1.1 Introduction to the Practice of Statistics Objectives ❶ Define Statistics and Statistical Thinking ➋ Explain the Process of Statistics ❸ Distinguish between Qualitative and Quantitative Variables Problem Approach Solution ❹ Distinguish between Discrete and Continuous Variables Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ❺ Determine the Level of Measurement of a Variable Problem Approach Solution 1.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 1.2 Observational Studies versus Designed Experiments Objectives ❶ Distinguish between an Observational Study and an Experiment ❷ Explain the Various Types of Observational Studies Census Data Obtaining Data through Web Scraping Downloading Data from the Web 1.2 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts “Scare Science” Findings Shouldn’t Lead to Fear 1.3 Simple Random Sampling Objective ❶ Obtain a Simple Random Sample Problem Approach Solution Obtaining a Simple Random Sample Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution 1.3 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts 1.4 Other Effective Sampling Methods Objectives ❶ Obtain a Stratified Sample Problem Approach Solution ❷ Obtain a Systematic Sample Problem Approach Solution ❸ Obtain a Cluster Sample Problem Approach Solution Convenience Sampling Multistage Sampling Sample Size Considerations Summary 1.4 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts 1.5 Bias in Sampling Objective ❶ Explain the Sources of Bias in Sampling 1.5 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 1.6 The Design of Experiments Objectives ❶ Describe the Characteristics of an Experiment Problem Approach Solution ➋ Explain the Steps in Designing an Experiment ➌ Explain the Completely Randomized Design Problem Approach Solution ➍ Explain the Matched-Pairs Design Problem Approach Solution ❺ Explain the Randomized Block Design Problem Approach Solution 1.6 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts Chapter 1 Review Summary Vocabulary Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test Part 2 Descriptive Statistics 2 Organizing and Summarizing Data Outline 2.1 Organizing Qualitative Data Objectives ❶ Organize Qualitative Data in Tables Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ❷ Construct Bar Graphs Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Side-by-Side Bar Graphs Problem Approach Solution Horizontal Bars ❸ Construct Pie Charts Problem Approach Solution 2.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 2.2 Organizing Quantitative Data: The Popular Displays Objectives ❶ Organize Discrete Data in Tables Problem Approach Solution ❷ Construct Histograms of Discrete Data Problem Approach Solution ❸ Organize Continuous Data in Tables Problem Approach Solution ❹ Construct Histograms of Continuous Data Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ❺ Draw Dot Plots Problem Approach Solution ❻ Identify the Shape of a Distribution Problem Approach Solution 2.2 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 2.3 Additional Displays of Quantitative Data Objectives ❶ Draw Stem-and-Leaf Plots Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Split Stems ❷ Construct Frequency Polygons ❸ Create Cumulative Frequency and Relative Frequency Tables ❹ Construct Frequency and Relative Frequency Ogives ❺ Draw Time-Series Graphs Problem Approach Solution 2.3 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 2.4 Graphical Misrepresentations of Data Objective ❶ Describe What Can Make a Graph Misleading or Deceptive Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution 2.4 Assess Your Understanding Applying the Concepts Chapter 2 Review Summary Vocabulary Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test 3 Numerically Summarizing Data Outline 3.1 Measures of Central Tendency Objectives ❶ Determine the Arithmetic Mean of a Variable from Raw Data Problem Approach Solution ❷ Determine the Median of a Variable from Raw Data Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ❸ Explain What It Means for a Statistic to Be Resistant Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ❹ Determine the Mode of a Variable from Raw Data Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution 3.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 3.2 Measures of Dispersion Objectives Problem Approach Solution ❶ Determine the Range of a Variable from Raw Data Problem Approach Solution ❷ Determine the Standard Deviation of a Variable from Raw Data Problem Approach Using Conceptual Formula (1) Solution Using Formula (1) Approach Using Computational Formula (2) Solution Using Formula (2) Problem Approach Solution Using Conceptual Formula (3) Solution Using Computational Formula (4) Problem Approach Solution Interpretations of the Standard Deviation Problem Approach Solution ❸ Determine the Variance of a Variable from Raw Data Problem Approach Solution A Final Thought on Variance and Standard Deviation ❹ Use the Empirical Rule to Describe Data That Are Bell Shaped Problem Approach Solution ❺ Use Chebyshev’s Inequality to Describe Any Set of Data Problem Approach Solution 3.2 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 3.3 Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion from Grouped Data Objectives ❶ Approximate the Mean of a Variable from Grouped Data Problem Approach Solution ❷ Compute the Weighted Mean Problem Approach Solution ➌ Approximate the Standard Deviation of a Variable from Grouped Data Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution 3.3 Assess Your Understanding Applying the Concepts 3.4 Measures of Position and Outliers Objectives ❶ Determine and Interpret