Psychology > QUESTIONS & ANSWERS > Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice Eleventh Edition. All Questions and Answers. (Multiple C (All)
Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice Eleventh Edition Robert E. Slavin Johns Hopkins University Prepared by Emilie Wright Johnson Lindenwood UniversitySlavin, Educational Psychology, Te... st Bank Chapter 1 Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo ______________________________________________________________________________ CONTENTS Chapter 1 Educational Psychology: A Foundation for Teaching 1 Chapter 2 Cognitive, Language, and Literacy Development 9 Chapter 3 Social, Moral, and Emotional Development 18 Chapter 4 Student Diversity 35 Chapter 5 Behavioral and Social Theories of Learning 43 Chapter 6 Cognitive Theories of Learning 54 Chapter 7 The Effective Lesson 67 Chapter 8 Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction 78 Chapter 9 Grouping, Differentiation, and Technology 90 Chapter 10 Motivating Students to Learn 98 Chapter 11 Effective Learning Environments 110 Chapter 12 Learners with Exceptionalities 121 Chapter 13 Assessing Student Learning 133 Chapter 14 Standardized Tests and Accountability 147 Answer Key 158 3Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 4Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Educational Psychology: A Foundation for Teaching Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of the following is an accurate statement about the role of educational psychology in teacher preparation? a) Educational psychology is the study of learning theory as it relates to aspects of education outside of the classroom b) Educational psychology aims to improve teacher candidates’ subject matter knowledge c) Educational psychology provides teachers with specific actions to improve classroom teaching d) Educational psychology provides teachers with research-based principles to guide their teaching 2) Effective teaching occurs best when a teacher is prepared with: a) Knowledge of subject matter and students’ background information. b) Subject matter and school expectations c) Knowledge of subject matter and the skills to share that knowledge d) Knowledge of subject matter, enthusiasm, and a positive attitude 3) According to our text, pedagogy is the link between which of the following? a) What the teacher desires students to learn and students’ actual learning b) What the teacher knows and is able to communicate to the students c) What students desire to learn and what the teacher has knowledge of d) What the teacher says and demonstrates thoughtfully to students. 4) During sixth hour, two students whisper to each other about the upcoming dance. The teacher continues discussing the lesson while walking toward the students. The students stop whispering and begin taking notes. Which principle of classroom management has the teacher employed? a) Ignoring minor problems in the classroom b) Using the mildest intervention possible 5Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) Using behavior issues as teaching opportunities d) Redirecting off task behavior with reminders 5) Intentional teachers are constantly thinking about: a) The outlooks they want for their students and assessments of outlooks b) The outcomes they want for their students and how each decision moves students toward those outcomes c) The input needed to advance student learning and how to measure input effectively d) The efficacy of student outcomes and related assessments 6) Teacher efficacy is the degree to which teachers do what? a) Believe they are able to build rapport with at risk students b) Make effective decisions regarding student outcomes c) Believe their own efforts determine their students’ success d) Believe the efficacy of student outcomes is curriculum based 7) How do intentional teachers achieve a sense of efficacy? a) By continually assessing their instruction results and trying new strategies if initial instruction doesn’t work b) By continually employing strategies that have worked to some degree for most learners c) By continually assessing their effectiveness and attending professional development workshops d) By continually assessing their students and assigning additional work when it is needed 8) Because classrooms typically have 20 or more students, an intentional teacher’s task is to: a) Balance individualization with group studies b) Divide the class into ability groups c) Focus on direct instruction of each student d) Balance direct instruction with individualization 9) The aim of research in educational psychology is: 6Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) To test the theories that guide the actions of those involved in education b) To assess behaviors that occur in the classroom during instruction c) To identify learning styles and preferences exhibited by students d) To test principles of education used in planning learning outcomes 10) Research-based professional development opportunities offer teachers: a) Traditional approaches to education b) Innovative methods that have yet to be evaluated c) Methods known to make a difference in children d) Approaches to a fast-track to learning 11) In a research study, two groups of children were given markers and paper and given permission to draw pictures. Children in one group were given a reward for being “good players” at the end, but the second group of children received no reward. In this experimental situation, researchers: a) Created conflict and analyzed the resulting effect b) Created special treatment and analyzed the effect c) Created disequilibrium and cognitive dissonance d) Created mixed variables and outcomes 12) A researcher carefully planned a study and randomly assigned children to one of two groups, ensuring that: a) The two groups were essentially equivalent b) The children could not sit with friends c) The dependent variable was easily identified d) The treatment and control group received random input 13) Researchers in the Lepper study created a highly structured setting for educational experiments allowing them which of the following? a) The opportunity to observe the variables under different conditions b) The ability to standardize treatment options for children c) A very high degree of control over all the factors involved d) A laboratory school for observation of teacher candidates 7Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 14) Laboratory studies offer highly reliable data characterized by: a) External efficacy b) Control validity c) Internal conformity d) Internal validity 15) An educational research experiment conducted in an actual classroom is called: a) A randomized field experiment b) A situational experiment c) An externalized group experiment d) A variable field experiment 16) The degree to which results of an experiment can be applied to real-life situations is known as: a) Construct validity b) Correlational validity c) External validity d) Internal validity 17) Mrs. Mandava asks the school psychologist to observe the behavior of her second-hour class and then design a special program for them. The psychologist returns to observe the students’ behavior under the new program and finally to observe their behavior after she discontinues the new program. This type of study is a/an: a) Single-case experiment b) Longitudinal experiment c) Ethnographic study d) Correlational study 18) In one study, researchers investigated the relation between students’ attentiveness in class and their achievements and IQs. This type of study is an example of a/an: a) Single-case experiment b) Correlational study 8Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) Longitudinal study d) Attitudinal survey 19) Mr. Davis is hoping to learn why some of his sixth-grade students are performing poorly during the third quarter. He finds that the more students are absent, the lower his or her grades are likely to be. His results reflect: a) A positive correlation b) A negative correlation c) Uncorrelated variables d) A codependent correlation 20) Ms. Baden began using a sticker chart to reward students for on-task behaviors and recorded her students’ behavioral responses. She continued using the sticker chart for one week, then discontinued the chart and again recorded behavioral responses. Finally she compared the behavior records to determine if the sticker chart had made a difference. The study Ms. Baden conducted would be known as: a) Correlational b) Baseline c) Single-case d) Triangulation 21) A researcher wants to study the effects of rewards on motivation and needs to set up two groups: one to receive rewards for its efforts and one to receive no rewards. What procedure should the researcher use to guarantee both groups are essentially equivalent? a) Put reward-motivated students in one group and the other students in the second group b) Put students in groups based on perceived response to past rewards c) Assign group numbers by having students count off by twos d) Randomly assign students to each group 22) Mr. Sanchez randomly assigns have of his class to study their home state on the computer and the other half of the class to use their social studies textbook. Mr. Sanchez then compares the two groups by giving both a test on basic state history. Mr. Sanchez conducted which type of research? a) Descriptive 9Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 b) Ethnography c) Correlational study d) Experimental 23) According to our text, which of the following is the most frequently used research method in educational psychology? a) Randomized field experiments b) Single-case experiments c) Correlational studies d) Longitudinal studies 24) Tamika is better than average is both reading and math. What else might we expect about her reading and math? a) They are positively correlated b) They are negatively correlated c) They show divergent correlation d) They reflect an achievement correlation 25) Carson, who is struggling in math, has missed nine days of school this semester. The relation between his math skill and his absences show which type of correlation? a) Positive correlation b) Negative correlation c) Divergent correlation d) Achievement correlation 26) Research aimed at identifying and gathering detailed information about something of interest is: a) Correlational research b) Descriptive research c) Experimental research d) Longitudinal research 10Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 27) Mrs. Hart is a first-grade teacher and she is doing research in her own classroom. This type of descriptive research is called: a) Reflective research b) Practitioner research c) Expansive research d) Action research 28) According to our text, to become an intentional teacher you must first: a) Finish post-secondary education b) Become a certified teacher c) Conduct an action research study d) Attend graduate school 29) One way toward becoming an intentional teacher in your beginning years is to: a) Practice teaching in front of a mirror instead of spending time away at workshops b) Seek a mentor who is an intentional teacher to guide you and share ideas with you c) Discourage others from observing you so you do not become inhibited d) Keep confidential your successes and failures 30) Variables for which there is no relationship between levels of one compared to another are referred to as: a) positively correlated b) negatively correlated c) uncorrelated d) discorrelated Essay Questions 1) What personal and professional characteristics contribute to being an effective teacher? 11Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 2) A teacher wants to know: Do students behave better in class when they help to create classroom rules or do they behave better when teachers create the rules for them. How can you set up a study to help answer this question? 3) Define and compare external validity and internal validity. Which do you feel is more important to emphasize in educational research? Explain the rationale for your choice. 4) You are interested in how the feedback provided by the teacher on homework assignments influences the quality of subsequent homework. Describe how this question might be studied using each of the following: 1) laboratory experiment; 2) single-case experiment; and 3) randomized field experiment. 5) Describe a study you might conduct using a descriptive research design. 6) Consider the following research finding: Finding A: It was reported that students who are assigned more homework earn higher grades. ● What type of research is this? ● How strongly does Finding A support the conclusion that spending time on homework causes students to earn higher grades? Finding B: It was reported that students who own cell phones earn higher grades. ● How strongly does Finding B support the conclusion that owning a cell phone results in students earning higher grades? ● In what way do these two findings differ? Does one finding tell us more than the other about how students earn higher grades? 