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HSM 541 Week 1 Discussion Question 2: Illness vs. Health Promotion (TOP RATED PAPER) | Download To Score An A

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HSM 541 Week 1 Discussion Question 2: Illness vs. Health Promotion WEEK 1: ILLNESS VERSUS HEALTH PROMOTION 4646 unread replies.123123 replies. Class, welcome to week 1! Criticism ha... s been leveled at the curative rather than health promotion/disease prevention focus of the U.S. healthcare system. Should the focus change? Why or why not? Do you see evidence of a shift occurring? If so, what do you think is contributing to that change? Make sure to respond to other students’ posts as well so we can keep the discussion going. Please remember to refer to your syllabus for guidelines on frequency and quality of posts This topic was locked Jul 15 at 11:59pm. • PROF and CLASS, • The healthcare system focus should always be towards the prevention of the disease rather than a cure, the healthcare systems are more focused towards preventive care measures and it also helps for any extra medical expenses by the help of periodic checkups and medical policies. The shift is towards creating awareness to prevent any sort of diseases by the healthcare system, healthcare organizations have been able to recognize the importance of health awareness promotions and disease management. • The scope of health promotion is determined as much by expected health outcomes as by methods and forms. From its purpose to enable people to gain greater control over the determinants of their health, "health promotion" can be defined as "any combination of educational and environmental supports for actions and conditions of living conducive to health" (Green and Kreuter, 1999). The actions or behaviors in question may be those of individuals, groups, or communities; or of policymakers, employers, teachers, or others in organizations whose actions or practices control or influence the determinants of health. When the determinants are ones over which individuals can exert personal control, this control ideally resides with the individual. But with some aspects of complex lifestyle issues, especially those that affect the health of others (e.g., drunk driving, public smoking), the control that people exercise must be through collective decisions and actions. Such strategies are reflected in the social policy targets of health promotion, which may call for aggressive and even coercive measures to regulate the behavior of those individuals, corporations, and government officials whose actions influence the health of others . • • • Collapse SubdiscussionIlona McMillian • Ilona McMillian • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 9:05pm • Manage Discussion Entry • • ILONA MCMILLIAN • • Hello Joseph, I agree with your comment about health prevention. In my opinion, laws are never in place to prevent serious ramifications until so many people are killed. An example I will use is the common cell phone, remember the flip phones main features were calling and maybe the internet but when the devices were upgraded to texting and camera shots, higher incidence of injuries and deaths started to occur. I am not blaming the phones but the way people are using them irresponsibly. According to the facts and latest stats as of 2018, in 2015, 3,477 people died and another 391,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes caused by drivers who were distracted because they were texting or using cell phones The same is true when it comes to health promotion. • The key word is prevention. • Retrieved from, https://www.personalinjurysandiego.org/topics/facts-about- texting-driving/ • • • Ibiwunmi Joseph • Ibiwunmi Joseph • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 8:37am • Manage Discussion Entry • Ilona, • Most definitely, I like your statement prevention is the key. You're right, prevention is the golden buzzer to everything in life as a matter of fact. Even as little as driving on the street, if you see a pothole or a ditch, the only prevention is to swave your steering wheel and go around the (pit, hole, ditch), if not we all know what that means, either you burst your tires or get stuck or even worse things can happen. So prevention is the watchword in healthcare. That is why there are preventive measures one can take in order not to fall a victim to different types of sicknesses. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionHarinder Dhandwar • Harinder Dhandwar • Jul 8, 2018Jul 8 at 12:08pm • Manage Discussion Entry • There should always be ways to educate us on how to prevent any sort of illness and maintain our healthy lifestyle. Sometimes people do not have the luxury of going to the doctors when they need to because most of us don't go unless we are really sick. It is always important to get your regular checkups to ensure you do not have any underlying diseases. We need to educate and have ways of focusing on preventing the illness in fact, that should be the number one goal. Patients need to be encouraged by getting their regular preventative exams done which are usually covered by insurance and the costs is nothing to worry about. Some employers actually make it mandatory for their employees to get their procedures done which prompts them to keep thriving to stay healthy. At my work, employees are encouraged with a PSP goal that is region wide and we get a bonus if we reach this by completing all of our regular exams and screenings. Departments also get rewarded and this is how we maintain our health. • • Reference: • Week 1 lecture • • • Collapse SubdiscussionDonna Nardi • Donna Nardi • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 10:47pm • Manage Discussion Entry • I agree that preventative care should be the focus of reducing healthcare costs. While patient education can bring awareness to taking care of ones’ self, healthcare costs can be a deterrent. In the case of weight loss programs to prevent heart problems or type II diabetes, some patients can’t afford to buy nutritious foods to keep weight under control. • Screenings can also be expensive if insurance benefits are not available. Government health insurance often doesn’t pay for preventive care procedures. • (1 like) • • Collapse SubdiscussionYanira Pagan • Yanira Pagan • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 7:57pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Donna, • Preventative care is important, but who has time , right? for a family to seek medical attention on a regular basis, they would all have to go on the same day to save time and effort. • there are some places that offer screenings for the basic measures like blood pressure and sugar levels. these numbers are good to know. • Education on wellness is very important as well. it is astonishing how little some people know about their own health and what can cause health to decline. • sure we all know that alcohol and cigarettes are cancerous, but not everyone knows the dangers of sugar intake, or meat consumption. • thanks • • • Sabi Dongol • Sabi Dongol • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 7:34pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Donna and Yanira, great post! • If we would focus more on Prevention it could eliminate a lot of surgeries and major illness. this that is possibly could lower some medical cost. I think most people do not focus on prevention because they wait until something goes wrong to get help. Many people can not afford healthcare insurance. So, they are faced with putting food on the table or going for an annual exam. Of course putting food on the table is a more important priority. I believe that in many instances individuals have indicators that alert them that something is not right with their bodies. It’s not until they can’t function or is forced to seek medical attention before they will go to the doctor. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionCamille Pearce • Camille Pearce • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 8:12pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Donna, • You're correct! Medicare has so many limitations on it and they are trying to cut even more from it. Medicaid pays for some much more than medicare, but it is still deficult to navigate the system. As far as, preventative services and testing the government has struck regulations. You may truly need this test to determine the illness you may or may not have, but if they feel you don't need it the government wants pay. That is why many don't seek out the care they need. • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 5:46am • Manage Discussion Entry • Yanira and Camile, thanks for a great conversation. I even forgot about the time individuals will save from not going to the emergency room and doctors office when they are sick. What about the pain and suffering involved in the curative measures? It's very obvious that relying more on the preventative approach to care is a win-win situation. Nice dialogue! • • • Jalisa Pearsall • Jalisa Pearsall • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 6:10pm • Manage Discussion Entry • I agree, we aren’t educated on things in which is good for us to live better and be healthy. Correct! Normally, people only get checked up or run to the hospitals when they feel pain or aches in their body. Some people, but then u have some people that does goes regularly to make sure everything is good with their body. I’m one of those people I make sure I go get myself checked upon regularly. I always document when I need to be return when I’m told to do so by th doctors and I keep up with everything such as my vision, my dental, my hygiene, my obgyn appts, and etc. Many people are dying left and right from not keeping up with themselves and it is a major issue nowadays to get checked up all the time. • • • Camille Pearce • Camille Pearce • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 8:13pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Its great that you employeers care about their employees health. Its a fact that many people chose not to go to the doctor for their check ups. Some are scared to hear something negative or others just don't make the time. The focus for me should be on the illness versus the promotion of healthcare. Awareness is the key to early detection and prevention. Healthcare is a business of making money and sometimes the focus is to much on that. More classes and physicians taking the time to educated others should be a priority with every patient. By encouraging people to maintain regular doctors visits and follow ups if need should be discussed always. • • • Jonna Henkel • Jonna Henkel • Jul 12, 2018Jul 12 at 4:18pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Harinder, • I agree with all of your remarks however, this would be a difficult task for people who do not have insurance. If they do not have insurance I'm sure that they are not going to pay out of pocket for a visit because those visits start at at least $100. Do you not think that we should still discuss disease prevent via news, papers etc.? This way even the people who do not have insurance are able to protect themselves as well. Or what do you think is a reasonable way to help with prevention to those who do not have insurance? • -Jonna Henkel • • • Collapse SubdiscussionShiela Sumaoang • Shiela Sumaoang • Jul 12, 2018Jul 12 at 11:02pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Good points here. • The healthcare system in the US has become quite sad. I definitely applaud former President Barack Obama for what he tried to do with our healthcare system but we have a long way to go. We are currently in a time where we have the highest rate of child obesity in the world. Most families can't afford health insurance, and therefore, can't take their children to the doctor for the preventative services. • The U.S. healthcare system should be focusing on health promotion and disease prevention. Sick people not sufficiently covered by private insurance plans often have the cost of their care picked up by the government via Medicare or Medicaid. So now our regular checkups for our children at a Pediatrician increases for the cost to be spread over the government’s cut and tax payers. Some avoid the doctor until the last minute because making a co- payment to give you Motrin or say take vitamins is usually what happens. It’s the time that the missed or passed opportunity for health care or disease prevention through testing and monitoring is the focus so that we lose the chance to shift the narrative. Overall, the focus of being proactive versus reactive will save a lot of time and money and even lives in the long run. • • • • Calvin Simmons • Calvin Simmons • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 6:17pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Great point Sheila regarding President Obama and the affordable care act; the healthcare law has some good provisions in it but does need a lot of work to make it an adequate law. President Obama himself said that it was a starting point; i feel the law should not be repealed or replaced but enhanced. • • • Lori Zamudio • Lori Zamudio • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 10:08pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Shiela & Calvin, • I completely agree with your train of thought here that the concept that President Obama's administration created was a great start that needs to be further researched and developed rather than just being discarded. The healthcare issue in this country is a very heated debate and it should be the main concern of our government since it affects not only people but the healthcare delivery system. I hope that the current administration realizes this and finds a way to improve upon this healthcare act and keep it moving forward for the better of everyone. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionJason Garbacz • Jason Garbacz • Jul 8, 2018Jul 8 at 2:08pm • Manage Discussion Entry • I believe the focus should change to a preventative approach. There is some evidence of this shift, but we have a long way to go, and the solutions can get really tricky. The affordable care act identified preventative prescription medications, and made insurance companies cover them at no cost to the patient, thus preventing more acute encounters further downstream. Investments in vaccines and promotion of access to vaccines is another great example. We've also seen prevention tactics including insurance premium incentives for non-tobacco users, and promotion of smoking cessation programs. Population health began as a measure in developing countries, as they stopped the spread of disease through investments in indoor plumbing and sewer systems. I believe we are back at a place where we need to focus on some big, non-traditional healthcare solutions in disease prevention. Flint Michigan still does not have clean drinking water. That situation should be rectified immediately, and national steps should be taken to ensure that never happens again. Not only from an empathetic and humanitarian position, but economically, the decisions made in Flint caused health problems and hospital stays, as well as long term damage to the health of the Flint community. Nationwide we experiencing oil spills from over ground pipelines, and offshore drilling. Oil spills contaminate drinking water, among other harmful environmental consequences. Similarly, air and water pollution have negative effects on public health, however the current presidential administration has made a point of reversing Obama era executive orders aimed at pollution prevention. Automotive emissions have driven an increase in global temperature, wreaking havoc on our weather system, creating droughts, wildfires, flooding, heat waves, and other weather events that inevitably cause harm to individuals, which will lead to healthcare usage downstream. Solving these problems is not solely up to the healthcare industry, which makes it so hard for change to occur. • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 9, 2018Jul 9 at 8:19pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Jason, Harinder and Joseph, thanks for your feedback. Historically US healthcare system has been based on curative medicine versus preventive medicine. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)is now shifting its focus to the safety of food and drug. The government's role in biomedical research has now increased. Public health programs have expanded to address a range of environmental health issues, to serve as the collector of vital event data (i.e., births, deaths, marriages, divorces, adoptions, and abortions), and to provide leadership on such diverse health issues as immunizations, sexually transmitted diseases, and violence (Barton, 2007). This focus reduces cost and visits to the emergency room. Discuss the impact of management component on healthcare system. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionJason Garbacz • Jason Garbacz • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 12:47pm • Manage Discussion Entry • The benefits of population health are similar to the benefits achieved through decreased uninsured rate. When people have insurance they are more likely to have regular check ups and get conditions treated earlier, before they require visits to the ER or inpatient stays. Similarly, population health efforts will reduce overall visits, and also reduce the acuity of the visits that do occur, as those being treated have fewer (on average) commodities. For example, given the known correlation between obesity and cardiac arrest, public health programs aimed at fitness and nutrition will reduce the number of cardiac arrest visits of a population, and if obesity is a less frequently occurring comorbidity, then the patient is easier to treat. If you also reduce the presence of other obesity related diseases, such as high blood pressure and diabetes, then the patients are, in whole healthier on admission, and are easier and less expensive to treat. When these efforts are done at large scale, they can have an affect on total healthcare spend, free up resources for others with less preventable diseases among other benefits. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionHassan Zubair • Hassan Zubair • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 12:07pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Jason, You mentioned some good points but if we see even under the ACA, many uninsured people cite the high cost of insurance as the main reason they lack coverage. In 2016, 45% of uninsured adults said that they remained uninsured because the cost of coverage was too high. Many people do not have access to coverage through a job, and some people, particularly poor adults in states that did not expand Medicaid, remain ineligible for financial assistance for coverage. Some people who are eligible for financial assistance under the ACA may not know they can get help, and undocumented immigrants are ineligible for Medicaid or Marketplace coverage. • • • Yanira Pagan • Yanira Pagan • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 9:35pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Health promotion is the process of empowering people to increase control over their health and its determinants through health literacy efforts and multisectoral action to increase healthy behaviors. This process includes activities for the community-at-large or for populations at increased risk of negative health outcomes. Health promotion usually addresses behavioral risk factors such as tobacco use, obesity, diet and physical inactivity, as well as the areas of mental health, injury prevention, drug abuse control, alcohol control, health behavior related to HIV, and sexual health. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionIbiwunmi Joseph • Ibiwunmi Joseph • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 1:39pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Management in Healthcare As in the case of any other organization, leadership and management play a the central role also in healthcare, especially concerning reform movements, types of services provided, quality of services and resource use. As we stated earlier, there is no universal recipe for successful management and leadership, contextual factors like political system and socio-economic factors play a significant part in the outcomes. • Management has been an essential component of healthcare for more than a century, with different stages of evolution (Ross et al., 2002, pp. 4-5): ● Initial organization and structure: 1910 to 1935; This period was the infancy stage of healthcare organizations; legal framework, the creation of structures and way of functioning being the central aspects. ● Productivity: 1935 to 1955; This is the period of scientific management in healthcare, mechanization and standardization of internal processes being the main concern. Integrated care started to become more and more important. ● Systems movement and management control: 1955 to 1970; Technology plays a more important role in delivering better and more diverse services. Effectiveness of services provided becomes important. ● System networking: 1970 to 1980; The innovative aspect of this period is the tendency of creating links, networks of healthcare services. The economic crisis forced the systems to adapt, for a more efficient and rational use of available resources. It also meant joining forces for a common goal: better health. Private healthcare providers also form alliances. ● The new competition: 1980 to 1995; The most important change was the introduction of competition in this line of services. Lack of resources for ever-growing demands and new health threats meant the classical organization had to change. Innovation is key for surviving, technology playing a major role. ● Reinvention: 1995 to the present; Increasing expectations and new developments in the field of medicine meant a more dynamic environment. Leaders and managers face an increasing number of new situations where the old rules do not apply, thus the need for exploring new executive competencies in order to increase the quality of decision-making. • Reference • HINŢEA, C., MORA, C., and ŢICLĂU, T. (2009). LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT IN THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM: LEADERSHIP PERCEPTION IN CLUJ COUNTY CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL. Retrieved from http://www.apubb.ro/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/LEADERSHIP-AND- MANAGEMENT-IN-THE-HEALTH.pdf • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 7:52pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Joseph and Jason, thanks for your post! Barton (2010) discussed that a country's health services system depends on several factors that interrelate. These include resources, organization, financing, and management that culminates in the delivery of health services to a population and its essential but not the single determinant of a population's health status. A health services system is shaped by the country's economic, political, and cultural values and therefore resources could influence the type of healthcare a community can support. • • • Britney Ortega • Britney Ortega • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 9:44pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Jason, • You have made some really great examples here in you post. I too believe that the preventative approach is the best route for the United States to take, but like you said we do have a long road ahead of us to accomplish this. There are so many sides to making this change because like you have mentioned it is not solely up to the healthcare industry, which makes it so much harder. It will take many sides for this change to occur. We can only hope that this happens in the future, everyone coming together to help make this change for the better of everyone’s health and the health of the United States health care system. • • • Allison Rossom • Allison Rossom • Jul 8, 2018Jul 8 at 9:47pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Preventative healthcare should be the focus for a patient's well-being. Preventative healthcare include well visits and diagnostic screenings. Patients will be able to seek more information on exercise, diet and alternative treatment such as acupunture and hypnosis. I do see evidence of a shift occurring to the preventative approach due to people living longer and an aging population putting a demand on home healthcare and geriatric care. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionChristopher La Rosa • Christopher La Rosa • Jul 9, 2018Jul 9 at 6:10pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Professor and class, • Health promotion serves as a viable intervention for patients that are struggling with a disease or at risk of one. Health promotion offers the opportunity for the patient to develop goals and action steps that are patient focused and enhances sense of self. • Health promotion can guide the patient and worker to develop more realistic treatment plan goals. The success between the collaboration of using health promotion and treatment plans are evident when optimal health outcomes are achieved upon reviewing the treatment plan. • Over the years I have seen an increase within programs using health promotion and education. Patients are better able to navigate the healthcare and social service systems. Patients have also gained the skills and knowledge needed to maintain a stable health status. • Thanks Chris. • Edited by Christopher La Rosa on Jul 9 at 7:02pm • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 9, 2018Jul 9 at 8:21pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Allison and Christopher, thanks for your posts. Many organizations now offer rewards and health promotion strategies for staff based on their wellness and fitness. These organizations give monetary rewards for healthy lifestyle living and engaging in community wellness programs. For example, Montgomery County in Maryland give their employees and their families free access to recreation centers, reduce cost in membership fees and access to other facilities without charging. The whole goal is to have a healthy community. Other resources, such as a workforce and facilities, are essential to a health services system. Please discuss the resources component of health care systems. • • • • • Christopher La Rosa • Christopher La Rosa • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 1:47pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Professor, • Similarly my employer offers several incentives that promote health and wellness. Employees are offered incentives via a deduction in their health insurance costs by seeing a primary care provider once a year. Structured activities like yoga or our onsite gym are available at no cost. Ironically activities that do require a fee are seldom attended. • Health promotion to patients could come with some incentives as well. For example here at the hospital within certain interventions a patient could receive a monthly stipend or gift card if they continuously sustain a health related goal. Not all staff is on board with this idea, citing that an incentive is already provided when providing counseling. Providing food and transportation as an incentive when conducting Health promotion via a group setting has also shown its benefits. • Thanks Chris • • • Jalisa Pearsall • Jalisa Pearsall • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 10:05am • Manage Discussion Entry • The resources component of health care systems are eligibility, department of defense, veterans health administration, private sector, and non profit volunteer organizations. As for eligibility they may be covered by Civilian insurance medicare, medicaid, or private insurance, VA, or they may, at times be uninsured, Department of defense provides health care to over eight million beneficiaries, including active duty personnel, and retirees and their dependents. Veterans health administration operates the nation’s largest integrated health care system. With Private Sector, a large percentage of veterans, Guard members, and private insurance provided by their own, or their spouse’s, employer. Nonprofit and volunteer organizations provide creative approaches to reducing symptoms and helping service members and veterans reintegrate into society. • Section 5: Components of the Health Care System. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2018, from https://ncd.gov/publications/2009/March042009/section5Links to an external site. • • • • • • Shiela Sumaoang • Shiela Sumaoang • Jul 9, 2018Jul 9 at 10:55pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi professor and class, • Being proactive especially in matters of health is hard; therefore, some of the enabling measures put in place include, the public health interventions, this is where national policies in the health sector are documented to help tackle health problems such as smoking, inactive lifestyle and poor diet. Such interventions help members of the public to initiate changes that focus on a healthy living. This is through sensitization of the public for screenings, especially for chronic diseases like cancer. In the process, they initiate a change of lifestyle to a healthy living. This change of lifestyle may include quitting tobacco t, encouraging them to exercise regularly. This creates the basis of healthy living thus, avoiding some of the major chronic and lifestyle diseases commonly people suffer most. • • Campaigns and public sensitization are also forms of interventions. Funding such, initiatives have been difficult since it is seen as unnecessary by many organization and government, but what we need to understand is that those interventions are important and will enable the country save many resources that could have been used in the treatment of the various diseases (Lockee, 2009). These interventions act as preventive measures. This is mainly practiced by establishing your target group, like for example, if it is screening for prostate cancer, the target group would be men of more than 45 years. This will enable them to identify their problems early and seek medical attention before the disease spreads and becomes terminal (Lockee, 2009). • • Lockee, C. (2009). Board oversight of quality: any differences in process of care and mortality? Journal of Healthcare Management, 54(1), 15. • Edited by Shiela Sumaoang on Jul 9 at 11:02pm • • • Hassan Zubair • Hassan Zubair • Jul 9, 2018Jul 9 at 11:17pm • Manage Discussion Entry • In my Opinion, the focus is changing through changes in the Medicare benefits, curative was the primary focus of healthcare and now it is preventative. It should be prevented because it saves millions of dollars in healthcare benefits to prevent instead of cure. Our government is getting smarter by covering more preventive services than waiting for someone to get sick before we care for them. However, we are not there yet but moving in that direction. The wellness approach is a great way to encourage and prevent illness. Changing your lifestyle to a more healthy way of life a little at a time helps a lot. It is all about prevention instead of curative because curative costs and prevention save healthcare dollars. • The cost of providing preventive care is much lower than curative care. The people proving that care tends to be paid much less. A family doctor is paid less for a consultation on lifestyle changes than a specialist who provides surgery for an existing condition that could have been prevented or for pharmaceuticals to treat the ailment. In many cases, preventive care can be provided by nurses, nurse practitioners or dieticians at much lower costs than a doctor. If a patient actually follows the advice for preventive care, they may very well avoid the much higher costs for curative care. • Reference: • Edusols. (2016). Health promotion/disease prevention focus of the U.S. healthcare system, Retrieved from, http://www.busnsolutions.info/criticism- has-been-leveled-at-the-curative-rather-than-health-promotiondisease- prevention-focus-of-the-u-s-healthcare-system-answer/ • • • Collapse SubdiscussionIlona McMillian • Ilona McMillian • Jul 9, 2018Jul 9 at 11:31pm • Manage Discussion Entry • ILona Mcmillian • As the old saying goes "an ounce of preventation is worth a pound of cure." Preventative care should be a primary focus to cut cost while at the same time teach patients healthy ways to control the disease proces through diet and exercise. Although, curative research may be good in identifying specific cures for a disease in progress, preventative measures are best and I do see a shift heading in that direction. • Austin, A., Wetle, V. (2018). The United States Health Care System: Combining Business, Health, and Delivery, 3rd Edition. • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 6:16am • Manage Discussion Entry • Ilona, Hassan, and Shiela, thanks for your insight. I agree with you that the focus should be on preventative to reduce cost upfront and improve healthy lifestyles. The proponents of preventive medicine continue to work on different health promotion approaches to mitigate the challenges. The purpose of a health service is to positively affect a person's health through its maintenance, its improvement, or its recovery (Barton, 2010). Austin and Wetle (2018) discussed that the wellness model of health care focuses on the prevention of disease and the maintenance of well-being. Based on this approach, health is defined as the optimal functioning of each human being in his or her mind, body, and spirit. • Class, distinguish health from illness and disease. What role can the healthcare administrators play to promote a healthy lifestyle in their communities? • • • Ibiwunmi Joseph • Ibiwunmi Joseph • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 1:44pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Prof, • Criticism has been leveled at the curative rather than health promotion/disease prevention focus of the U.S. healthcare system. Although we’ve made some progress using curative medicine rather than health promotion or disease prevention the process is slow. Therapeutic methods do not produce enough positive outcomes in health care because there are social, institutional values as well as beliefs that put emphasis on diseases and not on health, thus causing an increase in healthcare costs. We know beliefs and values are very influential. Healthcare should focus on preventative measures. Taking precautions and treatment methods to prevent chronic illnesses or diseases is the best course of action. According to the CDC, states taking precautions are critical. “Increasing the focus on prevention in our communities will improve our quality of life.” (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014) It reduces healthcare costs as well as ensuring that the patient is healthy enough to live a productive life in the society. • Edited by Ibiwunmi Joseph on Jul 10 at 1:44pm • • • Flordeluna Pasia • Flordeluna Pasia • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 6:54pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Illness and disease both cause the same feelings of discomfort, pain or unease