z-Scores Problem Approach Solution ❷ Interpret Percentiles Problem Approach Interpretation ❸ Determine and Interpret Quartiles Problem Approach Solution Interpretation Problem Approach Solution ❹ Determine and Interpret the Interquartile Range Problem Approach Solution Interpretation ❺ Check a Set of Data for Outliers Problem Approach Solution 3.4 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 3.5 The Five-Number Summary and Boxplots Objectives ❶ Compute the Five-Number Summary Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ❷ Draw and Interpret Boxplots Problem Approach Solution Using a Boxplot and Quartiles to Describe the Shape of a Distribution Problem Approach Solution 3.5 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts Chapter 3 Review Summary Vocabulary Formulas Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test 4 Describing the Relation between Two Variables Outline 4.1 Scatter Diagrams and Correlation Objectives ➊ Draw and Interpret Scatter Diagrams Problem Approach Solution ➋ Describe the Properties of the Linear Correlation Coefficient ➌ Compute and Interpret the Linear Correlation Coefficient Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ➍ Determine Whether a Linear Relation Exists between Two Variables Problem Approach Solution ➎ Explain the Difference between Correlation and Causation Problem Approach Solution 4.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 4.2 Least-Squares Regression Objectives Problem Approach Solution ➊ Find the Least-Squares Regression Line and Use the Line to Make Predictions Problem Approach Solution ➋ Interpret the Slope and the y-Intercept of the Least-Squares Regression Line ➌ Compute the Sum of Squared Residuals Problem Approach Solution 4.2 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 4.3 Diagnostics on the Least-Squares Regression Line Objectives ➊ Compute and Interpret the Coefficient of Determination Problem By Hand Approach By Hand Solution Technology Approach Technology Solution Interpretation ➋ Perform Residual Analysis on a Regression Model ➌ Identify Influential Observations Problem Approach Solution 4.3 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts 4.4 Contingency Tables and Association Objectives ➊ Compute the Marginal Distribution of a Variable Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ➋ Use the Conditional Distribution to Identify Association among Categorical Data Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ➌ Explain Simpson’s Paradox Problem Approach Solution 4.4 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Chapter 4 Review Summary Vocabulary Formulas Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test Part 3 Probability and Probability Distributions 5 Probability Outline 5.1 Probability Rules Objectives ❶ Understand Random Processes and the Law of Large Numbers ➋ Apply the Rules of Probabilities ➌ Compute and Interpret Probabilities Using the Empirical Method Problem Approach Solution ❹ Compute and Interpret Probabilities Using the Classical Method Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ❺ Recognize and Interpret Subjective Probabilities 5.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 5.2 The Addition Rule and Complements Objectives ❶ Use the Addition Rule for Disjoint Events Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ❷ Use the General Addition Rule Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ❸ Compute the Probability of an Event Using the Complement Rule Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution 5.2 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts 5.3 Independence and the Multiplication Rule Objectives ❶ Identify Independent Events ❷ Use the Multiplication Rule for Independent Events Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ❸ Compute At-Least Probabilities Problem Approach Solution 5.3 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts 5.4 Conditional Probability and the General Multiplication Rule Objectives ❶ Compute Conditional Probabilities Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ❷ Compute Probabilities Using the General Multiplication Rule Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Approach I: Approach II: Solution Approach I: Approach II: Problem Approach Solution 5.4 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts 5.5 Counting Techniques Objectives ❶ Solve Counting Problems Using the Multiplication Rule Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ❷ Solve Counting Problems Using Permutations Problem By Hand Approach By Hand Solution Technology Approach Technology Solution Problem Approach Solution ❸ Solve Counting Problems Using Combinations Problem Approach Solution Problem By Hand Approach By Hand Solution Technology Approach Technology Solution Problem Approach Solution ❹ Solve Counting Problems Involving Permutations with Nondistinct Items Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Summary ❺ Compute Probabilities Involving Permutations and Combinations Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution 5.5 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts 5.6 Simulating Probability Experiments Objective ❶ Use Simulation to Approximate Probabilities Problem Approach Solution Problem: Approach: Solution 5.6 Assess Your Understanding Applying the Concepts 5.7 Putting It Together: Which Method Do I Use? Objectives ❶ Determine the Appropriate Probability Rule to Use Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ❷ Determine the Appropriate Counting Technique to Use Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution 5.7 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Chapter 5 Review Summary Vocabulary Formulas Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test 6 Discrete Probability Distributions Outline 6.1 Discrete Random Variables Objectives ❶ Distinguish between Discrete and Continuous Random Variables ❷ Identify Discrete Probability Distributions Problem Approach Solution ❸ Graph Discrete Probability Distributions Problem Approach Solution ❹ Compute and Interpret the Mean of a Discrete Random Variable Problem Approach Solution ❺ Interpret the Mean of a Discrete Random Variable as an Expected Value Problem Approach Solution Interpretation ❻ Compute the Standard Deviation of a Discrete Random Variable Problem Approach Solution Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution 6.