7) Mr. Bachmann is ready for the challenges of teaching 11th grade geometry. Although he is a little nervous about his first day of class he believes he is well prepared for this day. As he attempts to introduce himself to his new students, a group of students at the back of the room begins talking loudly to each other. Mr. Bachmann moves to the back of the classroom thinking his proximity to them will quiet them; however, when he gets closer to the students they begin to talk more loudly. There are several actions Mr. Bachmann can take. Based on ideas presented in the chapter, what do you suggest he do and why? Write an ending to the story that demonstrates a positive solution to the problem and identify the principle of classroom management that he demonstrates. 12Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Cognitive, Language and Literacy Development Multiple Choice Questions 1) The term development refers to how people: a) Learn in response to environmental cues b) Grow, adapt, and change over the course of their lifetimes c) Fulfill intellectual potential and promise d) Respond to demands placed upon them 2) Nurture has a greater effect than nature on the following domain of development: a) Physical development b) Reflex development c) Moral development d) Motor development 3) Ramona is a first year teacher. She prepared tirelessly all summer for a fifth-grade position. As school approached she learned the fifth-grade position was eliminated and instead she would fill a first-grade position. Ramona knows in order to be an effective teacher she will most need to: a) Take student physical development into account when arranging the classroom b) Be careful to model traditional gender roles for such young learners c) Adapt her instruction to meet the district grade level objectives d) Take into account her students’ ages and stages of development 4) Continuous theories of development assume that development occurs: a) In a start and stop progression as individuals interact with the environment b) Through indirect learning and skill acquisition c) As parents’ genetic predisposition is passed on to offspring d) In a smooth progression as skills develop and the environment provides experiences 5) Discontinuous theories of development focus on: 13Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) Inborn factors rather than environmental influences b) Environmental influences rather than genetic factors c) The importance of environment rather than heredity d) The detrimental effects of disruption in nurturing caregivers 6) According to Piaget, knowledge comes from which of the following: a) Development b) Progression c) Study d) Action 7) Piaget’s theory of cognitive development proposes that: a) Intellectual development is a discontinuous process b) Development is based on an individual’s observation within a prepared environment c) A child’s intellectual development progresses through distinct stages d) Knowledge is something to be transferred from an adult to the child 8) Piaget believed that children are born with an innate tendency to make sense of their own environments by creating: a) Dilemmas b) Equanimity c) Schemes d) Identity 9) According to Piaget, the process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment by means of assimilation and accommodation is: a) Adaptation b) Scheme transition c) Adjustment patterns d) Decentralization 10) According to Piaget, assimilation occurs when: 14Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) When a baby incorporates new objects into a scheme b) When a new object does not fit the existing scheme c) When a baby using a favorite scheme to explore his world d) After the developmental dilemma has been successfully resolved 11) According to Piaget, accommodation occurs when: a) When a baby incorporates new objects into a scheme b) When a new object does not fit the existing scheme c) When a baby using a favorite scheme to explore his world d) After the developmental dilemma has been successfully resolved 12) Sometimes, when old ways of dealing with the world simply don’t work, a child might modify an existing scheme in light of new information or a new experience. This is a process called: a) Avoidance b) Assimilation c) Accommodation d) Acculturization 13) Piaget’s view of cognitive development as a process in which children actively build systems of meaning and understanding of reality through their experience and interactions is known as: a) Behaviorism b) Metacognition c) Interactive theory d) Constructivism 14) Which of the following best describes Piaget’s idea of disequilibrium? a) You find that what you expect to happen actually does happen b) You need to respond but cannot think of what to do c) You know what to do but your response doesn’t not work d) You feel uncomfortable about doing something but do it anyway 15Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 15) Mr. Nicely often begins his lectures by presenting students with two ideas or observations that apparently conflict. He feels this method of presenting a paradox arouses students’ interest. From Piaget’s point of view, the teacher is making use of his students’ natural response to: a) Egocentrism b) Anticipatory set c) Transitivity d) Disequilibrium 16) Piaget described cognitive development as a sequence of stages. Which of the following represents his stages in developmental order? a) Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational b) Preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operational , formal operational c) Concrete operational, sensorimotor, preoperational , formal operational d) Sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operational, concrete operational 17) Two-year-old Lizzie encounters a squirrel and calls it “mouse.” Which of Piaget’s terms best describes her thinking? a) Accommodation b) Assimilation c) Immature d) Sensorimotor 18) Which of the following cognitive characteristics explains the difficulty preoperational children have with the beaker of water problem (conservation of volume)? a) Object permanence b) Egocentrism c) Centration d) Hypothetical thought 19) A student knows that if 2 + 5 = 7, then 7-5+2. This requires which of the following cognitive characteristics? a) Formal thought b) Reversibility 16Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) Transitivity d) Situational thought 20) Which cognitive characteristic is Athena showing when she plays hide and seek and pulls the drape over her head with the rest of her body showing believing no one will see her? a) Immaturity of thought b) Object relevance c) Egocentrism d) Same sight 21) Which of the following is most likely to help a concrete operational child solve conceptual problems? a) The problems are explained more than once b) The problems involve objects and situations that are familiar to the child c) The child is older than the typical concrete operational learner d) The child is instructed on problem solving methods 22) Dahlia’s toy is covered by a blanket, but the child does not remove the blanket to look for the toy because he believes the toy is gone. This scenario shows an infant’s inability to grasp which idea? a) Object stability b) Object status c) Object conservation d) Object permanence 23) During the preoperational stage, children have the ability to do which of the following? a) Learn about their world through physical manipulation. b) Think about things and can use symbols to mentally represent objects. c) Develop a grasp of object permanence. d) Grasp the idea of conservation, for example that amount remains the same regardless of container size. 24) Max, a preschooler, explains that a sandwich cut into four pieces is more than a sandwich cut in half, demonstrating which characteristic common in the preoperational stage? 17Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) Conservation b) Constructivism c) Centration d) Reversibility 25) Seriation, an important task children learn during the concrete operational stage, is characterized by which ability? a) Arranging items with automaticity b) Arranging things in a logical progression c) Disinterest in details such as volume or size d) Interest in disorder of details, as in “Where’s Waldo?” 26) Transitivity involves the ability to: a) Move bilaterally b) Arrange objects in sequence c) Change direction d) Infer relationships 27) Children in the concrete operational stage have the understanding of space well enough to do which of the following? a) Draw a map from home to school b) Move hands on the clock to demonstrate understanding of time c) Think about future events d) Know the earth’s distance from the sun 28) The formal operational stage emerges: a) Sometime around the eighteenth birthday b) Unexpectedly, like a dropped weight c) Earlier in boys than in girls d) Sometime around the onset of puberty 29) In the formal operational stage, the preadolescent is beginning to think: 18Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) Constructively b) Abstractly c) Intelligently d) Reasonably 30) You are teaching a tenth-grade class of average ability students. Your lesson involves abstract ideas. Which of the following would be the most accurate supposition you could make about your class as you plan activities? a) Most of your students have not progressed beyond the concrete operational stage. b) Although many students may have reached the formal operational stage of development, you can’t be sure those who have will be able to apply it to your lesson. c) All of the students should have mastered hypothetical reasoning at this stage and should be able to handle the abstract concepts of the lesson. d) All of your students are ready to apply formal thought to the different aspects of your lesson. 31) The abilities that make up formal operational thought include: a) Metacognition, hypothetical weighing of negatives, and conceptual workings. b) Thinking abstractly, testing hypotheses, and forming concepts. c) Brainstorming, collaborating, and building. d) General articulation, critical thinking, and creative conceptualization. 32) Instruction adapted to the current developmental stage of the child is called: a) Developmentally appropriate b) Developmentally accelerated c) Diagnostically aligned d) Adaptive curriculum 33) Symbols that cultures create to help people think, communicate and solve problems are referred to as: a) Private speech b) Zone of proximal development c) Abstractions 19Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) Sign systems 34) From Vygotsky’s view point, which would be the best description of developmentally appropriate activities? a) Teach to the test so students know what is expected. b) Focus on skills not yet developed and infuse these into the curriculum c) Encourage students to reflect on skills gained independently d) Select tasks that range from those requiring the assistance of others to those they can accomplish alone. 35) An example of the Vygotsky notion of scaffolding would be: a) A mother helping a child learn to ride a bike b) Students taking a test c) A teacher passing out new supplies d) A father taking his children for a ride in the car. 36) The importance of the bioecological approach is in emphasizing: a) The interconnectedness of the many factors that influence a child’s development b) The social aspect of children’s learning and development c) The focus on the child as a unique individual rather than a miniature adult d) The environmental influences that impact the developmental process 37) Knowledge and skills relating to reading that children usually develop from experience with books and other print media before the beginning of formal reading instruction in school is known as: a) Oral language b) Emergent literacy c) Language acquisition d) Phonics instruction 38) Early literacy developments depend on: a) A student’s gender based preferences for literature 20Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 b) Cultural awareness c) Children’s experiences at home and their learning about books and letters d) Social experiences outside of the home Essay Questions 1) The following are examples of Piaget’s concept of equilibration. Analyze two of the following scenarios and identify in each: a) The source of disequilibrium b) The accommodation taking place c) The resulting new scheme ● Baby Natalie can feed herself applesauce with her fingers with relative ease. Her mother introduces the spoon and encourages Natalie to feed herself. Natalie dips the spoon in the applesauce but turns the spoon on the way to her mouth and the applesauce drips off. After some practice Natalie learns how to keep the applesauce on the spoon. ● Eli sees some groups of numbers on a gravestone (1899-1950). He appears to be thinking about the numbers and his lips are moving and he is speaking under his breath. Then he looks perplexed and says, “But you can’t really call them can you, if they are dead?” Eli’s turns to his mom for clarification. ● Alonzo begins reading his textbook and knows from his high school psychology class that cognitive development begins with the “formal operations” stage. While skimming his text he discovers that children first develop operations in the Concrete Operational stage. He carefully reads the section on cognitive development. 2) Describe the four main teaching implications drawn from the developmental ideas of Piaget. 3) A middle school teacher arranges his classroom so students sit in straight rows of desks, one in front of the other. He does this to promote compliant behavior and is pleased that students are quiet and attentive during lectures. However, students do not ask questions or discuss ideas. After lectures, the teacher assigns independent seat work. According to Vygotsky, will this teaching style be effective? Give at least two reasons to support your answer. 