*NURSING > QUESTIONS & ANSWERS > NURSING NR 507 Advanced Patholphysiology Midterm Week 4 Exam(All correct answers)GRADED A (All)

NURSING NR 507 Advanced Patholphysiology Midterm Week 4 Exam(All correct answers)GRADED A

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Question : What is the ratio of coronary capillaries to cardiac muscle cells? Student Answer: 1:1 (one capillary per one muscle cell) 1:2 (one capillary per two muscle cells) 1:4 (one capillary pe... r four muscle cells) 1:10 (one capillary per ten muscle cells) Instructor Explanation: The heart has an extensive capillary network, with approximately 3300 capillaries per square millimeter (ca/mm2 ) or approximately one capillary per one muscle cell (muscle fiber). Points Received: 2 of 2 Comments: Question 2. Question : What part of the kidney controls renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, and renin secretion? Student Answer: Macula densa Visceral epithelium Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) Filtration slits Instructor Explanation: Control of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, and renin secretion occur at the JGA. Together, the juxtaglomerular cells and macula densa cells form the JGA. The control of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, and renin secretion is not directed by any of the other options. Points Received: 2 of 2 Comments: Question 3. Question : What effect do natriuretic peptides have during heart failure when the heart dilates? Student Answer: Stimulates antidiuretic hormones. Inhibits antidiuretic hormones. Stimulates renin and aldosterone. Inhibits renin and aldosterone. Instructor Explanation: Natriuretic peptides inhibit renin and aldosterone during heart failure when the heart dilates. These make up a group of peptide hormones, including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), secreted from myocardial cells in the atria and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) secreted from myocardial cells in the cardiac ventricles. When the heart dilates during volume expansion or heart failure, ANP and BNP inhibit sodium and water absorption by kidney tubules, inhibit the secretion of renin and aldosterone, vasodilate the afferent arterioles, and constrict the efferent arterioles. The result is increased urine formation, leading to decreased blood volume and blood pressure. Points Received: 2 of 2 Comments: Question 4. Question : What is the primary site for uncomplicated local gonococci infections in men? Student Answer: Epididymis Lymph nodes Urethra Prostate Instructor Explanation: Uncomplicated local infections are observed primarily as urethral infections in men. Points Received: 2 of 2 Comments: Question 5. Question : Which term is used to identify the movement of gas and air into and out of the lungs? Student Answer: Perfusion Ventilation Respiration Diffusion Instructor Explanation: Of the options available, ventilation is the only term used to identify the mechanical movement of gas or air into and out of the lungs. Points Received: 2 of 2 Comments: Question 6. Question : Which manifestations of vasoocclusive crisis are associated with sickle cell disease (SCD) in infants? Student Answer: Atelectasis and pneumonia Edema of the hands and feet Stasis ulcers of the hands, ankles, and feet Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly Instructor Explanation: Symmetric, painful swelling of the hands and feet (hand-foot syndrome) caused by infarction in the small vessels of the extremities is often the initial manifestation of SCD in infants. This selection is the only option that accurately identifies the manifestations of a vasoocclusive crisis associated with SCD in infancy. Points Received: 2 of 2 Comments: Question 7. Question : When a patient has small, vesicular lesions that last between 10 and 20 days, which sexually transmitted infection is suspected? Student Answer: Genital herpes Chancroid Syphilis Chlamydia Instructor Explanation: If symptoms occur, the individual may have small (1 to 2 mm), multiple, vesicular lesions that are generally located on the labia minora, fourchette, or penis. They may also appear on the cervix, buttocks, and thighs and are often painful and pruritic. These lesions usually last approximately 10 to 20 days. The other options do not demonstrate these symptoms. Points Received: 2 of 2 Comments: Question 8. Question : What is the role of collagen in the clotting process? Student Answer: Initiates the clotting cascade. Activates platelets. Stimulates fibrin. Deactivates fibrinogen. Instructor Explanation: In the clotting process, collagen provides a particularly strong stimulus to activate platelets. Collagen does not bring about any of the other options. Points Received: 2 of 2 Comments: Question 9. Question : Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is associated with which type of hypersensitivity reaction? Student Answer: I II III IV Instructor Explanation: Hypersensitivity reactions have been divided into four distinct types: type I (IgEmediated) hypersensitivity reactions, type II (tissue-specific) hypersensitivity reactions, type III (immune complex–mediated) hypersensitivity reactions, and type IV (cell-mediated) hypersensitivity reactions. Points Received: 2 of 2 Comments: Question 10. Question : When an individual aspirates food particles, where would the nurse expect to hear decreased or absent breath sounds? Student Answer: Left lung Right lung Trachea Carina Instructor Explanation: The right mainstem bronchus extends from the trachea more vertically than the left main bronchus; therefore aspirated fluids or foreign particles tend to enter the right lung rather than the left or any of the other locations listed. Points Received: 0 of 2 Comments: Question 11. Question : Research supports the premise that exercise has a probable impact on reducing the risk of which cancer? Student Answer: Liver Endometrial Stomach Colon Instructor Explanation: The World Cancer Research Fund summarizes the effects as convincing for cancers of the colon and probable for postmenopausal breast cancer and endometrial cancer. The relationship is not supported for the remaining options. Points Received: 2 of 2 Comments: Question 12. Question : In a normal, nonmutant state, an oncogene is referred to as a: Student Answer: Basal cell Target cell Caretaker gene Proto-oncogene Instructor Explanation: In its normal nonmutant state, an oncogene is referred to as a proto-oncogene. The other options are not terms used to identify a nonmutant oncogene. [Show More]

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