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts 6.2 The Binomial Probability Distribution Objectives ❶ Determine Whether a Probability Experiment Is a Binomial Experiment Problem Approach Solution ❷ Compute Probabilities of Binomial Experiments Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Interpretation Interpretation Interpretation Interpretation ❸ Compute the Mean and Standard Deviation of a Binomial Random Variable Problem Approach Solution Interpretation ❹ Graph a Binomial Probability Distribution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Interpretation 6.2 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 6.3 The Poisson Probability Distribution Objectives ❶ Determine If a Probability Experiment Follows a Poisson Process ❷ Compute Probabilities of a Poisson Random Variable Problem Approach Solution Interpretation Interpretation Interpretation ❸ Find the Mean and Standard Deviation of a Poisson Random Variable Problem Approach Solution Interpretation Interpretation 6.3 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Chapter 6 Review Summary Vocabulary Formulas Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test 7 The Normal Probability Distribution Outline 7.1 Properties of the Normal Distribution Objectives ❶ Use the Uniform Probability Distribution Problem Approach Solution ❷ Graph a Normal Curve ❸ State the Properties of the Normal Curve ❹ Explain the Role of Area in the Normal Density Function Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution 7.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts 7.2 Applications of the Normal Distribution Objectives ❶ Find and Interpret the Area under a Normal Curve Problem By-Hand Approach By-Hand Solution Technology Approach Technology Solution Problem By-Hand Approach By-Hand Solution Technology Approach Technology Solution Interpretation ❷ Find the Value of a Normal Random Variable Problem By-Hand Approach By-Hand Solution Technology Approach Technology Solution Problem By-Hand Solution Technology Solution Interpretation 7.2 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 7.3 Assessing Normality Objective ❶ Use Normal Probability Plots to Assess Normality Problem Approach Solution Interpretation Problem Approach Solution 7.3 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts 7.4 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Probability Distribution Objective ❶ Approximate Binomial Probabilities Using the Normal Distribution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution 7.4 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Chapter 7 Review Summary Vocabulary Formulas Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test Part 4 Inference: From Samples to Population 8 Sampling Distributions Outline 8.1 Distribution of the Sample Mean Objectives ➊ Describe the Distribution of the Sample Mean: Normal Population Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Interpretation ➋ Describe the Distribution of the Sample Mean: Nonnormal Population Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Interpretation 8.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 8.2 Distribution of the Sample Proportion Objectives ➊ Describe the Sampling Distribution of a Sample Proportion Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ➋ Compute Probabilities of a Sample Proportion Problem Approach Solution Interpretation Interpretation 8.2 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Chapter 8 Review Summary Vocabulary Formulas Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test 9 Estimating the Value of a Parameter Outline 9.1 Estimating a Population Proportion Objectives ❶ Obtain a Point Estimate for the Population Proportion Problem Approach Solution ❷ Construct and Interpret a Confidence Interval for the Population Proportion Problem Approach Solution Problem By Hand Approach By-Hand Solution Technology Approach Technology Solution ❸ Determine the Sample Size Necessary for Estimating a Population Proportion within a Specified Margin of Error Problem Approach Solution 9.