4) How did Bronfenbrenner view development? Describe Bronfenbrenner’s model and his main contribution to the field of developmental psychology. What was his critique of the Piagetian view? 21Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 22Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 3 Social, Moral, and Emotional Development Multiple Choice Questions 1) A set of principles that relates social environment to psychological development is: a) psychosocial theory. b) certification pointer. c) prosocial behavior. d) psychosocial crisis. 2) According to Erikson, a psychosocial crisis is: a) a crisis of faith. b) a set of critical issues that individuals must address as they pass through life stages. c) a crisis brought on by adolescent changes in hormones. d) an imaginary set of problems created by media exposure. 3) Erikson hypothesized that individuals pass through several psychosocial stages of development. How many stages are in Erikson’s psychosocial development theory? a) Eight stages b) Four stages c) Ten stages in an overlapping hierarchical pyramid d) Six stages with a crisis to be resolved at each 4) According to Erikson, vigorous exploration of physical and social behavior is a behavior typical of children in which stage? a) Trust versus mistrust b) Autonomy versus shame c) Autonomy versus doubt d) Initiative versus guilt 23Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 5) According to Erikson, parents who are severely punish children’s attempts at initiative will make children feel guilty about: a) bonding. b) their natural urges. c) developing identity. d) maintaining integrity. 6) The stages of personal and social development are played out in constant interaction with others and with society as a whole. During initial stages, the interactions are primarily with: a) parents and other family members. b) the school. c) social networks. d) the individual. 7) A nursery school teacher tells a mother that her child engages in parallel play. The teacher might see the child frequently playing: a) competitive games in which only one child can be the winner. b) alone with toys. c) with children joined together to achieve a common goal with mutual influence. d) in the same activity side by side with other children with very little interaction. 8) Solitary play is often carried out: a) by modeling peers’ behavior. b) as children begin to engage in more complex pretend-play. c) with toys. d) by those children who have the most secure relationships with their parents. 9) Brianna and Grayson each have a bucket of blocks and each is building a tower with the blocks on the floor. Brianna runs out of square shapes and sees that Grayson has some left. She asks Grayson for one, offering to trade a triangle in return. Grayson makes the trade and asks Brianna is she will trade another triangle for a square. Brianna and Grayson are engaged in: a) solitary play. b) cooperative play. 24Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) associative play. d) parallel play. 10) Elementary students have developed ideas about their strengths and weaknesses. Their perception of these qualities is referred to as: a) self-actualization. b) decentered thought. c) self-concept. d) self-absorption. 11) Which of Marcia’s identity status levels is associated with the highest degree of anxiety for adolescents? a) Identity diffusion status b) Moratorium status c) Foreclosure status d) Identity achievement status 12) Adolescents attempt to develop a sense of identity by: a) hiding feelings that are not complimentary toward another person. b) trying out a variety of roles to test their fit. c) focusing on their present experiences without much concern about past or future. d) ignoring any indications by others that they are being viewed negatively. 13) Adolescents seek to share their inner feelings most often with: a) parents. b) school teachers. c) popular peers. d) close friends. 14) Which of the following correctly describes the substance use of contemporary adolescents, as they complete high school? 25Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) Fewer than 10 percent have tried marijuana. b) 80 percent drink alcohol. c) About one-third drink alcohol. d) Most have tried marijuana. 15) Pregnancy and childbirth are major concerns for all groups of female adolescents, but particularly among those from: a) lower-income families. b) middle class families. c) white middle class families. d) black middle class families. 16) During adolescence people begin to explore their: a) sexual identity. b) civic ability. c) academic integrity. d) trust versus mistrust. 17) A child’s ability to create expectations satisfied by the need for food and affection is an example of which of Erikson’s stages? a) Autonomy versus doubt b) Identify versus role confusion c) Trust versus mistrust d) Intimacy versus isolation 18) The ability to find a partner in friendship, sex, and cooperation demonstrates which of Erikson’s conflicts? a) Intimacy versus isolation b) Generativity versus self-absorption c) Integrity versus despair d) Initiative versus guilt 26Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 19) According to Piaget, during which stage of moral development will the subject begin to weigh consequences of his or her actions? a) Heteronomous morality b) Autonomous morality c) Moral dilemmas d) Postconventional level of morality 20) Associative play is play that: a) occurs alone. b) occurs when children join together. c) occurs when children play with very little interaction. d) occurs with increased levels of interaction. 21) Self-esteem refers to how an individual: a) perceives his or her strengths. b) evaluates his or her strengths. c) develops his or her strengths. d) shares his or her strengths. 22) The process of comparing oneself to others to gather information and to evaluate and judge one’s abilities, attitudes, and conduct is referred to as: a) social comparison. b) appraisal. c) composition. d) adaptation. 23) The trend to use social comparison information to evaluate the self appears to correspond with developmental changes in: a) physical development. b) academic self-esteem. c) abstract thinking. 27Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) cognition. 24) In lower elementary, peer groups are comprised mainly of: a) different sex children of different ages. b) different sec children of the same age. c) same sex children of different ages. d) same sex children of the same age. 25) Controversial children are children who are: a) named more often as someone who is liked and often not listed as disliked. b) named as equally liked and disliked. c) someone often named as disliked and rarely mentioned as liked. d) named as neither liked nor disliked. 26) Teachers who provide opportunities for feedback and practice are demonstrating which approach of social skill development? a) Reinforcing b) Modeling c) Coaching d) Instruction 27) James Marcia’s identity stage in which an identity crisis has never been experienced is: a) foreclosure. b) diffusion. c) moratorium. d) achievement. 28 According to the text, levels of anxiety in adolescents are highest in which of Marcia’s identity stages? a) Foreclosure b) Diffusion 28Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) Moratorium d) Achievement 29) According to research, which of the following sexual educational programs has been generally found to be more effective? a) Abstinence only b) Abstinence with birth control c) Birth control only d) Informal 30) Gavin has developed a solid understanding of the rules associated with playing checkers. According to Piaget, Gavin has moved beyond the stage of: a) morality of cooperation. b) conventional morality. c) preconventional reasoning. d) heteronomous morality. 31) During which stage of development is the basic goal is to develop a sense of trust in the world? a) Trust versus mistrust b) Autonomy versus doubt c) Trust versus inferiority d) Doubt versus mistrust 32) Self-esteem is based on self-evaluation of: a) self-actualization. b) the Mirror Self. c) the ego. d) skills and abilities. 33) Research on gender differences in moral reasoning suggests that: a) Women never reach what Kohlberg considers the higher stages of justice. 29Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 b) Women are more likely than men to make everyday decisions based on an ethic of care. c) Both justice and caring seem to be important bases for moral reasoning for men and for women. d) Men do not experience growth in moral reasoning until adulthood. 34) A belief about your strengths, weaknesses, abilities, attitudes, and values is known as: a) self-esteem. b) self-concept. c) self-efficacy. d) ego. 35) Which of the following statements best reflects the conventional level of moral reasoning? a) I do not want to break any traffic laws. b) I can get away with it, so why not? c) Sometimes it is right to break the law if it benefits others. d) What’s in it for me? 36) Which term refers to the developmental stage at which a person becomes capable of reproduction? a) Maturation b) Moratorium c) Puberty d) Menopause 37) Taunting, harassment, and aggression toward weaker or friendless peers occur at all age levels, but can become particularly serious as children enter: a) preschool. b) elementary school. c) early adolescence. d) post secondary years. 30Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 38) The inability to develop a clear direction or sense of self is referred to as: a) identity diffusion. b) reflectivity. c) reactivity. d) depression. 39) The second stage of Piaget’s theory of moral development is the stage where an individual understands that people make rules and that punishments are not automatic. This stage is called: a) autonomous morality. b) heteronomous morality. c) preconventional. d) postconventional. 40) Reflectivity, a hallmark of identity development, refers to: a) the Mirror Self. b) a state of prematurely established identity on the basis of the parents’ choices. c) the tendency to analyze oneself and one’s own thoughts. d) experimentation with occupational and ideological choices without definite commitment. 41) When children enter middle school or junior high school, self-esteem is: a) At its peak b) At its lowest c) Holding steady d) Not as important as academic achievement 42) Erik Erikson, in stage two of his theory of psychosocial development, asserts that parents who are overly restrictive and harsh give their children: a) a sense of powerlessness and incompetence, that can lead to shame and doubt in one's abilities. 31Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 b) sound guidance as they move into adulthood. c) a new sense of self- or ego-identity that leads to confusion about the role played by each parent. d) a sense of power that can provide the child with independence. 43) During which of the following stages of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development do teachers and peers take on increasing importance while the influence of parents decreases? a) Intimacy versus isolation b) Initiative versus guilt c) Trust versus mistrust d) Industry versus inferiority 44) The positive psychosocial outcome of the teenage years is a sense of: a) identity. b) generativity. c) initiative. d) integrity. 45) According to Erikson, a young adult who does not seek out close relationships with other people may develop a sense of: a) isolation. b) guilt. c) inferiority. d) mistrust. 46) If individuals do not grow during the generativity stage, a sense of stagnation and interpersonal impoverishment develops. This leads to: a) intimacy or competition. b) doubt. 32Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) self-absorption or self-indulgence. d) confusion. 47) A student is caught talking about during a test, a behavior that breaks a class rule. Another student in Piaget's autonomous stage of morality is likely to react in which of the following ways? a) Side with the teacher's decision. b) View any punishment as deserved. c) Protect the offender, regardless of circumstances. d) Listen to the offender's rationale for the behavior. 48) According to Piaget, between the ages of six and ten years, children believe that the rules of a game: a) can be altered by older children in the group, but not by younger ones. b) are flexible. c) are set by a higher authority and cannot be altered. d) can be altered with the consent of all players. 49) According to Piaget, children in the heteronomous stage of moral development believe that rules: a) are relative. b) bring automatic punishment. c) and punishment are unrelated. d) bring about ethical challenges. 50) Kohlberg studied individuals' responses to hypothetical problems called: a) moral dilemmas. b) clinical ambiguities. c) behavioral incidents. 33Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) ethical challenges. 51) Children at the preconventional level of moral reasoning concentrate on: a) respecting the laws of society. b) how to further their own interests and avoid being punished. c) understanding the meaning of rules for a group. d) how to adapt rules to fit the condition of their situations. 