in people. However, an illness is more of a subjective feeling. This means that there is really no identifiable reason behind the condition. If the condition behind the illness is identified, it is more often referred to as a disease. However, in more generalized terms, we can define an illness as a state where the person has feelings of pain or discomfort that does not have an identifiable reason. I'd say the role of the healthcare administrator to promote a healthy lifestyle in their communities is to become an educator, educating patients in engaging families, and patients as active participants in their own care. Continous care follow-up, reminding of the benefits to self-care management, providing resources on how to manage and prevent disease. Improved patient engagement is associated with better patient experience, health, and quality of life and better economic outcomes, yet patient and family participation in care decisions remains limited. • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207234/ • • • Allison Rossom • Allison Rossom • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 9:13pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Most people have some sort of illness or complaint. Fewer could be registered with a disease. There also was an obvious discrepancy between reporting having a disease and a subject’s rating of general health. • Illness is defined as the ill health the person identifies themselves with, often based on self reported mental or physical symptoms. In some cases this may mean only minor or temporary problems, but in other cases self reported illness might include severe health problems or acute suffering. It may include health conditions that limit the person’s ability to lead a normal life. According to this definition illness is seen as a rather wide concept. • Disease, on the other hand, is defined as a condition that is diagnosed by a physician or other medical expert. Ideally, this would include a specific diagnosis according to standardized and systematic diagnostic codes. This would in most cases also mean that the specific condition has a known biomedical cause and often known treatments and cures. However, it should be mentioned that there are several limitations to this ideal in practice. One is the fact that a number of medical diagnoses have to be based on subjective information from the patient concerning pains and feelings. Another limitation is the fact that a number of diagnoses are based on syndromes and complex interrelations between different organ systems and thus are not always very specific. • Continuous care and patient engagement are some ways that healthcare administrators can promote a healthy lifestyle for their communities • • • Hassan Zubair • Hassan Zubair • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 9:51pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Illness and disease both cause the same feelings of discomfort, pain or unease in people. However, an illness is more of a subjective feeling. This means that there is really no identifiable reason behind the condition. Of course, if the condition behind the illness is identified, it is more often referred to as a disease. However, in more generalized terms, we can define an illness as a state where the person has feelings of pain or discomfort that does not have an identifiable reason. A disease refers to a condition where the body or the parts of the body of a person does not work properly. There is usually a pathological reason behind the condition. • Perhaps the most meaningful way healthcare administration promote help to assess the need for health education and develop educational materials and proposals to help promote positive behavior in community, family and individual health. They work to collect and analyze data by demography, establish health screenings and find funding for health programs. Community health professionals will educate the public on healthy habits and lifestyles for positive changes in their communities. Community health professionals help to reform behaviors and policies within the public by combining medical principles with health education. • They promote seniors health is by giving their clients support, encouragement, respect, and kindness that make them socially and emotionally healthy. And many healthcare assistants are drawn to the job for the emotional care aspect. • Reference: • Smith M, Saunders. (May 10, 2013), Engaging Patients, Families, and Communities, Retrieved from, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207234/ • • • Collapse SubdiscussionHubert Porter • Hubert Porter • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 5:05pm • Manage Discussion Entry • I believe the focus should change to health promotion/disease prevention rather than curative. Not only does it decreases healthcare costs, it can have a profound affect on society. Shifting to health and wellness can reduce the prevalence of so many diseases and illness, including mental health issues and drug/alcohol abuse. In my practice, a large percentage of patients I treat are regularly hospitalized because drug and alcohol use is a barrier to proper disease management. They add to over utilization of hospital services, increased length of stay, and frequent readmissions which all lead to increased healthcare costs. I do see evidence of the shift to health promotion by insurance companies occurring by offering incentives to their members who adopt healthy lifestyle choices.My insurance company offers a cash rebate for joining and utilizing a gym. Also, they offer $0 co-pay for nicotine replacement therapy. It is more profitable for insurance companies to provide these incentives because if their members are healthier, it costs them less money in the long run. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionShiela Sumaoang • Shiela Sumaoang • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 11:04pm • Manage Discussion Entry • I agree with you, Hubert. Hospitals and clinics nowadays are promoting wellness programs. In our company, there is a program called "Health and Wellness, Whole Food Plant-Based Lifestyle, wherein doctors are teaching patients some tips and recipes on how to eat healthy. There is also another program called Million Hearts. This program promotes awareness and knowledge on how patients could prevent having a heart disease or heart attacks in the next ten years. • With that being said, people being more knowledgeable and more involved when it comes with their health are putting pressure on the American Healthcare system to not just treat the illness and diseases but to cure them and provide overall prevention. • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 12, 2018Jul 12 at 8:25pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Shiela and Hubert, thanks for your responses. Focusing on the wellness model puts more money in the hands of individuals. From the perspective of the wellness model, health focuses on the optimal functioning of each human being in his or her mind, body, and spirit. Wetle and Austin (2018) discussed that managers must make trade-offs because all sources of advantage cannot occur simultaneously and they must also try to meet the national policy objectives of quality, cost, and access. • • • Harinder Dhandwar • Harinder Dhandwar • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 2:26pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hubert you are correct on this as some companies do offer this help. People are living longer and there is our baby boomers that are actually living healthy. I feel that this is all because of preventative healthcare and diagnostic screenings really help. Getting the regular screenings and having a good diet can help prevent future problems. Most the time we do not realize if we put off our tests we might be holding on to a illness that could have been prevented if we had just took the time to go to our exam. I do feel that hospitals are trying to raise more awareness to patients so that w can help prevent any future problems from occurring. Many companies try to have posters and have regular screenings as a requirement to make sure they are being healthy and prevent any illness and disease. • • • Britney Ortega • Britney Ortega • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 9:11pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hubert, • I completely agree, I too believe that the focus should change to health promotion/disease prevention rather than curative. I believe health and wellness and everything behind this would really benefit all of us. Knowing how to fuel our bodies properly, exercise, and be in tune with out bodies and how we feel from the inside out would have an tremendous affect on society, but we are far from this unfortunately. I also found it interesting that your insurance company offers a cash rebate for joining and utilizing a gym, this is the first I hear of this, I think its great. Thanks for sharing! • • • Collapse SubdiscussionLorena Custis • Lorena Custis • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 5:51pm • Manage Discussion Entry • When promoting health and disease prevention, this gives individuals the ability to enhance their quality of life. By giving them the knowledge of how to take care of themselves, this decreases the likelihood of spending excessive money on medical treatment and keeping costs low. I believe that prevention is better and should be more focused on, because promoting can prevent the constant visits to the physician’s office, home care, etc. In order to prevent an outcome that may negatively affect your health, one must discover or be knowledgeable of ways to stop it from occurring. Prevention begins before birth into your elderly years. Therefore, the more promotion and prevention offered, the more information one has to use to maintain a healthy lifestyle. • As for as the curative approach in the health care system, this is where measures are taken to restore and improve your health; after finding out a negative outcome. For instance, if you’re sick, a physician would prescribe you with antibiotics to restore/improve your health. This is basically restorative care. By focusing more so on cures, we are only putting Band-Aids on the bigger issues. • I indeed do see a shift occurring in the matter of curative versus health promotion and disease prevention. Through the innovation of technology, individuals can now use devices to track their health. For instance, smart phones can diagnose health activities, as well as promote physical fitness; while t-shirts are made to improve your posture. • (1 like) • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 7:55pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Lorena, Hubert, and Joseph, thanks for your insight on the topic. I also believe there is a shift in behavior and lifestyle due to the numerous health education and campaign. Due to technology and use of social media, health promotion strategies have widely spread, and individuals are learning more in the 21st century. Despite the general belief that the receipt of health services is one of the major influences on health status, other factors are of equal or greater importance, (Barton 2010) Some of the determinants of health, including physical and social environments; personal traits; physical, mental, and social well-being; and access to a continuum of health services. • Please discuss with examples, some of the social environments and determinants of health. • • • Sindhu Manoharan • Sindhu Manoharan • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 10:57am • Manage Discussion Entry • Please discuss with examples, some of the social environments and determinants of health. • Professor, • Social determinants of health could range from finance to a person's culture. For example, if someone's financial status is that they are barely making ends meet, they are not going to be in a healthy living environment. Most likely, they'll be living in areas that are unclean and their nutrition intake is very weak due to affordability. If i'm not able to afford food, I'm going to eat the first thing I see, not taking into consideration the effects it could have on my health. Especially in cases of patients with diabetes- insulin is not very affordable unless your insurance contributes to it. Do those patients that can't afford much make ends meet to purchase insulin or purchase food to eat? • • • Collapse SubdiscussionLorena Custis • Lorena Custis • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 7:46pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Health may start in our homes, schools, workplaces, and communities. Therefore, health is determined by an individuals social and economic opportunities. To achieve a healthy lifestyle, it is best for an individual to gain the knowledge of how to become healthy. These opportunities come in the forms of the resources available in schools and at home, the food we eat, to the water we drink, and our social interactions. For instance, attending a community health fair to gain insight on healthy eating habits and walking instead of driving a car, play a huge role as positive social determinants of health. As for the social determinant of walking instead of driving a car, individuals are creating a healthier lifestyle for themselves as well as people around them. By utilizing this factor, it produces a positive factor of exercising and not adding pollution to the air. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionYunervice Smith • Yunervice Smith • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 8:13pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hey Lorena, • • I agree healthy starts in the home and over the years healthy has become the new it trend. Many gyms have been sprouting up like crazy with many companies paying the bill. This is due to many companies not wanting to pay out a lot for healthcare, less time off means the employees can work more. It all ties into profit. If a key member is sick a project can come to a halt causing the company money. • • • Lorena Custis • Lorena Custis • Jul 12, 2018Jul 12 at 6:16pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Yunervice, • I totally agree with you about how being healthy is the new "it" trend. Currently, within my health insurance, I have the option to have them pay for my monthly gym membership. All I have to do is go to the gym at least 20 days out the month, and my monthly fee is paid for. If you do not have a membership, my employer allows us to go to the gym in our building free of charge. Being healthy is a lifestyle that has become the thing to do and be, based off all the media and social outlets. • • Edited by Lorena Custis on Jul 12 at 6:21pm • • • Hassan Zubair • Hassan Zubair • Jul 12, 2018Jul 12 at 11:39pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Lorena, I agree that Health may start in our homes, schools, workplaces, and communities. The family is the primary socializing agent of young people. Whether young people develop successfully depends substantially on whether families provide the physical and psychological conditions children need to acquire developmental competencies. Aggressive social behavior, which typically begins to emerge during childhood, is a key risk factor for progression of externalizing disorder. There is now extensive evidence on interventions designed to help families develop practices that prevent the development of aggressive and antisocial behavior and its associated problems. These interventions focus on providing training in parenting skills. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionLori Zamudio • Lori Zamudio • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 10:32pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Good Evening Professor and fellow classmates, • I believe that an example of how some of the social environments and determinants of health is my current employer. I work for a company, Sharecare, that is a social platform that promotes health and wellness of today's society as well as for their employees.The real age assessment is scientifically based that provides users with the the true age of the body based on the lifestyles we choose. One of the features of the Sharecare app is that allows their users have constant access to personalized health consultations with AskMD. Helping the uses to find the right doctor, healthy recipes, as well as providing health tips for those living with certain conditions are just some of the few features that Sharecare offers it's users. • https://about.sharecare.com/Links to an external site. • • • Jonna Henkel • Jonna Henkel • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 6:30am • Manage Discussion Entry • Lori, • Sharecare sounds like a great first step to helping others with prevention. Does this application give you the option to video chat with a doctor after hours? How have you seen Sharecare influence your life decisions? • • -Jonna • • • Minerva Foster • Minerva Foster • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 11:06am • Manage Discussion Entry • Social determinants of health reflect the social factors and physical conditions of the environment in which people are born, live, learn, play, work, and age. Also known as social and physical determinants of health, they impact a wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes. • Examples of social determinants include: • • Availability of resources to meet daily needs, such as educational and job opportunities, living wages, or healthful foods • Social norms and attitudes, such as discrimination • Exposure to crime, violence, and social disorder, such as the presence of trash • Social support and social interactions • Exposure to mass media and emerging technologies, such as the Internet or cell phones • Socioeconomic conditions, such as concentrated poverty • Quality schools • Transportation options • Public safety • Residential segregation I see these social determinants when participating in my Big Brother Big Sister program and we visit the location of their BBBS facility. The surrounding area consists of exposure to crime, violence, trash etc. This is the norm for the majority of the students that participate in the program and you can see that it’s a scene that almost fades into the background for them but for us big’s that don’t live in that environment it stands out like a sore thumb. https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health- measures/Determinants-of-HealthLinks to an external site. • Allison Rossom • Allison Rossom • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 1:54pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Healthy People 2020 explores the determinants of health by: • • Developing objectives that address the relationship between health status and biology, individual behavior, health services, social factors, and policies. • Emphasizing an ecological approach to disease prevention and health promotion. An ecological approach focuses on both individual-level and population-level determinants of health and interventions As discussed on their web page, Social determinants of health reflect the social factors and physical conditions of the environment in which people are born, live, learn, play, work, and age. Also known as social and physical determinants of health, they impact a wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes. Examples of social determinants include: • Availability of resources to meet daily needs, such as educational and job opportunities, living wages, or healthful foods • Social norms and attitudes, such as discrimination • Exposure to crime, violence, and social disorder, such as the presence of trash • Social support and social interactions • Exposure to mass media and emerging technologies, such as the Internet or cell phones • Socioeconomic conditions, such as concentrated poverty • Quality schools • Transportation options • Public safety • Residential segregation https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health- measures/Determinants-of-Health • Hubert Porter • Hubert Porter • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 5:24pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Lorena, • There are many tools at our disposal nowadays compared to 10-20 years ago. The fitness industry is a huge market with gyms, fitness trackers, and fitness apps; however, I feel the market is so commercialized, the focus is more on personal appearance than health and wellness, in my opinion. I believe more education and preventative methods need to be taken to break down some of the barriers to healthier lifestyles. I work for a major health system in Philadelphia, PA and in my experience, the powers to be or decision makers are happy with treating the symptoms and not getting to the root cause. I've been in meetings where it was said, "Let's focus on the low- hanging fruit!" They know it is very challenging to change a person's lifestyle and behaviors and choose not to dig deep to the root of the problem because it is not lucrative; however, a good percentage of these patients are readmitted which the hospital does not get paid by Medicare, Medicaid, and most insurance companies. Which is more cost effective, spending money on education and other resources to promote healthy lifestyles or focus on curative methods and not receive payment for treatment when patients are frequently readmitted? • • • Christopher La Rosa • Christopher La Rosa • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 6:36pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Lorena, • Knowledge that is offered to patients via health promotion is crucial for disease prevention and has shown great promise in keeping people healthy with chronic conditions. I wanted share the trend in health and social services at hospitals that use Evidence Based Interventions (EBI's) using a health promotion curriculum. EBI's follow a modality the was tested with scientific methods; shown to be safe and is proven to be effective. In order for EBI's to be successful, providers need to adhere to the standardized manner of the EBI without deviating from the model and protocol. Patients need to see that the outcomes of the EBI are both measurable and understandable. Below is a link on the effects of EBI's cost effectiveness and on how they could improve the health and quality of life of mothers and their children. • Thanks Chris. • https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742- 4755-11-69Links to an external site. • • • • • Coleene Sealy • Coleene Sealy • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 9:55pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Dr. Mensah and Class, • I think that its good that healthcare focus on preventing people to take better care on themselves before they become sick, no one will stop from getting sick but the less people who do will help the healthcare from spending more money to help cure them; by encouraging people do things different by having a more healthy lifestyle will be beneficial for everyone which is why some hospitals and companies are focusing on encouraging communities and employees to make a different lifestyle change especially those who might have illness like diabetes or heart failure conditions in their families to make these changes now. • Everywhere have wellness groups where they are educating you about what to do if you have certain illness in your family and how important it is to have a physical every year and making sure that you get some form of exercise, plus what you need to be eating and what you should cut out of your diet. One of the reason which I believe is contributing to this change is one the many people from different age group that becoming sick and the baby boomers that are retiring from work which means more money to that healthcare will have to spend to take care of them. • • • Rachel Gates • Rachel Gates • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 10:13pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Most services in healthcare are given based on the curative of its nature because it is more lucrative to find a solution to deal with the issue than to instruct a person on how to keep the issue from occurring at all. I truly believe that this outlook should be changed and that there should be more focus on health promotion/prevention. This change needs to be made because some of the curatives used possess side effects that will create long term problems. My dad is a good example of this, he had spine fusion surgery about 9 years ago for a bulging disc ; and he now has rheumatoid arthritis as a side effect from the surgery and medication given to him during recovery. If he was given preventative tips or measures on how to prevent his back problem from getting worst, he may not have needed the surgery and would not be dealing with arthritis. I must honestly say that in some healthcare settings I have seen a shift in healthcare professionals providing a more preventative approach rather than just trying to fix the issue once it has gotten to bad. When I found out that I was first pregnant I was given these dissolve-able tablets to help with nausea by the emergency room department but when I arrived at my OBGYN she instructed me to use them with caution because they were scientifically unsure if they had any adverse affect on the fetus. I consider her verbal warning as her way of giving me a preventative tip rather than waiting for a complication to occur during my pregnancy. I believe that the recent availability of healthcare is what contributed to the change in focus because it has allowed more people to seek out health care services that may not have before. • Edited by Rachel Gates on Jul 10 at 10:18pm • • • Collapse SubdiscussionSabi Dongol • Sabi Dongol • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 10:29pm • Manage Discussion Entry • It is undeniable obvious that focus on health care should change towards preventative health. Prevention can reduce the risk factors that lead to chronic diseases, slow their progression, improve overall health and reduce health care spending. Taking a prevention-first approach reaps benefits in the workplace as well: An unhealthy population leads to higher rates of absenteeism and presentism. In fact, the annual costs related to lost productivity due to absenteeism totaled $84 billion in 2013, according to the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index. • Too often, the practice of medicine in the United States is focused on treatment. Doctors are taught to battle disease and treat chronic illness to the bitter end, and we have amazing technologies and treatments that have been proven to save lives, but our costs and health outcomes don’t seem to match what we pour into the system. • In recent years, general focus is gradually shifting towards the holistic approached of wellness. There is now a growing awareness of the link between high rates of chronic disease and rising health care costs. The US government is taking somewhat interest in promoting preventive healthcare. However, comparing the health care system with other developed country, we have much to learn. • Over the next year, the task force will continue to engage targeted stakeholders and decision-makers in the public and private sectors in hopes of bringing about fundamental changes in the way we deliver health and value it. We hope these conversations will help bridge the gap between health care in the clinical setting and the powerful tools in our communities. • reference: • https://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/policy-dose/2015/05/28/focus-on- prevention-to-cut-us-health-care-costs • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 5:17pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Sabi, Rachel, Coleene and Sindhu, thanks for your contributions. Each of you touched on something important and your posts are in line with the course objectives. Since the focus should be on a preventative approach to care, Preventative measures and tests are encouraged by providers, such as annual physical exams, mammograms, cholesterol evaluations, and weight loss interventions. The preventative model expends significant resources to maintain the optimum health of individuals or populations rather than merely curing illness. Generally, the costs associated with a preventative approach are less than those of a curative approach. How do healthcare providers measure the health of a population? Are all preventative approach to care covered by insurance companies? • • • Coleene Sealy • Coleene Sealy • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 7:55pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Dr. Mensah and Class, • Healthcare provider measure the health of a population by using a data system which is share among hospitals, clinics and other departments and other way in which they measure the population are asking patients to do a survey of their experience at these facilities. • What is cover by insurance companies when it come to preventative care, well if you have a PPO plan all preventative care are covered, however you will need to use an in-network provider if not you will pay out of pocket and the reason for this when "the passing of the Affordable Care Act all plans are now required to cover preventative doctor's visit and exams at zero cost to the consumers, that which is mandated by law for insurance company to provide this benefit" and this is also beneficially for the consumers and insurance company too for this is a good business for everyone. • https://www.healthline.com/health/consumer-healthcare-guide/preventative- health-insuranceLinks to an external site. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionDonna Nardi • Donna Nardi • Jul 12, 2018Jul 12 at 3:47pm • Manage Discussion Entry • An electronic health information exchange allows doctors, nurses, pharmacists, other health care providers, and patients to access and securely share essential medical information electronically. This improves the speed, quality, safety, and cost of patient care. • Appropriate and timely sharing of vital patient information better informs decision-making at the point of care and allows providers to: • • Decrease duplicate testing • Avoid medication errors • Avoid readmission • Improve decision making https://www.healthit.gov/playbook/health-information-exchange/ • Hubert Porter • Hubert Porter • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 6:51pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Donna, • You bring up a good point with the use of electronic health records (EHR). It provides more security for medical records and as you pointed out, allows for smooth and secure exchange of medical records. In my practice, I witness this almost every shift with medication reconciliation. Before EHR, we relied on patients, families, and caregivers for medication reconciliation which is unreliable for many reasons. Now, getting a patient's medication list directly from a physician's office and/or pharmacy is more reliable, efficient, and safe. I witness many patients admitted because they were taking too many medications, and this is usually figured out once the medication reconciliation is completed during the admission process. Electronic health records has helped to improve quality and safety of our care delivery system. • • • Rachel Gates • Rachel Gates • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 8:20pm • Manage Discussion Entry • According to Healthcarecatalyst.com, Healthcare providers measures the health of a population by looking at these 4 Things: • 1. Mortality • 2. Re-admissions • 3. Effectiveness of Care • 4. Efficient Use Of Medical Resources • • https://www.healthcatalyst.com/The-Top-4-Outcome-Measures-and-3- Measurement-Essentials# • • • Collapse SubdiscussionJoseline Rivera • Joseline Rivera • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 10:32pm • Manage Discussion Entry • WEEK 1: ILLNESS VS HEALTH PROMOTION • • In most case scenarios we can say our health care system works according to the Module Week One Reading material - by Illness vs Health Promotion. It treats sickness and symptoms so in a way you have to be ill or sick for the system to start working for you. Be it that if it operated on Health Promotion principles the system would probably always be working for you. It is much costly to have a system always operating you would think but in the long run the system could take care of its own cost if the medical crisis is deterred by means of good health standards. "Food for thought" no doubt. Development of individuals and the stages of life that are normal and every human being encounters could be a good way to treat either or of this systems. So you see a resolution could be achieved by creating a mixed and balanced blend of both. Here we could work of illness and work on health promotion in stages of development as early as infancy and as late as the elderly "golden age". • • RIVERA JOSELINE • • • Harinder Dhandwar • Harinder Dhandwar • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 9:35am • Manage Discussion Entry • Wellness groups and certain classroom trainings can help focus on healthcare. At my work we actually have fifteen minute break where all the employees are encouraged to exercise and try to utilize the gym that our company provides. We have a leader who volunteers and then the rest of us try to do exercises with her. This is a great way to stay physical and it doesn't take much to be active. We also get educated every month on our yearly screenings and preventions so we can live a more healthier lifestyle. This is a good example of what companies and hospitals can do to have more awareness. EHR is a great way to help improve quality and safety which also helps the cost of patient care. Doctors are able to make better choices and see problems beforehand rather than when the illness gets worse. We have so many different ways of preventing and learning about patient issues before it gets worse. • • • Sabi Dongol • Sabi Dongol • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 2:13pm • Manage Discussion Entry • I believe that we do not focus on prevention in our healthcare system, because it takes a lot of time. Most people do not worry about going to their annual check-up because they are not sick, they keep postponing it and it is the same with the regularly scheduled preventative exams such as mammograms and colonoscopies. People have to take time out of their busy scheduled to tend to their own maintenance. We as American workers focus too much on others and not ourselves. If nothing is wrong, it is hard to spend the extra time and money to go to a checkup where they tell you everything is fine. The co-pays are too high and our employers are not very understanding when it comes to yearly physicals and other preventative procedures. The doctor’s offices and procedure places of business are just as bad. They do not offer appointments that would work around the regular Monday through Friday 8 – 5 pm schedule that most Americans work with. Perhaps if we were given a couple of days a year that was paid by our employers to get this all done, then maybe we would have better preventative care. You would have to show proof that you went to the doctor or had your procedure, which isn’t hard to do and then when submitted to work, you get paid. The government could offer some type of incentives to those employers that have 90% or above compliance with preventative healthcare measures. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionAmanda Villa • Amanda Villa • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 10:35pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hello All, • Our other topic this week allows for extension into the topic we are discussing here. First, I feel that if we do start to support a more preventative approch to healthcare, years of progression from curative care to preventative care have to occur. Our population, right now, is so used to a lifestyle of health that involves instant gratification - if a patient has high blood pressure, they’re placed on medication to lower their blood pressure. Time after time, when I counsel patients just starting these medications, I ask if they were ever told about lifestyle modification first. The answer is almost always, “No?”. It’s astonishing. I have seen the initiative taken by insurance companies to offer incentives for patients who are, for example, under a certain BMI, stop smoking, or attend certain health in-services. Locally, I’ve given a lecture on blood pressure to a group of employees, who told me after the presentation that they get a bonus for attending the lecture. This was a great way to incentivize improving education about the employees’ health. I truly feel like this is where the gap is - the lack of education to the actual population on how to prevent certain diseases and illnesses. Of course, not every ailment is preventable; this is where cost+quality+acces to care can be concentrated, as to not unnecessarily utilize important services. I think that cost is the #1 factor for the change that some of us may see. We spend so much on healthcare, and I see the growth and extended lives of the aging population as the catalyst to an inevitable need for change in our current system. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionLakisha Honore • Lakisha Honore • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 12am • Manage Discussion Entry • Amanda, • I think the focus on prevention is inevitably the next phase in our healthcare system shift. Like managed care was the then solution to an attempt the lower healthcare spending, prevention care is the new solution. Preventive care through wellness programs and employee incentives can be an effective approach in educating a population to make the necessary changes to their lifestyles that will ultimately reflect a reduced need for more expensive care such as disease treatment/curative care. • The U.S. healthcare system, placing greater focus on the prevention of initial conditions such as obesity, high blood pressure, etc. that lead to major illnesses and chronic disease, would see a drastic shift in the overall cost of healthcare. This impact would have a impact on not just the cost of healthcare but would make a shift in the economy as well. Employees would spend less on healthcare costs, employers would pay less for health coverage to its employees making the business more profitable resulting in greater possibilities for the employee and the economy. • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 5:30pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Joseline, Amanda and Lakisha, I agree with the shift from the curative approach to care. Wetle and Austin (2018) discussed that traditionally healthcare was based on the medical model (curative approach) and assumes that illness and disease require treatment; therefore, health care focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In this approach, the goal is centered on curing a disease. As our communities age and advance in technology and research, the interest is shifting from illness to wellness. The wellness model of health care focuses on the prevention of disease and the maintenance of well-being of individuals (Austin & Wetle, 2018). • Class, discuss the factors that influence the health status of individuals and how healthcare practitioners can use the wellness model in promoting health. • • • • Lakisha Honore • Lakisha Honore • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 11:05pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Professor, • The focus of the wellness model, as established by out textbook states that this model "focuses on the prevention of disease and the maintenance of well- being" and goes further to define health as "as the optimal functioning of each human being in his or her mind, body, and spirit" (Austin, 2018, p. 6). This definition of health's the same definition provided by "The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health as early as 1948 as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease of infirmity” (Seppälä, Nykänen, & Ruotsalainen, 2012). • It is interesting how healthcare is gravitation back to its original intent. With all of the restrictions and limits being placed by providers due to the rising healthcare costs, it is most lucrative for practitioners to keep patients well. On major factor influencing healthcare is more people to care for. The U.S. population is growing and baby boomers are living longer, as a result there are more people in need of care. • The World Health Organization lists factors that influence an individual's health status would include: • • • • Education – low education levels are linked with poor health, more stress and lower self-confidence. • Physical environment – safe water and clean air, healthy workplaces, safe houses, communities and roads all contribute to good health. Employment and working conditions – people in employment are healthier, particularly • Social support networks – greater support from families, friends and communities is linked to better health. Culture - customs and traditions, and the beliefs of the family and community all affect health. • Genetics - inheritance plays a part in determining lifespan, healthiness and the likelihood of developing certain illnesses. Personal behaviour and coping skills – balanced eating, keeping active, smoking, drinking, and how we deal with life’s stresses and challenges all affect health. • Health services - access and use of services that prevent and treat disease influences health • Gender - Men and women suffer from different types of diseases at different ages. http://www.who.int/hia/evidence/doh/en/Links to an external site. Austin, A., Wetle, V. (2018). The United States Health Care System: Combining Business, Health, and Delivery, 3rd Edition. [Vitalsource]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781323832288/Links to an external site. • Amanda Villa • Amanda Villa • Jul 12, 2018Jul 12 at 8:24pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Dr. Mensah, Lakisha, and Joseline, • As I’ve stated before, I think lack of understanding or knowledge about an individual’s health is one of the factors (major) that affect the health status of individuals. According to our text, a large concept in this area is health literacy, defined by Austin and Wetle as, “The degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic information and services needed to make appropriate decisions about their health”. This most definitely impacts the health status of an individual - if they have no basic understanding, how will they access care, especially if they don’t understand they need it? Just to solidify this point, Austin and Wetle also state that, “Research suggests that those who are not health literate experience almost 40 percent more hospitalizations than their literate components.” • Another factor that may be influencing these individuals’ decisions about their health is their geographic location (the U.S.) and the environmental factors Americans are faced with each day. What I’m referring to are the constant ads and promotion of unhealthy food choices, in addition to our inactive population. According to an article titled, “U.S. Health in International Perspective: Shorter Lives, Poorer Health”, published by the National Research Counsil and the Institute of Medicine, “Environmental factors that affect physical activity (primarily through their effect on active life- styles, including walking) and access to healthy foods (rather than calorie- dense foods) may help explain differences in obesity and related conditions [cardiovascular disease and diabetes, also] between the United States and other high-income countries”. The environmental conditions we’re exposed to have an effect on our health status. • As far as healthcare practitioners using the wellness model in promoting health, I feel like spreading the burden of helping prevent disease in a patient would be a good idea. Meaning, if there is a team of healthcare providers helping the patient, the patient may achieve a level of understanding and motivation to do things to prevent disease. A team of nutritionists, physicians, nurses and nurse practitioners, pharmacists, personal trainers, etc. can make a huge impact on different aspects to help a patient achieve wellness. • • Austin, A., Wetle,V. (2016). The United States Health Care System: Combining Business, Health, and Delivery. 3nd Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. • National Research Council (US); Institute of Medicine (US); Woolf SH, Aron L, editors. U.S. Health in International Perspective: Shorter Lives, Poorer Health. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2013. 7, Physical and Social Environmental Factors. • • • Donna Nardi • Donna Nardi • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 7:20pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Amanda, • I am on board with prevention and counseling patients to practice better health management. I’ll use high BP as an example. The patient can be counseled on how to lower HBP but sometimes they need an immediate solution aka medication to get it lowered. If weight and cholesterol are causing the problem, it takes a while see results with diet and exercise. So I understand why medications are given out. Lifestyle changes can be very difficult to manage to see immediate results. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionSindhu Manoharan • Sindhu Manoharan • Jul 10, 2018Jul 10 at 11:10pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Criticism has been leveled at the curative rather than health promotion/disease prevention focus of the U.S. healthcare system. Should the focus change? Why or why not? Do you see evidence of a shift occurring? If so, what do you think is contributing to that change? • In regards to the statement above, I can’t say for certain if the focus should change or not. The focus should remain on disease prevention and promotions for that alone. In the United States, the healthcare system is considered good, but it could be great. Uninsured people are still suffering extremely from the expense of going to visit a healthcare provider. Personally, I do see a shift occurring from curative to prevention. Prevention can be considered better than the cure, but it depends on who you ask. If there are diseases spreading around, patients need to face the choices of whether to spend the money for treatment or wait it out. • There are no curative methods on communicable diseases because medical professionals need to be able to prevent the disease from spreading. Some things that could be contributing to the change/shift are healthcare programs being subsidized, smoking cessation, and weight management. This issue doesn’t only impact the employees of a business, but the employers themselves. Wellness programs allow employees to stay healthy and happy, causing employees to be more effective at work and more productive. Less medical costs mean lower insurance for the employers. • (1 like) • • Flordeluna Pasia • Flordeluna Pasia • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 5:52pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Sindhu, • You have a strong opinion that I think can be debatable too. And yes our healthcare system can do great if perhaps there will be full shifting to prevention? by this question I'm not trying to eliminate the curative approach at all, of course, this is deemed necessary especially when there's already a disease present and needed to be cured. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionLori Zamudio • Lori Zamudio • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 12:02am • Manage Discussion Entry • Good Evening Professor and fellow classmates, • According to our lesson this week, the curative approach refers to a system of healthcare that is based on treating illnesses and/or alleviating symptoms. Whereas, the preventative approach is focused on preventing illness rather than curing them; by leading healthy lifestyles and receiving vital information that will enable patients to maintain their health. • Yes, I do believe that our U.S healthcare system should shift the focus on health promotion and preventative care. Many healthcare facilities and providers are pushing for patients to be more active and educated about their own healthcare to make the most informed decisions regarding their health. I do see evidence of a shift occurring such as healthcare facilities hosting health fairs for their local communities, healthcare social platforms, Fitbits that assist people in their daily lives to make healthy decisions, and employers that are offering benefit incentives to their employees to have annual check-ups and screenings. • • • • Flordeluna Pasia • Flordeluna Pasia • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 5:38pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Lori, • This is nice input about our healthcare should shift from curative to a preventative approach to health. I like the fact you mentioned some evidences of a shift based by observation, which are healthcare social platforms for local communities. I think there will be radical change to our healthcare system in the next few years if we are completely shifted to prevention approach! what do you think? • • • Collapse SubdiscussionSamantha Kitchen • Samantha Kitchen • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 12:38pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hello Professor and class, • • I believe the focus is changing with all of the different healthcare changes. Perfect example would be how we define nursing home.nursing home • An old-fashioned word designating a chronic care facility. Now it is defined by National Center for Health Statistics as a facility with three or more beds that is licensed as a nursing home by its state, certified as a Medicare facility, or a designated nursing care unit of a retirement center to provide nursing or medical care. • The healthcare industries are are promoting well-being through walk-in checkups at a CVS or clinics, free flu shots etc. They are also showing a way to prevent receiving long cancer or esophageal cancer by providing more statistics on what smoking can do to you by commercials, billboards, and ads. I read an article that stated recently, the number of people smoking has decreased for what it used to be, because they are giving more people knowledge of the harmful things that it causes. • I believe more people are worried about their health because being healthy is being thrown more in our faces. The healthcare industry is a big factor in this country's way of functioning, so people are doing their best to not spend lots of money on medical bills, and want to do things in their power to eat and drink the right things to help ourselves live longer. Plus, patient healthcare services have changed, and they are treated patient correctly. Instead of them just sending people with mental illnesses away, they are treating them, and giving them the correct medicinal care. • • Austin, A., Wetle, V. (2018). The United States Health Care System: Combining Business, Health, and Delivery, 3rd Edition. [devry]. Retrieved from https://devry.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781323832288/Links to an external site. • CDC Newsroom. (2018, January 18). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2018/p0118-smoking-rates- declining.htmlLinks to an external site. • • • • Sheila Marie Stapleton • Sheila Marie Stapleton • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 5:58am • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Samantha and class, • Another example is the aspect of Hospice. A Hospice program or facility is no longer considered a death benefit. Many enter a Hospice program because they are too weak for treatment at this time and without treatment, they may not live more than 6 months. Individuals often improve on hospice to the point where they are able for treatment and proceed from there. Hospice care is considered to be the model for quality, compassionate care for individuals facing life-limiting illness or injury. It focuses on caring, not curing, and manages the patients pain, the emotional, psychological and spiritual needs associated with the patients illness, needs, concerns or death. I feel hospice is an underutilized program that many could benefit from and enjoy their remaining time at home, with their family instead of receiving debilitative care that may only weaken the individual and limit the quality of life for all. • Sheila • Reference • "Hospice Care", (2017). Retrieved from • • • Collapse SubdiscussionBritney Ortega • Britney Ortega • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 1:49pm • Manage Discussion Entry • In the lesson provided this week a curative approach is based on finding a cure to an illness or disease and alleviating the symptoms by complying with doctor’s orders. A preventative approach deals with learning how to prevent illness rather than curing it. • In my opinion, I believe a preventative approach should be the focus of the U.S healthcare system. This can begin with the nutrition of an individual, taking care of your body from the inside to contribute to the wellness and daily demand of your body and physical activity. This would mean keeping individuals informed and encouragement to lead a healthy lifestyle to maintain their health. Yearly exams would be ideal, but not everyone is fortunate enough to be able to do this due to financial reasons or insurance coverage. Therefore, the question is how to teach those who don’t have the sufficient knowledge on how to lead a preventative approach and healthy lifestyle. If the U.S were to put more focus on this I believe health cost would not only go down, but people would be healthier, make better choices, and need less doctor visits. I am true believer that whole foods, vegetables, fruits, and herbs are medicine for the body, but many may lack this knowledge and therefore do what they know. The promotion of healthy practices, exercise, and food would be ideal for the U.S. • (1 like) • • Flordeluna Pasia • Flordeluna Pasia • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 5:22pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Britney, • Yes indeed that not everyone is fortunate to be able to see primary care doctors and do annual exams or routine exams due to lack of insurance or financial burden, especially the vulnerable low income family, who struggles to budget their finances and yet when one of the member's of the family needed to see the physician they just can't . Our healthcare industry should be focusing on prevention by raising awareness about chronic diseases are also preventable, providing knowledge to the community with the assistance of health insurance (private or marketplace) reaching out to people providing materials, or resources to self-care. I like your opinion! we are on the same page on this. • • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 5:32pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Britney, Samantha, Lori, and Sindhu, thanks for your responses. I agree with your point that US health system is shifting more into preventive approaches versus curative care. More employers and insurance companies are offering incentives for individuals to engage in healthy lifestyles and to participate in preventative screenings. One strategy used by employers is to offer subsidized gym memberships, smoking cessation programs, or exercise groups to entice employees into healthy practices. What are the barriers to change our healthcare system from a curative approach to a preventative one? • • • Ilona McMillian • Ilona McMillian • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 11:41pm • Manage Discussion Entry • ILONA MCMILLIAN • • I find Health promotions objective is to improve, the health of a community linked to individual behavioral practices involving a wide range of social and environmental interventions. I agree the shift towards preventative care is much needed today, however, the approach to achieving wellness is very confusing? I want to address an issue that is not totally related to the subject matter but is curious about why is there not a better treatment for type two diabetes? There are over 1.2 million in America that are hard hitting the health care system with this disease that could be prevented without treatment. I remember being told some years back that I was prediabetic and the first thing my doctor wanted to do was put me on metformin. I was not overweight and she could have suggested minor changes in my diet with the use of a dietician. I refused her suggestion about using any form of medication because my A1C was 6.7 • I started using apple cider vinegar and other spices that reduced my glucose levels back to normal in no time and I have never had a problem with it since that one time. • My doctor wanted to know what I did to get such positive results and I would not tell her because I feel she should have used a different approach. • • • Lakisha Honore • Lakisha Honore • Jul 12, 2018Jul 12 at 3:37pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Professor, • I think that one of the largest barriers the U.S. faces is the profit segment. There is no profit in “healthy”. I really think that is one of the hurtles the U.S. FDA has to figure out and the reason for the slow approach to preventative care. There’s too much money for Big Pharm to make on sick people and expensive research. We have to figure out how to overcome this major barrier. • In order to promote health within a population there has to education and training. Another barrier to overcome is generations of inproper eating habits and culture. There has to be knowledge that takes into consideration cultural behaviors, beliefs, and practices of which some factors may contributors to poor health but addressing them with insight and sensitivity to invoke change. • • • Samantha Kitchen • Samantha Kitchen • Jul 12, 2018Jul 12 at 4:45pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hello Professor, • According to the below article a way to change our healthcare system from a curative approach to a preventative approach are by using one of the 3 types of prevention: • Primary Prevention- ranges of actions directed towards decreasing the incidence of a disease in a population and to reduce the risk of new cases emerging • Secondary Prevention- to reduce the prevalence of a disease in a population. This stage is designed to take effect when a disease or disorder is first found in order to arrest the development or to get rid of any risk factors. • Tertiary Prevention- This is important to reduce the prevalence of chronic conditions and recurrences in a population and to reduce complications, disabilities, and relapses caused by the disease. • I think these are the best examples of moving from cure-based to preventing based approach, because it allows people to know the severity of certain illnesses, and to make healthier, happier choices in this world. This will help them out in the long run to get a jump start on maintaining whatever illness they do have, or maintaining their healthy lifestyles. • Moving from a cure-based system to a prevention-based one. (2016, May 02). Retrieved from http://healthcare.orange.com/en/Insights/Moving-from-a-cure- based-system-to-a-prevention-based-oneLinks to an external site. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionJason Garbacz • Jason Garbacz • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 1:21pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Professor, • • I think the biggest barrier is incentive. Other posts have commented on the benefits of preventative measures and the money consumers/patients would save through preventative care, but also pointed out that our system is not based on health outcomes as much as it is on revenue and profit. Pharmaceutical companies, device manufacturers, physicians and hospitals all profit when there are more hospital visits, and more diseases to manage. The money has traditionally been in treatment rather than cures and prevention, hence the need for government regulation to incentivize cures and prevention. This is done by making preventative medicines fully covered by insurance, as well as research grants to find cures to disease among other actions. • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 3:49pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Jason, Samantha, Lakisha, ILona and class, thanks for your contributions! Research and education should be directed at cure, control, or prevention with the ultimate aim of minimizing the impact of disease on a population. Barton (2010) discussed that expenditures of care are often inextricably linked to accessibility. Despite the general belief that the receipt of health services is one of the major influences on health status, other factors are of equal or greater importance. What factors influence how people seek care? • • Barton, P., L. (2010). Understanding the U.S. health services system / Phoebe Lindsey Barton. — 4th ed. p. ; cm. ISBN 978-1-56793-338-3. Retrieved from https://www.ache.org/pubs/PDF_Excerpts/Barton4_chap_1_through_3.pdf • • • Rachel Gates • Rachel Gates • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 4:27pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Professor, I believe that the two most major factors that influence how people seek care are access and delivery of care. The first thing that most people think of when seeking care is how close is the nears aide and what is the easiest means of transportation to get there. Another thing that people think of is the interaction they have with healthcare professionals and the time spent tending to their need. When looking for a pediatrician for my daughter, I can honestly that they two factors and the factor of insurance acceptance where the things which guided me to our final choice of doctor. • • • Lori Zamudio • Lori Zamudio • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 8:11pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Good Evening Jason and fellow classmates, • I agree that our healthcare systems is based on revenue and profits, I said this in my previous class and I must not have explained it as well you so I had many taking my words and being upset by them. So I will try again, I believe that since our healthcare system is driven or based on revenue and profits that the money is made on treating sick patients. Now that does not mean that there can not be money to be made in preventative care, but rather that is not so much the case currently. However, I do believe that the shift does need to be made. • My thoughts on this is that since healthcare services are so costly and since there are many individuals with out healthcare coverage. Many do not seek out healthcare on a regular basis except when they become sick or injured. Now the costs incurred will be higher for the care and treatment of those patients with or without health insurance. The analogy that I made was similar to taking my car to my mechanic when it breaks down, they will find lots of things wrong with my car which will be quite costly. I hope that this makes sense and that my ideas come through through appropriately. • Great post Jason. • • • Sindhu Manoharan • Sindhu Manoharan • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 9:47pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Britney, • I agree that nutrition should be the start of healthcare for an individual. With proper nutrition, many health issues can be eliminated. For example, my grandmother and great-grandmother were diagnosed with diabetes at an early age, which caused their health to deteriorate quickly. This caused my father to get scared of his health, and he went to get a checkup and there were signs of borderline diabetes in his blood work. This caused him to quickly changed up his diet. Rather than heavy breakfasts of pancakes, waffles, etc., his nutrition intake now includes fruits, grains, and less sugary products. His last blood test showed that his sugar levels are normal and he is not at risk for diabetes. Rather than assuming that a possible diagnosis for something definitely means you have it and that it's unavoidable, it's important for patients/people to remember that there are diagnoses that are curable. • • • Joseline Rivera • Joseline Rivera • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 5:03pm • Manage Discussion Entry • WEEK 1: ILLNESS VS HEALTH PROMOTION • • Here that the models of healthcare should without a doubt meet the value that we as a society hold for our health. This is a difficult statement when we live in an American Society that values super sized value meals. Never the less we should regardless what the market offers pay closer attention to what makes it to our home refrigerators and kitchen pantries. The message we send or subconscious minds feeds our decisions and in turn sets place for what we openly market to our future generations. Why wait till we are sick? The truth is if we make bad health decisions we are always sick at some level. Therefore not performing at our optimum level regarding our bodies and minds. What we feed ourselves might seem simple but it transcends food consumption and also goes into other arenas like TV , Music and Media. How many video games are good enough to stop? Are video games good for that matter- are they safe? You would be surprised what makes it to the hands of young and innocent children who are just open to any type of influence. I think treating illness is good but treating humans holistically mind , body and soul is much more important. • • RIVERA JOSELINE • • • Flordeluna Pasia • Flordeluna Pasia • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 5:12pm • Manage Discussion Entry • I wholeheartedly think that we should change the focus to health promotion or disease prevention. Preventive healthcare provides many direct benefits to the individual and these are not having to deal with uncomfortable or painful symptoms, feeling more energetic and just being able to fully enjoy our daily activities. However, our health care system is geared to treating illness after the fact, once the acute symptoms force us to the emergency room. Even though many health insurance plans does cover preventive medicine such as regular check-ups, unfortunately, our medical system does not emphasize it. Therefore, the responsibility is for each individual to make sure the doctor understands the personal goal of staying healthy and that preventing disease is a high priority. In supporting my opinion regarding this, I'll take my own experience working in healthcare that funded by the government (Medicaid program). In my line of work, we use preventive measure in order to combat the high rising cost of our members/patients utilizing the emergency department frequently and most of them with or without having chronic illness can be prevented by regularly going to Primary care physician even if the patient feels better, the early screening or diagnostic testing is necessary like a routine physical. This is the best way to uncover medical conditions or disease prevention that can save them money by early detection. I found an article regarding the power of prevention and I'd like to share it in class: • The Power of Prevention Although chronic diseases are among the most common and costly of all health problems, they are also among the most preventable. Chronic disease prevention, to be most effective, must occur in multiple sectors and across individuals’ entire life spans. Prevention encompasses health promotion activities that encourage healthy living and limit the initial onset of chronic diseases. Prevention also embraces early detection efforts, such as screening at-risk populations, as well as strategies for appropriate management of existing diseases and related complications. The following examples show what targeted investments in prevention can achieve. The health benefits of quitting smoking are numerous, and many are experienced rapidly. Within 2 weeks to 3 months after quitting, heart attack risk begins to drop and lung function begins to improve.52 One year after quitting, excess risk for heart disease is reduced by half, and 10 years after quitting, the lung cancer death rate is about half that of a current smoker. Fifteen years after quitting, an ex-smoker’s risk for heart disease is about the same as that of a lifelong nonsmoker. Lifestyle changes in diet and exercise, including a 5%–7% maintained weight loss and at least 150 minutes per week in physical activity, can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes for Americans at high risk for the disease.53 Participants in a major clinical trial group exercised at moderate intensity, usually by walking an average of 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, and lowered their intake of fat and calories. Their efforts resulted in a sustained weight loss of about 10 to 15 pounds, reducing their risk of getting diabetes by 58%. LinkLinks to an external site. • For this question: Do you see evidence of a shift occurring? If so, what do you think is contributing to that change? • I see some evidence that a shift is occurring, and I'd like to give my example as my own evidence. At work, we, the employees also practice what we preach! our company created an incentive to make preventive care our priority. We were enrolled to a 36-week healthy challenge program (exercising, eating healthy, and de-stress) to reduce the high cost of going to urgent cares or emergency. Though we were provided health insurance, most of the time the cost of medical bills and medications are high even with low deductibles. I'm not only talking about the cost but also the time I've missed going to work, school or just be with my family was taken away as well. The factors that contribute to these change is there is now a growing awareness of the link between high rates of chronic disease and rising health care costs. • Source: • https://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/policy-dose/2015/05/28/focus-on- prevention-to-cut-us-health-care-costsLinks to an external site. • • • • • Collapse SubdiscussionAlan Zeto • Alan Zeto • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 5:43pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Preventative medicine and health promotion as a means of health care is becoming a more significant aspect of the healthcare economy in the US. Providers