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 9.2 Estimating a Population Mean Objectives ❶ Obtain a Point Estimate for the Population Mean Problem Approach Solution ❷ State Properties of Student’s t-distribution Solution ❸ Determine t-Values Problem Approach Solution ❹ Construct and Interpret a Confidence Interval for a Population Mean ❺ Determine the Sample Size Needed to Estimate a Population Mean within a Specified Margin of Error Problem Approach Solution 9.2 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 9.3 Estimating a Population Standard Deviation Objectives ❶ Find Critical Values for the Chi-Square Distribution Problem Approach Solution ❷ Construct and Interpret Confidence Intervals for the Population Variance and Standard Deviation Problem Approach By-Hand Approach Technology Approach Solution By-Hand Solution Technology Solution Interpretation 9.3 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts 9.4 Putting It Together: Which Method Do I Use? Objective ❶ Determine the Appropriate Confidence Interval to Construct Problem Approach Solution By-Hand Solution Technology Solution Interpretation 9.4 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts 9.5 Estimating with Bootstrapping Objective ❶ Estimate a Parameter Using the Bootstrap Method Problem Approach Solution Interpretation Problem Approach Solution 9.5 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary Skill Building Applying the Concepts Chapter 9 Review Summary Vocabulary Formulas Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test 10 Hypothesis Tests Regarding a Parameter Outline 10.1 The Language of Hypothesis Testing Objectives Problem Approach Solution ❶ Determine the Null and Alternative Hypotheses Problem Approach Solution ❷ Explain Type I and Type II Errors Problem Approach Solution The Probability of Making a Type I or Type II Error ❸ State Conclusions to Hypothesis Tests Problem Approach Solution 10.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 10.2 Hypothesis Tests for a Population Proportion Objectives ❶ Explain the Logic of Hypothesis Testing ❷ Test Hypotheses about a Population Proportion Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach ❸ Test Hypotheses about a Population Proportion Using the Binomial Probability Distribution Problem Approach Solution 10.2 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 10.3 Hypothesis Tests for a Population Mean Objectives ❶ Test Hypotheses about a Mean Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach ❷ Understand the Difference between Statistical Significance and Practical Significance Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach 10.3 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 10.4 Hypothesis Tests for a Population Standard Deviation Objective ❶ Test Hypotheses about a Population Standard Deviation Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach 10.4 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts 10.5 Putting It Together: Which Method Do I Use? Objective ❶ Determine the Appropriate Hypothesis Test to Perform 10.5 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts 10.6 The Probability of a Type II Error and the Power of the Test Objectives ❶ Determine the Probability of Making a Type II Error Problem Approach Solution ❷ Compute the Power of the Test Problem Approach Solution 10.6 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts Chapter 10 Review Summary Vocabulary Formulas Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test 11 Inference on Two Population Parameters Outline 11.1 Inference about Two Population Proportions Objectives ❶ Distinguish between Independent and Dependent Sampling Problem Approach Solution ❷ Test Hypotheses Regarding Two Proportions from Independent Samples Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach ❸ Construct and Interpret Confidence Intervals for the Difference between Two Population Proportions Problem Approach Solution By-Hand Solution Technology Solution Interpretation ❹ Determine the Sample Size Necessary for Estimating the Difference between Two Population Proportions Problem Approach Solution 11.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 11.2 Inference about Two Means: Dependent Samples Objectives ❶ Test Hypotheses for a Population Mean from Matched-Pairs Data Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach ❷ Construct and Interpret Confidence Intervals about the Population Mean Difference of Matched-Pairs Data Problem By Hand Approach By-Hand Solution Technology Approach Technology Solution 11.2 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts 11.3 Inference about Two Means: Independent Samples Objectives ➊ Test Hypotheses Regarding the Difference of Two Independent Means Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach ➋ Construct and Interpret Confidence Intervals Regarding the Difference of Two Independent Means Problem Approach Solution By Hand Technology 11.3 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building* Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 11.4 Inference about Two Population Standard Deviations Objectives ❶ Find Critical Values of the F-distribution Problem Approach Solution ❷ Test Hypotheses Regarding Two Population Standard Deviations Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach Using Technology 11.4 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts 11.5 Putting It Together: Which Method Do I Use? Objective ➊ Determine the Appropriate Hypothesis Test to Perform 11.5 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts Chapter 11 Review Summary Vocabulary Formulas Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test 12 Inference on Categorical Data Outline 12.1 Goodness-of-Fit Test Objective ➊ Perform a Goodness-of-Fit Test Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach 12.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 12.2 Tests for Independence and the Homogeneity of Proportions Objectives ➊ Perform a Test for Independence Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach Problem Approach Solution ➋ Perform a Test for Homogeneity of Proportions Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach 12.2 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 12.3 Inference about Two Population Proportions: Dependent Samples Objective ➊ Test Hypotheses Regarding Two Proportions from Dependent Samples Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P-Value Approach 12.3 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts Chapter 12 Review Summary Vocabulary Formulas Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test 13 Comparing Three or More Means Outline 13.1 Comparing Three or More Means (One-Way Analysis of Variance) Objectives ❶ Verify the Requirements to Perform a One-Way ANOVA Problem Approach Solution ❷ Test a Hypothesis Regarding Three or More Means Using One-Way ANOVA 13.