52) According to Kohlberg, for individuals operating at which level of moral development is morality defined in terms of cooperation with peers? a) preconventional b) postconventional c) unconventional d) conventional 53) One student sees another cheat on a test. The first student reasons that cheating is acceptable because the teacher wasn't looking. What level of moral reasoning is the student exhibiting? a) conventional b) unconventional c) postconventional d) preconventional 54) The third-grade teacher has told a group of students to go to the cabinet and take a box of crayons that they may use during the year. A student who is the last one in line is faced with the moral dilemma of whether to take several boxes, since no one is watching. The student makes the decision that it would not be proper because the rule did not allow for anyone to take more than one box. This behavior reflects which level of moral reasoning? a) nonconventional b) conventional c) postconventional 34Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) preconventional 55) A student does not really think about plagiarism as a true injustice to her fellow students. She believes it is acceptable because her close friends say that plagiarism is just a survival skill that everybody uses. Applying Kohlberg's theory of moral development, what level best identifies the student's judgment about plagiarism? a) preconventional (stage 1 or 2) b) postconventional (stage 5 or 6) c) conventional (stage 3 or 4) d) neoconventional (stage 4 or 5) 56) A criticism of both Piaget's and Kohlberg's work is that they did not observe that young children can often reason about moral situations in: a) abstract terms. b) ways similar to adults. c) hypothetical dilemmas. d) more sophisticated ways than the theories would suggest. 57) The most important limitation of Kohlberg's theory is that it: a) deals only with actual behavior rather than perceived behavior. b) deals with moral reasoning rather than actual behavior. c) focuses on moral development but not moral reasoning. d) addresses only individual rights. Essay 1) Compare a child in the elementary grades to the same individual in high school, focusing on Erikson’s stages of social and personal development. What changes had this student undergone? Briefly describe two examples of how the high school teacher’s awareness of these types of changes might benefit students. 35Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 2) Based on Erikson’s work, James Marcia identified four identity statuses from in-depth interviews with adolescents. The statuses reflect the degree to which adolescents have made firm commitments to occupational, religious, and political values. Identify each status and give examples of the characteristics of that status. 3) Secondary educators need to be sensitive to problems that face adolescents. What are some of the problems and how can teachers help adolescents who are experiencing them? 4) Based on Erikson’s work, James Marcia created four categories of identity development during adolescence. Each category reflects the degree to which adolescents have made firm commitments to occupational, religious, and political values. Below are descriptions of four adolescents, each of who fits one of Marcia’s categories. Read the description of the adolescent, then label the individual as identity foreclosure, identity diffusion, moratorium, or identity achievement. Provide an explanation for your selection. ● Suzette comes from a family of teachers. Her parents’ dream is that she become a teacher. Suzette agrees that teaching is the only occupation that she can pursue since it would break her parents’ hearts if she did anything else. ● Mali finds the political debate that his teachers, parents, and peers engage in to be boring. He couldn’t care less who is in office and who is not. ● Catrina is a good student, a strong athlete, and an excellent musician. She has ideas about a future career, but hasn’t yet decided which of her many interests to pursue. ● After winning a contest to be a guest announcer at a large radio station, Anthony decides that he will go to college to study broadcasting. 5) Justin Callahan is the assistant principal at Central School Elementary in a large urban school district. During his seven years at the school, he has come to know children from many different backgrounds and with many different types of problems. He has also seen many bright and successful students come and go. One fall afternoon, Daisy Alvarez, a high school guidance counselor from the school located a few block away, stops by his office. She sits down and tells Justin she has an idea. “Justin, you know I’ve been working with a group of kids from my school who have completed drug treatment programs. They are good kids and need some activities that will keep them off the streets. I would like to have them tutor some of your students. They could walk over during the day and read to your students or help them with homework. Or, they could help your teachers to grade papers or run other errands. What do you think of my ideas?” From the information presented in the chapter, what advantages might exist for elementary children who are exposed to adolescents? What disadvantages might exist? What advantages might exist for adolescents who work with children? What disadvantages might exist? If you were Justin Callahan would you do it? 36Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 6) Not all adolescents experience serious problems, but among those who are at, it is far better to prevent problems before they arise. Many programs have demonstrated success with a wide range of problem behaviors by embedding preventative strategies in the regular curriculum. Outline a preventative program for adolescents and identify specific high risk behaviors you hope to positively impact. 7) Jake is a high school junior at a large public high school located in a suburban area. He has struggled academically since his parents’ divorce and has failed to earn two credits necessary for graduating with his class. His attendance is sporadic and his learning and work completion are directly impacted by his frequent absences from school. You have become concerned about Jake’s future and are planning a parent/student/teacher conference. Outline your concerns for Jake if he chooses not to complete high school. In addition, list some things the school can do to help reduce the dropout rate. 8) In addition to their close friends, most adolescents also place high value on the larger peer group as a source of ideas and values as well as companionship and entertainment. Discuss the nature of peer relationships in adolescence in terms of social status and peer groups and the benefits to children with positive social status. Please discuss cliques, crowds and the pressure to conform. 9) Use Erikson's theory to draw a contrast between children of high school age and children of elementary school age. How do their day-to-day concerns differ? For each of these age groups, describe a scenario in which a teacher's awareness of how Erikson's stages affect individuals might be beneficial to a student. 10) Erik Erikson's theory describes the basic issues that individuals confront as they progress through life; however, he has been criticized about several of his ideas. What are some of these criticisms? 11) Explain how an individual might reason at each stage of Kohlberg's theory of moral development. 12) Analyze the following scenerios from Kohlberg's point of view. For each scenario, identify the moral judgment as either preconventional or conventional. Explain why Kohlberg would classify them at the levels you select. 37Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Seven-year-old Adam scenario: Adam (7 yrs.) and Clarice (4 yrs.) are decorating the picture window for Halloween. Adam wishes to have total artistic control. He offers Clarice two pieces of candy if she will give up all participation in the decorating. Clarice thinks two pieces of candy sounds great! It's a deal. Adam decorates the whole window and then produces Clarice's payoff: 2 Smarties (not two rolls of Smarties—only two aspirin-sized candy pills). Adam sees the deal as fair. In time, Clarice (being very young) forgets the deal and tampers with the decorations. Adam expresses outrage and righteous indignation, asserting that Clarice BROKE the deal! Classify Adam's level of moral reasoning. Heidi's-grandfather scenario: Heidi lives in the mountains with her grandfather. Grandfather values the wholesome surroundings and feels the mountain life is all the education anyone could need. When relatives come from the city to take Heidi for schooling, he resists, arguing that she just doesn't need to learn the school subjects. But at last the city-aunt says, "But Grandfather, it's the LAW!" That settles it; Heidi is sent away with her grandfather's complete consent. Classify the moral judgment of Grandfather, when he changes his mind, accepting compulsory education. Young-teen scenario: Mom insists on limiting junk food based on nutritional considerations. Her young teenager asserts that the other kids all get unlimited junk food. Mom sticks to her position and puts fruit in the lunch bag. Young teen is outraged and accuses Mom of "setting your own standards!" The teenager believes that it is wrong to go against the group and follow your own standard. Classify the moral judgment of the young teen. 13) Dr. Lapovich, superintendent of a mid-size school district, walked into the faculty meeting on the first day of school with some apprehension. The state legislature had recently voted to make all public schools standards-based—a system in which all students must demonstrate competence in a variety of ways to graduate from high school. As she began her address to the faculty, Dr. Lapovich sensed the apprehension in the room. "We have two years to become a standards-based school," she told her faculty. "This means we need to adopt the state Board of Education's Standards for Graduation plan." 38Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 A voice from the back of the room said, "I've been teaching in this district for 20 years. We've gone through these changes before. The way I teach now suits me fine and my students think so too." Dr. Lapovich recognized the speaker. He was Ansel Green, the 10th-grade English teacher at the high school. Dr. Lapovich also noticed that many of Mr. Green's colleagues were nodding in agreement with his remarks. This was something she feared; some teachers were going to argue against the new standards. A second voice came from the crowd, "I've talked with parents and they're concerned too. One of my student's parents complained that her daughter had special learning needs and that she would most likely have difficulties in passing the standards." Dr. Lapovich politely reminded the faculty, "We have to think of the students first. We have to be able to say that we are doing everything we can to help students learn. If the first teaching method we try doesn't work, then we try another, then another; whatever it takes. Isn't that why we are here—to help students learn?" One of the district's elementary teachers replied, "Don't you think we're removing some of the incentive for doing well by threatening them with possible failure? Might this not increase cheating if standards are too rigorous? And how will my students feel when some try hard but aren't successful? How will we explain to them that effort doesn't matter?" Dr. Lapovich sighed as she realized that this would be a very long year of change. Consider some of the arguments made for and against standards-based education. Would cognitive development theorists (e.g., Piaget and Vygotsky), psychosocial developmental theorists (e.g., Erikson), and moral developmental theorists (e.g., Kohlberg) argue for or against this teaching-learning approach? 14) Below is a lesson plan on data collection and interpretation. Decide on a developmental level for which the lesson would be most appropriate. Using the cognitive, psychosocial, and moral developmental theories from the chapter, support your decision. Lesson: Data Collection and Interpretation 1. Ask students to conduct a survey of teachers and parents, about whom they will support in an upcoming election (e.g., school, city council, state or national). Questions are to include a list of reasons why a candidate is supported. 39Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 2. Have students record the number of support votes a candidate receives and the rationale given for the support. 3. In groups, ask students to make interpretations about the results of the survey. Candidate A Candidate B Candidate C X healthy environment X pro-business X fewer taxes X better education X healthy environment 40Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 4 Student Diversity Multiple Choice Questions 1) The culture of most schools in the United States tends to reflect: a) the full range of class values. b) upper-class values. c) middle-class values. d) lower-class values. 