are focusing more on disease prevention because the studies have shown that it is more costs effective in the long run vs treating conditions that have already occurred. There is more of a focus on maintaining proper vaccination schedules, maintaining proper diet and exercise, and overall wellness as a means to prevent some of the more common diseases that are present in Americans today. Diseases like diabetes, heart disease and the complications of obesity are things that can be prevented for the majority of people if a few preventative measures are taken. By preventing these conditions from ever taking root, millions upon millions of dollars can be saved in overall healthcare costs, money that can be redirected at medical research or for the treatment of patients that have other debilitating diseases. However, as effective as preventative medicine may be, the entire focus of healthcare providers should never be solely focused on prevention as there will always be a need for the treatment and curative efforts that this country is known for now. But a proper balance must be found in order to most effectively treat the population. • • • Samantha Kitchen • Samantha Kitchen • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 1:13pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Alan, • I couldn't agree more that medical professionals shouldn't strictly focus on preventative medicine, and should focus on curative based approaches as well, because there will always be illnesses that you can't be prevented. I believe that continuing to work on this this curative aspect should be worked on just as medical professionals work hard on preventing such illnesses/diseases from happening. Finding cures for such ailments would be a huge success for this country and other countries, because then life expectancy could potentially become greater. I do believe there is a downfall with finding cures for illnesses/diseases because then governments, clinics, pharmacies, hospitals can't make money off 'the sick.' The Healthcare industry is a huge part of our countries money, and careers. • Thank you for bringing up that point of still focusing on curative based services. • • Samantha • • • Yunervice Smith • Yunervice Smith • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 8:08pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Since the Clinton era the focus was on the prevention of diseases and the promotion of prevention. Unfortunately the focus soon turned to making a profit and U.S citizens were forced to decide on being healthy or keeping food on the table. In this time the focus has seemed to have slowly moved back to the focus of taking care of the patient. This ties hand and hand with the profit of the hospital and the profit of the insurance company. Companies have realized that providing their employees with preventive care options means less money that has to be paid for major operations or medicines. The healthy customers pay insurance rates longer and require less medical attention. • • • Ronald Sparks • Ronald Sparks • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 8:27pm • Manage Discussion Entry • • This confusion of care isn't exceptional in healthcare framework wellbeing work force in many nations feel debilitated by the call to change towards essential healthcare. Those of us that are worried about the absence of access for substantial quantities of individuals are no uncertainty miserable that the needy individuals must forfeit their lives. Sensibly, the support for expanded allotment to preventive administrations more than the curative administrations is in light of a legitimate concern for the poor a large portion of whom have the slightest means and it isn't expected to consign curative administrations to the foundation as both counteractive action and fix are critical in the conveyance of powerful social insurance. • Preventive care is a sort of medicinal services whose reason for existing is to move the focal point of human services from treating disorder to keeping up wellbeing and great wellbeing. Preventive care happens before you feel wiped out or see any side effects and is intended to avert or defer the beginning of ailment and malady. In its broadest definition, aversion incorporates a solid way of life, exercise, eat less carbs and other comparative endeavors. Preventive care in a therapeutic setting incorporates an assortment of social insurance administrations, for example, a physical examination, screenings, research center tests, advising and inoculations yet the unjust distribution of assets between curative administrations and essential aversion is exceptionally despicable. The bunching of assets distributed around curative administrations is a ponder endeavor to undermine essential healthcare which is the main level of care that can enhance wellbeing results. • I think changing to curative as opposed to a preventive can truly be determinant to our wellbeing framework. I trust it will cut the cost and will likewise advance long future. Preventive care is vital in light of the fact that it encourages you remain solid and access provoke treatment when fundamental, and it can likewise help lessen your general restorative costs. Numerous kinds of screenings and tests can get a sickness before it begins. Beginning treatment or way of life changes before an infection begins or while it is still in its beginning periods will enable you to remain more beneficial or recoup all the more rapidly. Preventive care spares you cash in two different ways. To begin with, preventive care helps bring down the long haul cost of overseeing malady since it helps get issues in the beginning periods when most ailments are all the more promptly treatable. Preventive wellbeing is critical in light of the fact that it can lessen infection load, diminish dreariness and mortality, and enhance the personal satisfaction of individuals. The weight on the wellbeing administrations likewise decreases, along these lines affecting the economy. I do think moving to that region of intrigue is anything but an incredible move for the healthcare framework on the grounds that in my eyes I trust that we are advancing unfortunate living among each other and we just anticipating relieving ailment however we are not halting. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionYanira Pagan • Yanira Pagan • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 9:14pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hello Dr. Mensah and class, • • I do see a shift occurring in my workplace, incentives are being offered for healthy living, money is being awarded for those who have normal levels of sugar, cholesterol , BMI, blood pressure, and if you do not have normal levels someone will work with you to get into a healthy zone to live a healthier you. I think this approach is fantastic, it not only gives a person an incentive its a tool to teach and promote wellness and preventative healthcare. Having a long family history of heart disease and cancer, I became very proactive almost obsessed with my health and the health of my children, I exercise and eat well, as much as I can. with my own scared of erosive esophagitis due to my diet in my early 20s, thats when my focus on eating better changed and continues to evolve to the point that I do best to eat as a vegetarian and vegan. For me it is the best way to eat for my own health, I see the difference it has made for me. So I could only speak to my own experience on how it has made an impact on my health. Dont get me wrong I have fallen of this wagon and ate like I once did and fell into feeling sick again from the bad food choices I made. • So I appreciate that the shift to preventative maintenance is taking a hold. One other thing my job has done which is little but it has made an impact, no vending machines at our new location, in fact they added more water filtration fountains instead. this is a big plus since that's what I drink the most of besides my black coffee. • • • Coleene Sealy • Coleene Sealy • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 9pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Yanira, nice post. • I too have change my eating habit by becoming a vegan and I have also see the benefit for me. I think that workplace having an incentives is good thing for all for it will help employees to change the way they eat and it can save someone life too, its helping to have better health and having health worker means that they will be more productive and at the same time cutting health insurance cost and by giving employees gym membership and also providing a health coach all of this by employers helping their employees to turned to a more healthy lifestyles . • • • Collapse SubdiscussionJennica Tessendorf • Jennica Tessendorf • Jul 11, 2018Jul 11 at 11:23pm • Manage Discussion Entry • #2 - Criticism has been leveled at the curative rather than health promotion/disease prevention focus of the U.S. healthcare system. Should the focus change? Why or why not? Do you see evidence of a shift occurring? If so, what do you think is contributing to that change? • This topic is somethings am very passionate about as a nurse. Knowledge is power; for a patient and their family sometimes that is the best gift a medical provider can give them. But then we run into the the fear of knowing. For example, breast cancer and the research behind early detection helping to prevent fatality is astounding. But we run into the problem that when there is a familial history the females of the family are not proactive by having mammograms done and possibly doing the testing to see if they have the gene. I work on a a med-surg/oncology floor and the amount of completely preventable diseases I help care for everyday is pretty frustrating. I used cancer as an example of early detection, but it is not always preventable. One major crisis in the US is obesity and the diseases that follow, such as diabetes. The shift we are making in my organization is to educated our patient thoroughly while patient is in the hospital and then follow that with suggesting home health to come in and teach the individual how to make the changes necessary at home. This is a prevention technique as well because it helps to prevent the individual from being readmitted to the hospital for the same problem repeatedly. I think knowledge is what is helping to swing our society to a preventative healthcare system. • References • NHS turns to digital to improve diabetes prevention rates. (2017). British Journal of Healthcare Computing, 1. • Rainey, L., van der Waal, D., Donnelly, L. S., Evans, D. G., Wengström, Y., & Broeders, M. (2018). Women's decision-making regarding risk-stratified breast cancer screening and prevention from the perspective of international healthcare professionals. Plos ONE, 13(5), 1-13. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0197772 • (1 like) • • Christopher La Rosa • Christopher La Rosa • Jul 12, 2018Jul 12 at 7pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Jenneca, • Great post! I myself work closely with nurses at our ambulatory infectious disease clinic. Co-morbidity are prevalent throughout the majority of our patients where I work. The treatment of an infectious disease over the long term can lead to diabetes, renal issues, bone density and for older patients the earlier onset of dementia is becoming more evident. Many of our older patients can have up to three of these illnesses at once. Our nurses unknowingly practice health promotion and act as an essential voice for the patients and staff at the clinic. Nurses in conjunction with our case workers assist patients with adhering with taking their medications for a variety of illnesses. Healthier health outcomes have improved at our clinic due to health promotion and inpatient hospitalizations have declined substantially. Thanks Chris. • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 3:53pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Jennica, et al., thanks for the great responses. The ultimate goal in this shift in behavior is health promotion, which leads to lower healthcare costs for the employer’s health plan. In an effort to take these steps further, employers and insurance companies are differentiating health insurance premiums for employees based upon certain conditions and lifestyle practices. For example, I know employees who smoke that pay more for health insurance premiums than employees who do not smoke. This is an incentive to reduce the incidence of smoking among employees. Proponents of this policy suggest that smoking contributes to a variety of health conditions that lead to higher medical costs. Would you say this is a fair health promotion technique? • • • Alan Zeto • Alan Zeto • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 7pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Incentivizing health care premiums as you describe here by giving higher costs to people that smoke is, in theory, a great way to reduce overall costs and encourage people to take personal ownership of their lives and health. But I believe there are some very real downfalls that could occur if this were to take effect. What would happen to the patients that are addicted to other things (ie heroin,, opiates, alcohol or other drugs) and would require multiple times in rehab or detox? If an insurer were to raise premiums on these people in an attempt to incentivize them to get clean, some would inevitably be unable to afford their insurance anymore and would ultimately be unable to receive treatment. This would be a travesty as very few addicts reach full recovery after one attempt. While adding incentives to encourage patients to be healthier would work in some instances, there are many where it may be immoral and ineffective to do so. • • • Jennica Tessendorf • Jennica Tessendorf • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 11:57pm • Manage Discussion Entry • I would say that this is fair. There is evidence over the years that’s has proven how detrimental long term smoking to someone’s health versus those who did not smoke. It’s the same promotion to me as those who do yearly physicals and report their workouts to their employers to receive the insurance incentives. Money is a HUGE tactic in promoting people and if it works to reduce the amount of sick time used by employees it should continue. • • - Jennica • • • Collapse SubdiscussionJonna Henkel • Jonna Henkel • Jul 12, 2018Jul 12 at 4pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Professor and Class, • I believe that we should focus on both, which sounds crazy I know. How can only certain qualified people focus on both issues. However, I feel this way because if we only focus on curative care then we are loosing sight of the other diseases forming. Because we didn't focus on health promotion/disease prevention is now the reason why we are so focus on curative because there was no prevention. Now, I'm not saying that we shouldn't be trying to find way to cure cancer etc. but, we also need to promote disease prevention so that everyone can be aware of the diseases alive and how to stay clear of them. I mean when we were little we were always taught to brush our teeth twice a day so we don't get cavities (teeth prevention) or look both ways before crossing the street (public health). So, if we were learning these things as precautionary measures, why wouldn't we continue to educate others about other disease prevention. Below I have added a link it will show you a map, if you click on the state that you live in it will tell you the chronic disease control and prevention they take part in. • • https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/index.htm • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 4:08pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Jonna, thanks for your post. If we focus on the curative approach to care, we are always going to play catch up. Public health conducts activities such as nurses providing free immunizations to low-income children and police officers enforcing laws around seat belt and helmet use, cancer screen, weight management activities, etc. Describe the federal, state, and local agencies’ roles for oversight of healthcare services (e.g., Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), Veterans Affairs [including Tricare], Indian Health Services, and prison health services etc) in terms of Access, cost and quality. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionYunervice Smith • Yunervice Smith • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 9:48pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Today’s hospitals even if you can’t afford it by law must not turn a sick patient away when they are I need. When government agencies take an interest in things like healthcare the quality goes down. Private and government healthcare should work together for the good of the patient and not the cost. • • • Jennica Tessendorf • Jennica Tessendorf • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 11:14pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Yunervice, • • You are correct that hospitals cannot turn away patients, however it’s not solely the government agencies that have decreased the quality of patient care; the insurance companies have changed what is available to patient populations. This is something that I deal with on a daily basis at my hospital... having to wait on hospital approval or discharging a patient bc their insurance won’t cover a certain type of procedure/medication/treatment for their cancer treatment. In this case, patients suffer and the hospitals look like the bad guy... but someone’s has to pay for the services rendered because that’s how the employees and overhead get paid. • • - Jennica • • • Collapse SubdiscussionCalvin Simmons • Calvin Simmons • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 8:11pm • Manage Discussion Entry • A lop-sided portion of the trillions of dollars spent on health care each year in the United States goes toward treating the sickest people. The trillions of dollars spent cover the high-cost hospital care for primarily preventable chronic conditions like heart disease, stroke, Type 2 diabetes, and cancer on the other hand, approaches that can prevent disease and promote health are systematically underfunded. For every dollar spent on health care, less than four cents go toward public health and prevention--programs and policies that hold the most promise for lowering costs by keeping us from getting sick in the first place. I do believe that a portion of the Affordable Health Care Act did attempt to focus a bit more on prevention with providing annual exams at no cost for its clients. If we focused more funding on prevention I believe that health system would be improved tremendously. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionSyeda Ayesha Haqqani • Syeda Ayesha Haqqani • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 10:06pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Calvin,I agree with you that by funding more on prevention will bring about a positive change in the healthcare industry. In addition, it would be beneficial to promote more physical activities and healthier active lifestyles. • One major thing I have noticed is the amount of ads for fast food vs ads for healthy eating. Although the diet/fitness industry is large, many ads just display "quick fix" drugs rather than promoting a lifestyle change. • • • Antoinette Don'Shea Texeira • Antoinette Don'Shea Texeira • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 7:43pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Calvin and Syeda, • I wanted to let you both know that you have made some very good points and I agree with you. I think that it is very important to start people off at a young age to prevent diseases and other health issues rather than spend trillions of dollars on treating sick people for years. I have noticed too that there are a lot of ads for junk food and fast food and not a lot for healthy items. Another thing that I noticed is that the foods and things that are good for someone be the most expensive thing on the menu. If a family can barely afford their rent, then going to the store and seeing that the fast and easy (unhealthy) is way cheaper than the vegetables and salad then the obvious choice to them is what they can afford. • • • Collapse SubdiscussionRonald Sparks • Ronald Sparks • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 8:42pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Professor, • The Affordable Care Act (ACA), authorized in 2010, set up "shared obligation" between the administration, businesses, and people for guaranteeing that all Americans approach moderate and great quality medical coverage. Nonetheless, wellbeing scope stays divided, with various private and open sources, and wide holes in safeguarded rates over the U.S. populace. Medicare and Medicaid Administrations controls Medicare, an elected program for adults 65 and more seasoned and a few people with inabilities, and works in association with state governments to direct both Medicaid and the Child Health care coverage Program (CHIP), a combination of federal– state programs for certain low-salary populaces. Private protection is directed for the most part at the state level. In 2014, state and governmentally regulated medical coverage commercial centers were set up to give extra access to private protection scope, with wage based premium appropriations for low-and center pay individuals. • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 5:54am • Manage Discussion Entry • Ronald, Calvin and Yunervice, thanks for your responses. I agree with Calvin that the emphasis on preventative care was still not fully covered under the ACA. This whole scheme is bigger than politics and managing an economy. Since healthcare brings in more revenue and the governments also spends more on it, you will think the focus will be shifted to the preventative approach to care. Class, conduct a survey (casual conversation) among your friends and family. What do they know about the Affordable Care Act? Is their opinion generally favorable? Why or why not? • • • Collapse SubdiscussionCalvin Simmons • Calvin Simmons • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 7:55pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Professor and class i decided to poll my family and friends regarding the affordable care act. As you might think the responses were greatly divided by party line. Everyone of my friends/family that identified as or were sympathetic towards democratic causes were well versed regarding the ACA and was in support of it but felt that it did not go far enough. While on the other hand my coworkers that identified as republican only had talking points about the ACA was not in favor of it and felt that it needed to be repealed. • • • Londell Albury • Londell Albury • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 11:25pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Calvin, • Feedback from friends, family and associates is always a good start. Depending on who you talk to and their experience you will surely get varying feedback on ACA, but data and outcomes truly paint a picture. • Canada our neighbor to the north has been effective at providing health care and containing cost and they have a strong focus on preventative care. Their outcomes reveals that the US spends 17.% of its GDP on Health Care while Canada spends 11%. • • • Ronald Sparks • Ronald Sparks • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 8:51pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Calvin, • I agree with your statement a great deal of money is spent on fixing sick people. I think we would save so much time and money if we put ourselves in position to stop disease I believe we will be better standings regarding health field. I really believe prevention is the key on tackling rising prices in healthcare. Stopping the plague of disease by coming up with prevention methods is exactly what we need to combat the health prices. Collapse SubdiscussionSyeda Ayesha Haqqani • Syeda Ayesha Haqqani • Jul 13, 2018Jul 13 at 9:19pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hello All, • I believe criticism should be leveled at disease prevention rather than focusing more on curative. The focus should and is changing in my opinion. One example of this would be Medicare's Chronic Care Management (CCM) program. This program allows physicians to bill qualifying patients once a month for a non face-to-face encounter such as a phone call. The program is designed to reduce hospital re-admissions and improve the quality of life for patients living with two or more chronic conditions. • Many studies have show how implementing Chronic Care Management has prevented much more serious outcomes. In a study of patients with asthma, the chronic care intervention program was associated with a decrease in emergency department visits (Bodenheimer et al., 2002b). Although there are strict guidelines provided by Medicare, the program is beneficial to both patient and provider. Some providers choose to outsource the CCM component of their clinic simple because they do not have to time and resources to ensure that all requirements and guidelines are met in order to qualify for the Medicare reimbursement • • Bodenheimer, T., Wagner, E. H., & Grumbach, K. (2002b). Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness. The Chronic Care Model, part 2. JAMA, 288(15), 1909-1914 • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 5:55am • Manage Discussion Entry • Syeda and Ronald, thanks for your responses. Public health focuses more on the preventive approach of care. Another mode of health promotion is providing an annual bonus if employees receive specific health screenings. These screenings may include physical exams, mammograms, cholesterol testing, and blood sugar tests. All of these health screenings promote early identification of certain conditions, which may lead to early intervention. In general, the earlier a medical condition is identified and treated, the less costly it is to cure or control. • Class, discuss the health belief model and how it impacts the effectiveness of a health services system in preventing and treating disease in a community • • • • Oscar Mensah • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 5:57am • Manage Discussion Entry • Threaded Summary • Hello Class, • Thanks for your interesting contributions! Your responses added value to our discussions. This past week we looked at illness versus health promotion. Barton (2010) discussed that the purpose of a health service is to positively affect a person's health—its maintenance, its improvement, or its recovery. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health as not merely the absence of disease but as a state of physical, mental, and social well-being. Illness is a relative term, generally used in the lay community to represent an individual response to a set of psychological and physiological stimuli. A disease state indicates the presence of pathology and is precisely defined by the provider community. We also touched on curative and preventive approach to care. Curative approach refers to a system of care that is based on treating illness or alleviating symptoms and preventative model of care focuses primarily on preventing illness rather than curing it. • The ultimate goal of this shift in behavior is health promotion, which leads to lower healthcare costs for the employer’s health plan. In an effort to take these steps further, employers and insurance companies are differentiating health insurance premiums for employees based upon certain conditions and lifestyle practices. • Please summarize what you learned in this thread and discuss what you plan on educating the public on in the near future. • • Dr. Mensah • Collapse SubdiscussionLondell Albury • Londell Albury • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 11:13pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Good Day Professor, • I strongly believe the focus should switch from Curative Health Care to Preventative health Care. I use to work i the container shipping industry where engineers were historically hired to keep cranes and container handling equipment moving. Our owners realized that loss of profit was directly contribution to equipment downtime. although our engineers were able to repair equipment it would have been more profitable if the equipment downtime and frequency of failure was reduced. Hence the company started to invest in a Planning Department whose primary job was to plan and scheduled preventative maintenance for all equipment. As a result we saw a significant reduction in equipment downtime. • I anticipate the same will apply for health care, insurance companies, employers and workers can all benefit positively from a state/country wide focused approach to preventative care. • Canada has a taskforce called Canadian Task Force for Preventative Health Care (PHC) whose main job is to promote the importance of PHC. But just like the Container shipping industry, requesting equipment downtime was an uphill battle because the Port was always busy. Just like our lives we are always busy and don't seem to find the time for screenings and annually exams. • https://canadiantaskforce.ca/Links to an external site. • • • • Collapse SubdiscussionSheila Marie Stapleton • Sheila Marie Stapleton • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 5:41am • Manage Discussion Entry • Dear Londell, Dr. Mensah and class, • All marketplace health plans cover preventative services without copay even if you haven't met your yearly deductible. These services include: • • One time screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm • Alcohol misuse screening and counseling • Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer • Blood Pressure screening • cholesterol screening • Colorectal Cancer screening for adults 50-75 • Depression screening • Falls prevention • Tuberculosis screening • STI and HIV screening • Statin preventive medication • Immunizations. Some health insurances cover gym membership, weight watchers and activity equipment (wellness, bicycles etc). Issues stem from the lack of knowledge of the participant and the provider. I participate in a falls prevention program at my organization to prevent injury in the community and what services the individual can benefit from to inhibit harm. Sheila Reference "Preventative care benefits for adults", (2017). Retrieved from https://www.healthcare.gov/preventive-care-adults/Links to an external site. • Londell Albury • Londell Albury • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 12:05pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hi Sheila, This is definitely one of those out-of-sight and out-of-mind things. Yes most health insurance plans covers preventative care screenings but how many people actually remember and advantages of those offerings. below is a sample data of people who actually take advantage of health screening services. • http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download? doi=10.1.1.691.2054&rep=rep1&type=pdfLinks to an external site. • Syeda Ayesha Haqqani • Syeda Ayesha Haqqani • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 5:57pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Hello Sheila, • This is a great point. A lot of people do not know the things that are covered by their health insurance. This is a bigger problem for our aging population as they may not necessarily always have someone to guide them on how to get the most out of their insurance. I am grateful to have enough exposure in the healthcare industry where I was able to maximize the advantages of healthcare insurance for my family members. However, this is not the case for many people. Perhaps more focus should be placed on educating the older population and their care givers of how to better benefit from their insurance. • Antoinette Don'Shea Texeira • Antoinette Don'Shea Texeira • Jul 14, 2018Jul 14 at 11:30pm • Manage Discussion Entry • I am torn about this question. When I was a student at Carrington I had to do my externship and I was able to be hired on at a chiropractic clinic. In this clinic they took the holistic approach and wasn’t big on the medical side approach to medical problems. My son at 18 months had gotten C-diff because his doctor gave him too much antibiotics for his tiny system. The same son was also diagnosed with Epilepsy and has had severe seizures. I have had my faith in the medical approach shaken some. I left the chiropractic office and went to work in Radiation Oncology and everything that I was taught holistically was being done in the cancer center. It was thought that once a person gets chemo and or radiation they usually will either have the caner come back and or die shortly thereafter. I didn’t think much about it when I first started working at the cancer center, but I would see patients who would come in and a few weeks later they wouldn’t look like themselves. We would have patients come back with the cancer in a different place and or in the same place. I had lost so many patients it was sad. I think that the stance of the US Health system has been on the side of the curative approach rather than disease prevention. Things that will help a person be healthy are not covered by health insurance like gym memberships, or nutrition classes. If a person does happen to get ill there is more than like a pill for that but if you take one pill you may need another because the first pill will affect some other body part. I do think that there is a sift that is trying to happen because all the fast food restaurants now have healthy options and it seems like there is a gym on every corner. Sheila Marie Stapleton • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 5:25am Dear Dr. Mensah and class, • Unfortunately, curative is where the money is at and healthcare is big business but now that the emphasis is placed on quality, not quantity but the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, things are changing. Hospitals are no longer receiving reimbursement for Heart Failure patients that are rehospitalized within 30 days, so significance is placed on the preventative and maintenance of the individual. At my organization, any individual discharged from the hospital for heart failure received a home health referral, a PCP and Cardiology follow up appointment, a call from the heart failure team, a medication reconciliation with the PharmD, a Social Work evaluation for depression and community needs and a direct number to a nurse to address any questions or concerned. I am a participant of the pilot and we have seen a decrease in re-hospitalizations and a positive reaction from patients. Camille Pearce • Jul 15, 2018Jul 15 at 9:10pm • Manage Discussion Entry • Professor and class, • There has been to much focus the cost of healthcare and less about health promotion and prevention. I can say there has been many more resource available now that talks about health and prevention. I think that it should be more discussion on getting people to take better care of themselves by maintain regular check ups and follow up appointment if needed. • [Show More]

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