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 13.2 Post Hoc Tests on One-Way Analysis of Variance Objective ❶ Perform the Tukey Test Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution 13.2 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts 13.3 The Randomized Complete Block Design Objectives ❶ Conduct Analysis of Variance on the Randomized Complete Block Design Problem Approach Solution ❷ Perform the Tukey Test Problem Approach Solution 13.3 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 13.4 Two-Way Analysis of Variance Objectives ❶ Analyze a Two-Way ANOVA Design Problem Approach Solution ❷ Draw Interaction Plots Problem By-Hand Approach By Hand Solution Technology Approach Technology Solution Interpretation Problem Approach Solution ❸ Perform the Tukey Test Problem Approach Solution 13.4 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts Chapter 13 Review Summary Vocabulary Formulas Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test 14 Inference on the Least-Squares Regression Model and Multiple Regression Outline 14.1 Testing the Significance of the Least-Squares Regression Model Objectives Problem Approach Solution ➊ State the Requirements of the Least-Squares Regression Model ➋ Compute the Standard Error of the Estimate Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution ➌ Verify That the Residuals Are Normally Distributed Problem Approach Solution ➍ Conduct Inference on the Slope of the Least-Squares Regression Model Problem Approach Solution Classical Approach P -Value Approach ➎ Construct a Confidence Interval about the Slope of the Least-Squares Regression Model Problem By-Hand Approach By-Hand Solution Technology Approach Technology Solution 14.1 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 14.2 Confidence and Prediction Intervals Objectives ➊ Construct Confidence Intervals for a Mean Response Problem Approach Solution ➋ Construct Prediction Intervals for an Individual Response Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution 14.2 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts 14.3 Introduction to Multiple Regression Objectives ➊ Obtain the Correlation Matrix Problem Approach Solution ➋ Use Technology to Find a Multiple Regression Equation Problem Approach Solution ➌ Interpret the Coefficients of a Multiple Regression Equation Problem Approach Solution ➍ Determine R2 and Adjusted R2 Problem Approach Solution ➎ Perform an F-Test for Lack of Fit Problem Approach Solution ➏ Test Individual Regression Coefficients for Significance Problem Approach Solution ➐ Construct Confidence and Prediction Intervals Problem Approach Solution 14.3 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 14.4 Interaction and Dummy Variables Objectives ➊ Work with Multiple Regression Models with Interaction Problem Solution ➋ Build Multiple Regression Models with Indicator Variables Problem Solution 14.4 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts 14.5 Polynomial Regression Objective ➊ Find a Quadratic Regression Equation Approach Solution 14.5 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts 14.6 Building a Regression Model Objectives ➊ Perform a Partial F-test Problem Approach Solution ➋ Build a Regression Model Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution 14.6 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Chapter 14 Review Summary Vocabulary Formulas Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test 15 Nonparametric Statistics Outline 15.1 An Overview of Nonparametric Statistics Objective ❶ Distinguish between Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Procedures 15.1 Assess Your Understanding Explaining the Concepts 15.2 Runs Test for Randomness Objective ❶ Perform a Runs Test for Randomness Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution Problem Approach Solution By-Hand Approach Technology Approach Problem Approach Solution 15.2 Assess Your Understanding Vocabulary and Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 15.3 Inference about Measures of Central Tendency Objectives ❶ Conduct a One-Sample Sign Test Problem Approach Solution By-Hand Solution Technology Solution 15.3 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 15.4 Inference about the Difference between Two Medians: Dependent Samples Objective ❶ Test a Hypothesis about the Difference between the Medians of Two Dependent Samples Problem Approach Solution By-Hand Solution Technology (P-value) Solution 15.4 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts 15.5 Inference about the Difference between Two Medians: Independent Samples Objective ❶ Test a Hypothesis about the Difference between the Medians of Two Independent Samples Problem Approach Solution By-Hand Approach Technology Approach Problem Approach Solution 15.5 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 15.6 Spearman’s Rank-Correlation Test Objective ❶ Perform Spearman’s Rank-Correlation Test Problem Approach Solution 15.6 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts Explaining the Concepts 15.7 Kruskal–Wallis Test Objective ❶ Test a Hypothesis Using the Kruskal–Wallis Test Problem Approach Solution By-Hand Approach Technology Approach 15.7 Assess Your Understanding Skill Building Applying the Concepts Chapter 15 Review Summary Vocabulary Formulas Objectives Review Exercises Chapter Test Photo Credits Appendix A Tables Answers Chapter 1 Data Collection 1.