2) Shared norms, attitudes and ways of behaving that characterize a group of people are, collectively known as: a) Socioeconomic status b) Culture c) Race d) Ethnicity 3) Socioeconomic Status (SES) is most often measured as: a) Income level and social class b) Social class c) Occupation d) A combination of the individual’s income and years of education 4) Our text describes six class groupings in the United States. Which of these accurately represents the income category for the working class? a) 20,000 or less b) 20,000-40,000 c) 40,000-63,000 d) 63,000-100,000 41Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 5) You are a teacher working with students from a low-income neighborhood. Based on findings from research on academic progress and SES, you should expect your students, relative to Middle-Class students of the same age, to: a) maintain academic achievement levels over the summer. b) to make slight academic gains over the summer. c) to lose ground academically over the summer. d) to make modest academic gains during the summer. 6) The structural bias in traditional classrooms works against lower SES and minority-group students because: a) there’s a mismatch between the cooperative orientation of these students, and the competitive orientation of the school. b) these students are more disposed toward competitive activities. c) lower-income students are not receiving enough support from their teachers. d) lower-income learners are less intelligent. 7) The academic self-concepts of African Americans, and the expectations they have of themselves, tend to be: a) higher than their Asian American classmates. b) lower than those of their white classmates. c) lower than those of their Native American classmates. d) at least as high as those of their white classmates. 8) According to the text, what is the impact of desegregation when students from under-represented groups are sent early in life to high quality schools attended by middle-class students? a) As a result of the students (from under-represented groups) receiving better educational opportunities, a significant positive effect was observed. b) There is none; the effectiveness remains unchanged. c) As a result of the students (from under-represented groups) having contact with middle-class students, a significant positive effect was observed. 42Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) As a result of the students (from under-represented groups) having to compete with middle-class students, a negative effect of desegregation was observed. 9) The overall effect of desegregation on the academic achievement of students from underrepresented groups has been: a) greater than expected. b) negligible. c) measurably negative. d) small though positive. 10) By 2026, what percentage of U.S. students is expected to come from homes in which the primary language is not English? a) 40 percent b) 25 percent c) 10 percent d) 5 percent 11) English language learners are typically taught in the most common instructional placement, which is called: a) three-way bilingual education, which involves English speaking and non-English-speaking students and their teachers. b) English immersion, referred to as a "sink-or-swim" approach. c) paired bilingual education is which students study with a partner. d) transitional bilingual education in which children are taught in both their native tongue and English together. 12) What has research told us about the use of cooperative learning in bilingual education programs? a) This approach helps students make a successful transition to English-only instruction. b) Cooperative learning is not very effective. 43Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) This approach has about the same success rate as other approaches. d) Cooperative learning will keep bilingual students in bilingual classes until they finish school. 13) The first step in multicultural education is for teachers, administrators, and other school staff to: a) begin American cultural enrichment programs. b) learn about the cultures from which their students come. c) acquaint the white students with multilingual lesson plans. d) learn to speak Spanish. 14) High school females tend to: a) estimate their skills as being the same as males. b) overestimate their skills in social studies and English. c) overestimate their skills in language and math. d) underestimate their skills in language and math. 15) High school males tend to: a) estimate their skills as being the same as males. b) overestimate their skills in social studies and English. c) overestimate their skills in language and math. d) underestimate their skills in language and math. 16) Charles Spearman's conception of intelligence is that: a) there are several different types of intelligences. b) intelligence is only weakly related to school achievement. c) there is one general type of intelligence, called a g factor. d) intelligence is accumulated knowledge. 44Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 17) Binet's work advanced the science of intelligence assessment, but it also began to establish the idea that a) there were smart people who could be expected to do well in a broad range of learning situations. b) there were smart people who could be expected to do well in a narrow range of learning situations. c) intelligence could be improved with motivation. d) there were multiple intelligences. 18) Studies showing the effects of schooling in raising intelligence scores support an interpretation of intelligence as: a) genetically influenced. b) an aptitude rather than an ability. c) environmentally influenced. d) general ability. 19) Which position regarding the use of intelligence scores is supported by your text author? a) Intelligence should be measured and reported as a linguistic score and a mathematical score. b) Intelligence scores are basically invalid and should not be used for educational decision making. c) Teachers should be more concerned with students' actual performance than with their general intelligence. d) Knowing students' general intelligence scores can be helpful to teachers in planning lessons. 20) French studies of children of low SES parents adopted into high SES families find: a) negative effects on the children's IQs compared to non-adopted children raised in low SES families. b) negative effects on the children's IQs compared to adopted children raised in low SES families. 45Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) positive effects on the children's IQs compared to non-adopted children raised in high SES families. d) positive effects on the children's IQs compared to non-adopted children raised in low SES families. 21) Based on the work of Dunn and Dunn, students may differ in preferences associated with surroundings, and these differences: a) necessitate individualized learning environments for all children. b) cannot predict which learning environment will be most effective for each student. c) can predict the students who are in need of remedial education. d) can sometimes predict which learning environment will be most effective for each student. 22) In an English immersion placement, a student is primarily taught in the following manner: a) Children are taught in their native language and English. b) Children are taught in two different languages but at different times in the day. c) Students are taught primarily their native language. d) Students are taught primarily in English. 23) Teaching techniques that facilitate success of students from different ethnic and social groups has been defined as a) prejudice reduction. b) equity pedagogy. c) knowledge construction. d) content integration. 24) Asking a student to understand the plight of a Jewish family while under Nazi occupation is an example of a) prejudice reduction. b) equity pedagogy. c) knowledge construction. d) content integration. 46Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 25) Practices that are conducive to the academic and social growth of all students are commonly referred to as a) school culture empowerment. b) equity pedagogy. c) English immersion. d) content integration. 47Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Essay Questions 1) David and Luke are starting kindergarten. They both have loving and supportive parents, but their backgrounds are different. David's social-class background would be classified as "low SES," while Luke's is "high SES." What do researchers mean by "SES"? What are its components? Using examples, illustrate how differences in David's and Luke's backgrounds may influence how readily they will adapt to the Middle-Class school environment. 2)What does your book say about social class relative to income, education, behaviors, attitudes, cultural factors, school readiness, school achievement, race and ethnicity? 3) A teacher's low expectations of some students can become a self-fulfilling prophecy. What does this statement mean and how does it apply to social class? 4) Trace the history of school desegregation beginning before 1954, to the present. 5) Reviews of research focusing on the best-designed studies of quality bilingual programs yield positive results. What are they? 6) Make lists of multicultural classroom activities that would be appropriate for elementary, middle level, and secondary students. 7) Researchers claim that few genetically based differences exist between males and females; however, differences are still observed. What types of differences exist and to what are the differences attributed? 8) Historically, a great debate has focused on whether intelligence is a product of heredity or a product of an individual's environment. Using supporting evidence from the text, argue one of these two points of view. 9) Meg Campbell teaches high school physics in a private Christian school in a Middle-Class, suburban community. Her best friend and roommate, Chris Gustafson, teaches second grade in a 48Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 public elementary school in the same community. Today, both are planning to attend a meeting in which the state's governor will propose that the state adopt a school vouchers program. Meg meets up with Chris just outside the high school auditorium, which is filled to capacity. They find seats just as the governor is being introduced. "Thank you, Principal Ledderman, for that fine introduction," the governor begins. "Let me say that I am here to tell you about a proposal I will take to the legislature—a proposal for school vouchers. I think that a school vouchers program will revolutionize education in this state because it holds schools accountable. Because taxpayer dollars are given directly to parents to give to a school of their choice, school vouchers will increase competition, thus making all schools, or those that survive, better institutions. We practice this in business, why not our schools? In addition, vouchers will give money to poor kids who need to escape from ineffective urban schools. It will give them a chance to get away from schools that aren't making it." Chris, who is opposed to school vouchers, raises her hand. She asks the governor, "Aren't public schools held to different standards than private schools? We have to be licensed by the state, meet state and federal mandates about, for example, special education, and we have to accept all students. How can public schools compete with schools that have fewer regulations?" "The differences shouldn't matter," replied the governor. "You've been trained to teach under a variety of circumstances; at least that's what the university people tell us. Public schools have been able to do what they want for too long. Some healthy competition would make them better. How could you be against that?" Meg questions the governor next. "I work in a Christian school. What about the separation of church and state? Would vouchers for my school be constitutional?" Before he can reply, others speak up. "How can you say that poor kids will benefit? If the state gives them a couple of thousand dollars, but it costs $10,000 to attend a private school, how can this help?" Using information from the text, continue the discussion by listing advantages and disadvantages of vouchers. Include in your discussion information from the text about special populations who might be affected by such a practice. 49Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 5 Behavioral Theories of Learning Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of the following statements best fits a behaviorist's conception of learning? a) Learning is a change in an individual caused by experience. b) Learning is a change in an individual's knowledge structures. c) Learning is synonymous with cognition. d) Learning is synonymous with development. 2) In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, which of the following best characterizes the role of the bell (or tone), prior to conditioning? a) Conditioned response b) Unconditioned response c) Neutral stimulus d) Unconditioned stimulus 3) In classical conditioning, the object or event that automatically elicits a behavior before the conditioning takes place is referred to as the: a) unconditioned response. b) conditioned response. c) unconditioned stimulus. d) neutral stimulus. 