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 11) 1.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 20) 1.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 28) 1.4 Assess Your Understanding (page 36) 1.5 Assess Your Understanding (page 42) 1.6 Assess Your Understanding (page 52) Chapter 1 Review Exercises (page 58) Chapter 1 Test (page 61) Chapter 2 Organizing and Summarizing Data 2.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 74) 2.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 88) 2.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 100) 2.4 Assess Your Understanding (page 111) Chapter 2 Review Exercises (page 114) Chapter 2 Test (page 117) Chapter 3 Numerically Summarizing Data 3.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 130) 3.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 146) 3.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 157) 3.4 Assess Your Understanding (page 166) 3.5 Assess Your Understanding (page 174) Chapter 3 Review Exercises (page 180) Chapter 3 Test (page 181) Chapter 4 Describing the Relation between Two Variables 4.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 195) 4.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 210) 4.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 225) 4.4 Assess Your Understanding (page 239) Chapter 4 Review Exercises (page 243) Chapter 4 Test (page 246) Chapter 5 Probability 5.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 260) 5.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 273) 5.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 281) 5.4 Assess Your Understanding (page 290) 5.5 Assess Your Understanding (page 303) 5.6 Assess Your Understanding (page 310) 5.7 Assess Your Understanding (page 315) Chapter 5 Review Exercises (page 319) Chapter 5 Test (page 321) Chapter 6 Discrete Probability Distributions 6.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 333) 6.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 349) 6.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 356) Chapter 6 Review Exercises (page 360) Chapter 6 Test (page 362) Chapter 7 The Normal Probability Distribution 7.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 372) 7.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 384) 7.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 391) 7.4 Assess Your Understanding (page 396) Chapter 7 Review Exercises (page 398) Chapter 7 Test (page 400) Chapter 8 Sampling Distributions 8.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 413) 8.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 423) Chapter 8 Review Exercises (page 426) Chapter 8 Test (page 427) Chapter 9 Estimating the Value of a Parameter 9.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 441) 9.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 454) 9.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 465) 9.4 Assess Your Understanding (page 467) 9.5 Assess Your Understanding (page 474) Chapter 9 Review Exercises (page 478) Chapter 9 Test (page 480) Chapter 10 Hypothesis Tests Regarding a Parameter 10.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 491) 10.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 504) 10.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 515) 10.4 Assess Your Understanding (page 523) 10.5 Assess Your Understanding (page 525) 10.6 Assess Your Understanding (page 531) Chapter 10 Review Exercises (page 534) Chapter 10 Test (page 536) Chapter 11 Inferences on Two Population Parameters 11.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 549) 11.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 559) 11.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 570) 11.4 Assess Your Understanding (page 582) 11.5 Assess Your Understanding (page 585) Chapter 11 Review Exercises (page 591) Chapter 11 Test (page 592) Chapter 12 Inference on Categorical Data 12.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 604) 12.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 620) 12.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 628) Chapter 12 Review Exercises (page 631) Chapter 12 Test (page 632) Chapter 13 Comparing Three or More Means 13.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 647) 13.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 658) 13.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 667) 13.4 Assess Your Understanding (page 680) Chapter 13 Review Exercises (page 685) Chapter 13 Test (page 687) Chapter 14 Inference on the Least-Squares Regression Model and Multiple Regression 14.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 702) 14.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 710) 14.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 723) 14.4 Assess Your Understanding (page 734) 14.5 Assess Your Understanding (page 739) 14.6 Assess Your Understanding (page 751) Chapter 14 Review Exercises (page 755) Chapter 14 Test (page 757) Chapter 15 Nonparametric Statistics 15.1 Assess Your Understanding (page 763) 15.2 Assess Your Understanding (page 769) 15.3 Assess Your Understanding (page 776) 15.4 Assess Your Understanding (page 785) 15.5 Assess Your Understanding (page 795) 15.6 Assess Your Understanding (page 801) 15.7 Assess Your Understanding (page 807) Chapter 15 Review Exercises (page 810) Chapter 15 Test (page 812) Subject Index [Show More]

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