4) What is the focus of operant conditioning? a) Animal learning rather than human learning b) Reflexive types of responses c) Treating learning as associating stimuli, rather than acting on one's surroundings. d) The relationship between a behavior and its consequence 5) Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer? 50Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) Money b) Food c) Security d) Sex 6) A secondary reinforcer takes on value: a) by directly satisfying basic human needs. b) when a primary reinforcer loses its value. c) when it is associated with primary reinforcers. d) when reinforcement is withheld. 7) The three basic categories of secondary reinforcers are: a) social, token, and unconditioned. b) activity, token, and metacognition. c) social, mediation, and symbolic. d) social, activity, and token. 8) Whenever students turn in their homework, a teacher rewards them with computer time. The more often they turn in their homework, the more they are allowed to use the computers. Students have been turning in their homework with increasing frequency. Thus, the computer time is serving as a(n): a) punisher. b) unconditioned stimulus. c) reinforcer. d) aversive stimulus. 9) A reinforcer that allows a student to escape from an unpleasant situation is called a(n): a) secondary reinforcer. b) unconditioned reinforcer. c) primary reinforcer. d) negative reinforcer. 51Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 10) The Premack Principle links less-desired activities to: a) misbehavior. b) positive participation. c) enjoyable activities. d) punishment. 11) What type of reinforcer is being encountered when students enjoy taking a field trip (which is the reward itself)? a) intrinsic b) extrinsic c) negative d) primary 12) What type of reinforcer is a gold star that a student receives as a reward for completing her homework? a) intrinsic b) extrinsic c) negative d) primary 13) Which of the following examples best illustrates removal punishment? (assume that the undesirable behavior decreases after the consequence occurs). a) sending a student to the principal b) scolding a student for misbehavior c) making students do extra work d) taking away recess 14) The belief behind which of the following discipline strategies is that students want to be part of the social setting? a) Premack Principle b) points for attendance c) time out 52Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) fixed ratio reinforcement 15) Which of the following terms is defined as follows: applying unpleasant stimuli to decrease a target behavior? a) negative reinforcement b) presentation punishment c) positive reinforcement d) removal punishment 16) Consequences that weaken behavior are called: a) secondary consequences. b) negative reinforcers. c) anticipatory consequences. d) punishers. 17) Which of the following reinforcement procedures would be most appropriate for the classroom? a) As students begin a new task, praise the desired final behavior only, ignoring any approximations to the response you are seeking. b) Give immediate reinforcement when a desired behavior is observed. c) Increase the frequency of the reward over time. d) Delay punishment following misbehavior. 18) A coach is using a shaping technique to help a student work on a figure skating routine. According to behaviorists, which of the following strategy can be most effectively applied to assist the skater? a) Requiring extra practice time for missed jumps. b) Immediate reinforcement of approximations of the desired skill. c) Running the entire routine from beginning to end. d) Withholding feedback. 19) A teacher reinforces a child first for recognizing two letters of the alphabet, then for recognizing four, then six, and so on. The teacher is using a technique called: 53Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) generalization. b) shaping. c) negative reinforcement. d) "Grandma's Rule." 20) An English teacher wants students to begin writing paragraphs on various topics. How should the teacher proceed in explaining the parts of paragraph construction? a) Allow the student to write in whatever manner he or she chooses. b) Reinforce only the behaviors that demonstrate the final skill. c) Have students write entire paragraphs, then hand them in so the teacher can score them on grammar, punctuation, and spelling. d) Teach the skills step-by-step, gradually shaping the final skill. 21) A student is used to getting the attention of the teacher by making annoying sounds. One day the teacher decides to ignore the sounds by showing no reaction. Based on behavioral theory, what would be the expected outcome, assuming the teacher's attention was the reinforcer? a) The behavior will be immediately extinguished. b) The behavior will immediately increase in frequency, but then decrease over time. c) The behavior will immediately decrease in frequency, but then increase over time. d) There will be very little change, since the teacher did not apply an aversive stimulus. 22) Students receive a reward every third time they score 90 percent or higher on a test. What schedule is being used to reinforce the students? a) fixed interval b) variable interval c) variable ratio d) fixed ratio 23) Students do not know when a reinforcer is coming, but know that if they continue to do their work, it will eventually appear. The students are being reinforced on what type of schedule? a) Fixed ratio b) Continuous c) Fixed interval 54Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) Variable ratio 24) A teacher spot-checks how students are doing by walking around the room, selecting students to observe at random and then reinforcing those who are working well. What type of schedule is being used? a) Variable ratio b) Fixed interval c) Variable interval d) Fixed ratio 25) At his locker, Rick is describing his exciting weekend to Tony, using very colorful and inappropriate language. Tony gestures down the hall to let Rick know that Sherri is approaching. Rick continues his story but instantly cleans up his language, sounding like a completely different person while Sherri walks by. Rick's adjustment of his behavior is based on: a) a fixed interval schedule. b) discrimination. c) shaping. d) immediate primary reinforcement. 26) A student learns to add blocks and later transfers this skill to adding sticks, and checkers. Educational psychologists would say that the student is demonstrating: a) discrimination. b) the Premack Principle. c) generalization. d) shaping. 27) Which of the following is the correct sequence of phases for understanding observational learning? a) attention, retention, motivation, reproduction b) motivation, retention, reproduction, attention c) motivation, attention, reproduction, retention d) attention, retention, reproduction, motivation 28) In Bandura's classic study on modeling, children who observed a film of an aggressive adult 55Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 being punished: a) appeared unaffected by the film. b) engaged in more aggressive acts in subsequent play than did the control group. c) engaged in fewer aggressive acts during subsequent play than did the control group. d) showed less desire to see movies in later classes. 29) Which of the following illustrates Bandura's concept of self-regulation? a) A teacher is in charge of creating and enforcing all class rules. b) Standard grading criteria are applied to all members of a class. c) Reinforcement is based on improvement. d) A student engages in a desired activity after judging previous work as well done. 30) Which of the following would be the most effective to help children engage in self-regulated learning when completing long or complex tasks? a) A detailed paragraph of instructions b) Student models of expectation c) A task completion checklist d) A stack of blank paper 31) Which of the following is an example of removal punishment? a) Response cost b) Loss of recess c) Seatbelt buzzer d) Fine 32) Which of the following forms of assessment is the best example of a fixed-interval schedule? a) Pop quiz b) Infrequent major exams c) Homework assigned as needed d) Friday quizzes 56Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 33) The first phase in observational learning defined as paying attention to a model is: a) attention phase. b) retention phase. c) motivational phase. d) reproduction. 34) Which phase of observational learning best represents the modeling of desired behavior based on the teacher’s likes and dislikes? a) Attention phase b) Retention phase c) Motivational phase d) Reproduction 35) Which of the following is an example of self-regulated learning? a) Assign a complex task with a form for progress monitoring. b) Assign a complex task that is assessed upon completion. c) Assign a short task with peer tutoring. d) Assign a short task that is assessed upon completion. 36) Which schedule allows for a constant number of behaviors required for reinforcement? a) Fixed ratio b) Variable ratio c) Fixed interval d) Variable interval Essay Questions 1) Using Pavlov's classical conditioning terms, explain how test anxiety develops. Develop your explanation using an example of an individual learner. Use that learner's experiences to illustrate neutral stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response. 57Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Extended thinking: Apply the concept of generalization to classical conditioning. Expand on your example by illustrating how the learner's test anxiety might generalize beyond the original stimuli. 2) What role do consequences play in strengthening or weakening behaviors, according to operant conditioning theory? Give an example that supports your response. 3) Below are four examples of behavior changes that occurred as a result of some consequence. Read each example; then identify it as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, presentation punishment, or removal punishment. Explain your classifications. Rita is caught cheating on her English exam. The teacher, in a loud voice, threatens Rita with an F. Rita starts to cry, then fabricates a story about hardships at home. The teacher stops the threats and lets Rita finish the exam with no penalty. In the future, Rita uses the same ploy when caught cheating in her other classes. Targeted Behavior: Cheating Raul repeatedly gets into heated arguments with students during his physical education class basketball game. As a result, the teacher removes Raul from the game. He spends the rest of the class period sitting on the bench. During future games, Raul does not argue with officials. Targeted Behavior: Arguing with Officials Stan gets caught passing a note to Marilyn describing his plans for their date that evening. The teacher sees this, grabs the note, and reads it to the class. In the future, Stan does not pass notes. Targeted Behavior: Note Passing Suzette shouts out to the teacher, "Why do we have to learn this stuff, anyway? I'll never use it." The teacher, who has been assisting another student, stops to explain why the information is important. With increasing frequency throughout the term, Suzette shouts out questions. Targeted Behavior: Shouting 4) A teacher makes the following statement: I reinforce my students with praise, but it doesn't always work. Using Skinner's definition of reinforcement, how would you respond to the teacher? 5) Using the guidelines below, analyze an example of punishment. Use an example based on your personal observations; choose an example in which punishment was used to control a student's (or a child's) behavior. What consequence was used in your "case"? Classify the consequence—what type of punishment was used? Explain any operant-conditioning terms used in your answer. Explain why the punisher might have chosen the form of punishment used. Evaluate the 58Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 effectiveness of the punishment, including any unintentional effects on the learner. Suggest an alternative to punishment that could be used in a situation like the one in your example. Identify any consequences or techniques used in your alternate solution. Identify at least one drawback or pitfall that might be encountered in implementing your alternative. 6) Use a classroom example to illustrate the technique Skinner called shaping. Include a brief description of the learners and the setting. Specify: 1) the reinforcement used, 2) the target behavior, 3) what the learners are capable of at the outset, and 4) several responses that function as successive approximations to the desired behavior. 7) Below are three different schedules of reinforcement. Identify which schedule is depicted and predict the effect of the schedule on behavior. 1) An elementary school has a policy that prohibits students from running in the halls. The hall monitor waits by the cafeteria doors every morning from 8:00 until 8:30 looking for runners. 2) A teacher has his students complete all problems at the end of the chapter in their math text; however, he only grades the even ones. 3) A teacher gives unannounced quizzes, usually once per week, but sometimes more often. 8) Using an example of classroom learning, illustrate both generalization and discrimination. Identify the important stimuli and responses in your example. Explain the text author's statement that "generalization cannot be taken for granted." Indicate two ways in which the teacher in your example could facilitate generalization. 9) Much has been said about violence in the media and its effect on children and adolescents. According to Bandura's social learning theory, can humans learn to be violent by watching violence? Explain. Identify two factors that could influence modeling of violent behavior; use an example to illustrate the effect of each factor. 10) Recall a behavior you have learned through observation, in a cooperative learning situation. Use this learning experience to illustrate Bandura's four phases of observational learning. Explain how the concept of vicarious learning relates to your example. 59Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 11) Evaluate behavioral learning theories (as a group), identifying both strengths and weaknesses. 12) How does social learning theory bridge the gap between behavioral and cognitive learning theories? 13) Mr. Swan had made it through his first semester of teaching industrial technology at Lindberg Middle School. For the most part, he felt good about his teaching relationships with students and other faculty, and the support he received from his principal. One problem kept him from being completely pleased with this job, however. Two students who were difficult to handle during his first semester computer drafting class had signed up to take his electronics class for the second semester. Mr. Swan's concern was that the two might continue to talk loudly, use tools inappropriately, hit at each other, and bother other students as they had done in the drafting class. Talking to them didn't seem to help. When the lunch bell rang, Mr. Swan headed for the teachers' lounge as he did every day. He appreciated having time to talk with other adults and today he had a question for his colleagues. "Stewart Bell and Annie Hanks are in my electronic class this term. When I had them last term, they were difficult. Can you give me some ideas about what to do with them when they misbehave?" Several of the teachers had ideas for Mr. Swan, so he grabbed a paper and pencil and proceeded to write down their suggestions. After school he took out the paper and looked at the ideas he had listed: ● Make a contract with them. Tell them they have three times to misbehave, then you will send them to the principal. ● The contract idea is good, but reward their good behavior rather than punish their bad behavior. ● Make them come to your class before or after school to do extra assignments. ● If you ignore their behavior, it will stop. ● Give them detention, then call their parents. ● Talk to them privately about their behavior. Explain how they will be punished, then follow through. ● Give them a failing grade for the day. Using a behaviorist's perspective, identify strategies (from the above list) that you would consider effective and those you would consider ineffective. Explain your rationale. 60Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 6 Information Processing and Cognitive Theories of Learning Multiple Choice Questions 1) The cognitive theory of learning that describes how individuals take in, work with, store, and retrieve information about the world is called: a) behaviorism. b) dual code. c) serial learning. d) information processing. 2) One of the educational implications of the sensory register is that: a) without attention, information received by the senses is quickly lost, and will not be remembered. b) learning difficulties occur when we are conscious of all the information stored in our sensory registers. c) learning is a slow process because the sensory register holds only a few items. d) reinforcement is necessary if learners are to retain information. 3) When the senses receive stimuli, the mind immediately begins working on some of them. Therefore, the sensory images of which we are conscious are not exactly the same as what we saw, heard, or felt. Which of the following terms relates most closely to these statements? a) Perception b) Reception c) Attention d) Registration 4) Which of the following statements about attention is accurate? a) One way to gain attention is to reduce emotional content of subject matter. b) Attention is the tendency to organize stored memories. 61Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) Attention is a limited resource. d) Attention is the mental repetition of information. 5) What is the name for the component of memory that holds current thoughts? a) Permanent memory b) Working memory c) Episodic memory d) Sensory register 6) The process of maintaining a thought in working memory is called: a) elaboration. b) automaticity. c) repository. d) rehearsal. 7) Which of the following terms describes the capacity of working memory? a) limited b) long-term c) network d) random 8) Human beings often complain about having poor memories. This inadequacy of the memory system is primarily due to: a) the small capacity of long-term memory. b) too many items permanently stored in working memory. c) difficulties in gaining access to information in long-term memory. d) the limited storage capacity of the sensory registers. 62Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 9) A teacher tries to help a student recall an event that took place during a field trip to the natural history museum by saying, "Remember, it was the time when you went off to see the skeletons." Which memory component was most directly involved? a) Short-term memory b) Massed practice c) Episodic memory d) Semantic memory 10) Semantic memory would be most directly involved in trying to remember: a) how to drive a car with a stick shift. b) information from a textbook. c) which classes you took last semester. d) the names of one's new classmates as they are introduced. 11) Schemata consist of: a) recall strategies through which episodic memory is accessed. b) frameworks for organizing ideas in memory. c) whatever information we are conscious of at a given moment. d) strategies or game plans for solving problems. 12) Two students are shown a variety of tools in a woodworking class. The first one is asked to name the tools and the second is asked to indicate several possible uses of each tool. Later, they are asked to recall which tools they were shown. What would be predicted by levels-of-processing theory? a) The second student will remember more tools. b) The first student will remember more tools. c) There is no way to determine who will remember more tools. d) They will remember the same amount of tools. 63Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 13) A seventh-grade middle school science teacher wants students to know a particular organism they studied under a microscope. Based on the dual code theory, what is the best strategy for students to use? a) Naming it and repeating the name b) Touching it c) Viewing it at different magnifications under the microscope d) Seeing it and naming it 14) In a research study, subjects were asked to count backwards by threes while trying to memorize nonsense letters. A major implication of the findings was: a) a mechanical task such as counting cannot be performed if long-term memory is filled to capacity. b) short-term memory involves random rather than sequential access. c) interference does not occur if two sets of stimuli are unrelated. d) interference occurs when people are unable to rehearse information in short-term memory. 15) Which of the following is an example of proactive inhibition? a) A North American driver who is used to driving on the right side of the road has difficulty driving in England where they drive on the left. b) A student forgets the name of last year's teachers when meeting this year's instructors. c) A student says each letter of the alphabet while trying to think of an old friend's last name. d) Emily can play her first song on the violin very well, until she learns a second song. After learning the second song she has trouble remembering the first. 16) Which of the following is an example of retroactive facilitation? a) A student starts playing racquetball and finds that her tennis skills decline. b) A student finds that his old typing skills give him a real advantage in learning to use a word processor. 64Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) A student is able to remember the name of each teacher she had from kindergarten through high school. d) After taking a music theory course, a student finds that his piano playing improves. 17) An example of proactive facilitation would be: a) learning piano first, which may help a student later learn conducting. b) learning the wrong spelling of a name first, which later creates difficulty in learning the correct spelling. c) learning Spanish first, which may help an English-speaking student learn Italian (a language similar to Spanish). d) learning Spanish, which may help an English-speaking student better understand English. 18) An educational application of the primacy and recency effect is to: a) cover the most important or most difficult concepts in the middle part of a lecture. b) provide a preview of the next period, at the end of class, rather than a review of what was covered today. c) whenever possible, start a class with seatwork, teach new material, and then end the class with seatwork. d) teach important materials at the beginning or end of class and deal with administrative tasks in the middle. 19) How can teachers help their students to develop automaticity? a) Be sure that certain parts of a task are practiced until they become second nature, so that more concentration can be given to other parts. b) Integrate motor skills with cognitive skills in learning new material. c) Draw on multiple memory components rather than on selected components only. d) Make some parts of a task more noticeable so that they stand out. 65Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 20) As the chair of the language department, you suggest that your new teacher of Chinese consider introducing a process to help students learn the vocabulary more easily. Which approach would be most appropriate for you to suggest, according to the text author? a) Initial letter strategy b) Pegword method c) Loci method d) Keyword method 21) A student remembers a long list of outdoor sculptures by imagining each piece on top of a different campus building, along Campus Drive. What memory strategy is being used? a) Keyword method b) Free-recall strategy c) Combinational approach d) Loci method 22) Which of the following learning tasks and memory strategies make an appropriate match? a) Paired-associate and loci method b) Free-recall and pegword method c) Serial and pegword method d) Free recall and keyword method 23) A student uses the term ROY G BIV to remember the colors of the spectrum: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. What type of memory strategy is this? a) Initial-letter b) Loci c) Rhyming d) Pegword 24) Initial-letter strategies include: a) acronyms. 66Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 b) locations. c) keywords. d) imagery. 25) Rote learning can be characterized as: a) involving arbitrary associations. b) relating new material to existing knowledge. c) underused in the traditional classroom. d) involving innate knowledge. 26) A visiting curriculum evaluation team criticized a school district for teaching too much inert knowledge. A disadvantage, they said, is that, according to educational psychologists, inert knowledge is: a) at too high a level for students in the various grades. b) useless due to the students' inability to apply it outside the classroom. c) highly difficult for teachers to present. d) only one point of view, not necessarily the correct one. 27) About half of the class (group A) knows more about the Democratic party while the other half (group B) knows more about the Republicans. The teacher presents a weeklong lesson on both parties. Which of the following is likely, based on schema theory? a) Group A will learn more about the Democrats than will group B. b) Group B will have a better attitude than group A about the parts dealing with the Republicans. c) Group B will learn more about the Democrats than will group A. d) Both groups should learn the same amount about both parties. 28) Schemata are believed to be organized hierarchically with: a) general categories grouped under specific information. b) recent events grouped under earlier events. 67Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) earlier events grouped under more recent events. d) specific information grouped under general categories. 29) What is the term for the process in which students identify main ideas and then diagram connections between them? a) Summarization b) PQ4R method c) Mapping d) Note taking 30) The four Rs in the acronym PQ4R stand for: a) ready, recite, respond, and repeat. b) read, reflect, recite, and review. c) recite, react, reflect, and remedy. d) repeat, react, recite, and respond. 31) A teacher planned to take a class to the art museum for the first time. Before the trip, the teacher shared prints illustrating how the artwork at the museum is grouped into historical periods. When the actual visit took place, students saw many works of art (for the first time) and were amazed at how readily they were learning to recognize them. The orientation process students experienced is referred to as: a) an analogy. b) loci method. c) an advance organizer. d) outlining. 32) What is the term used by cognitive psychologists to refer to the process of thinking about material to be learned in a way that connects the material to information or ideas already in the learner's mind? a) Elaboration 68Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 b) Free recall c) Metacognition d) Compacting 33) A professor is teaching about the lymph system and uses the example of water moving through a sponge. This is an example of which cognitive teaching strategy? a) Levels of processing b) Advance organizer c) Keyword d) Analogies 34) According to the text author, which of the following strategies facilitates learning and remembering? a) Avoiding the use of advance organizers b) Isolating new learning from the students' established schemata c) Organizing information into a hierarchy d) Using analogies that are similar to the information being learned 35) Which of the following forms of test taking requires the learner to engage in high-level processing of content and thereby enhancing memory and understanding? a) Fill in the blank b) Multiple choice c) Constructed response d) Matching 36) Failing to make decisions about which study material is most relevant to the issues at hand is one example of the disadvantages of which of the following study strategies? a) Practice tests b) Note-taking c) Underlining 69Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) Summarizing 37) Research has not detailed the conditions in which this study strategy can increase comprehension or the retention of written material. a) Practice tests b) Note-taking c) Underlining d) Summarizing 38) By engaging in this study strategy, a student identifies main ideas, then diagrams connections between them. a) Outlining b) PQ4R method c) Writing to learn d) Concept mapping 39) Graphs, charts, and tables can lose their effectiveness for organization if they: a) contain too much information. b) are not color coded. c) include too many examples. d) provided by the textbook 40) This part of long-term memory is responsible for the storage of the ability and knowledge to do activities. a) Episodic memory b) Semantic memory c) Procedural memory d) Sensory registry 41) The duration of this structure of memory can last up to four seconds. a) Sensory b) Short-term c) Long-term 70Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) Frontal 42) This phase of memory capacity can hold up to seven items. a) Sensory b) Short-term c) Long-term d) Frontal Essay Questions 1) Characterize working memory in terms of its limitations. With two examples from your experience or personal observation, illustrate how an excessive load on working memory can cause problems in learning tasks, skills (such as reading or writing), or problem solving. Describe a situation in which a learner could use practice, or a learning strategy, to help overcome learning problems caused by working memory overload. Using concepts from the information-processing model, explain how the practice or learning strategy aids learning. 2) Explain the basic ideas of levels-of-processing theory, using an example to illustrate your explanation. How do the research findings that support levels-of-processing theory help us understand why some study strategies, such as highlighting, are not always effective? 3) Does practice make perfect? Include in your response a discussion about massed vs. distributed practice, automaticity, and enactment. 4) Three types of verbal learning tasks are typically seen in classrooms. What are they? Give several examples of each. The choice of a learning strategy should depend on the nature of the material to be learned. For two of the types of tasks you described above, suggest strategies that would be effective for classroom learning, and explain why each of these strategies suits its task. 5) A teacher was excited when all of his fourth-grade students were able to reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. On a test he had given, the students were able to reduce, for 71Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 example, 18/20 to 9/10 and 18/24 to 3/4 correctly. The teacher told his class how pleased he was with their performance, then he said, "For a review, let me ask you which you would prefer: 18 pieces of a cake that has been cut into 24 pieces or 3 pieces of a cake that has been cut into 4 pieces?" To his astonishment, the teacher listened as half the class said they would prefer 18 pieces because there were more pieces, and the other half said they would prefer 3 pieces because they were bigger. Explain what happened with the students, by discussing rote versus meaningful learning. 6) Think about a schema for a familiar idea, such as types-of-punishment, or Erickson's 5th stage. Draw a representation of that schema, using the "bison" example in Figure 6.3 in the textbook as a model. Now imagine that you are going to teach that idea to someone younger, or less-informed about the subject. Draw a representation of what that learner's schema might be like. Summarize the difference between these two individuals' schemata. If you were in fact teaching the concept to the learner whose schema you described, how would you address the differences between the learner's schema, and your own? Specifically, what are two things you would do as a teacher, that take into account the limited schema of your student? 7) What does the research say about note taking, underlining, and summarizing as effective or ineffective study strategies? 8) List the steps of the PQ4R method and describe its usefulness. 9) As a teacher, what classroom strategies could you use to help students memorize either of the following lists? Dinosaur protoceratops tyrannosaur triceratops brachiosaur iguanodon trachodon rhamphorhyncus allosaur archaeopteryx brontosaur Food tortilla crepe tortellini baguette enchilada ravioli croissant frittata fajita ziti lasagna fondue 72Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Extended thinking. Increasing the meaningfulness of material must involve the use of information already stored in the learner's long-term memory. Using the information processing model, explain why one strategy you described above would involve both: (1) the flow of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, AND (2) the flow of information from long-term memory to short-term memory. 10) Elaine Hanley teaches at Maple Hills High School in a large suburban community. Her third period advanced placement history students completed their first exam of the year and they were not happy with the results. Mrs. Hanley knew the students would be concerned. Most of them were applying at competitive colleges across the nation, so grades and grade point averages were a part of their daily discussions. "I'm doomed!" cried a student who Mrs. Hanley knew was applying to Carlston University, a prestigious nearby institution. "I'll never get into Carlston now!" "Mrs. Hanley, what can we do?" asked another member of the class. "I'm not sure it's worth taking this advanced placement class if all I can get is a C on the exam. I'd be better off in the regular history class getting A’s." "Instead of changing classes," declared Mrs. Hanley, "let's figure out some study strategies that will help you get high grades on my tests. First of all, what's different about my tests? Why are they more difficult for you?" "You make us know the stuff. In most classes we just write down what the teacher says, memorize it, then take the exam." Mrs. Hanley replied, "Well, you're right, I want you to do more than memorize history. What study strategies do you use? Monica?" "First of all, I take notes in class, then rewrite them when I get home. I underline important points, which is just about everything I write down. Then I read and reread until I think I have a page of notes memorized." Next Mrs. Hanley asks, "Alex, how do you study for tests?" "I don't take many notes, but listen carefully to what the teacher says. When I study my text, I just start from the beginning and read until I'm finished. That usually works for me." After listening to other students about their study habits, Mrs. Hanley announced, "I think I can help you study for my tests by suggesting some different strategies than those you are now using." 73Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Using the information from the chapter, discuss whether or not the strategies suggested by the students are effective. If they are effective strategies, what makes them effective? If they are ineffective, what makes them so? What additional strategies do you think Elaine Hanley will suggest to her students? 74Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 7 The Effective Lesson Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of the following statements about direct instruction is correct? a) Direct instruction requires students to provide accurate learning models to peers. b) Cooperative learning and discovery are two types of direct instruction. c) Direct instruction is a teaching approach in which lessons are directed by students. d) In a direct instruction lesson, teachers transmit information directly to students. 2) Which of the following ideas about direct instruction does recent research best support? a) Direct instruction alone is the most effective teaching method. b) Direct instruction is the least efficient method for student development of concepts. c) Direct instruction can be more efficient than discovery learning for conceptual development. d) Direct instruction is the most efficient method of teaching. 3) Ms. Gismegian is presenting a direct instruction lesson on verbs to her students. What is her first step? a) Give students learning probes and provide feedback on seatwork where students underline the verbs. b) State the learning objectives and orient students to the lesson. c) Present students with new learning material on action verbs. d) Give students time for independent practice in listing action verbs. 4) Mr. Sherbloom is teaching a lesson on federal law and wants to be certain students are grasping the information. Which step in a direct instruction should Mr. Sherbloom utilize to obtain a brief student response to lesson content, in order to assess level of understanding and correct students' misconceptions? a) Provide distributed practice and review. 75Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 b) Conduct learning probes. c) Orient students to the lesson. d) Present new material. 5) What is the best way for a middle-school teacher to communicate objectives to students? a) List objectives that students have already met. b) Introduce objectives at the end of the lesson. c) State objectives at the beginning of a lesson. d) Take steps to avoid establishing "mental set." 6) Ms. Falkenhain wants to establish a positive mental set (the attitude of readiness) in her students before beginning an important health lesson. She should try to arouse student curiosity by: a) waiting at least five minutes to allow the students to calm down for instruction. b) having students open textbooks to the first page of the chapter in the health text. c) emphasizing the subject's seriousness for community health. d) making the health concept personally relevant to students. 7) Mr. Dudley is teaching a prerequisite skill for developing a business model. After students have been oriented to the lesson, Mr. Dudley’s next major task is to: a) provide wait time so that the class can get focused. b) tell a personal business experience. c) check whether students have mastered prerequisite skills. d) tell students that they will be tested on the material at a later time so they can prepare themselves accordingly. 8) Ms. White, in conducting a lesson, draws attention to what students had learned previously by saying, "Yesterday we learned how to find the area of a rectangle. Who will remind us how this is done?" Ms. White believes that this brief reminder is sufficient because today's 76Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 lesson—finding the area of a triangle—is a direct continuation of yesterday's. Which of the following strategies does the example reflect? a) Reviewing prerequisites b) Using wait time c) Applying a rule-example-rule pattern d) Evaluating student work 9) Mr. Sains begins a lesson in chemistry by discussing the symbols for each of the elements. Part way into the lesson the teacher refers to chapters and class work the students will have in six months. At another point Mr. Sains expresses dissatisfaction with the administration's new policy regarding equipment security, which will now require more paperwork. Mr. Sains then talks about an event that took place during spring vacation. The class period ends before he finishes the lesson. What appears to be the overriding problem of Mr. Sain's lecture style? a) There is a lack of clarity in the lesson presentation. b) The lesson includes abstract elements. c) The teacher should not share personal information with students. d) The teacher does not vary the topics. 10) Ms. Hurteau wants to help her students learn and retain information. Which of the following strategies to promote learning and retention of information is best supported by research? a) Using embedded video lessons b) Giving lengthy homework assignments c) Introducing spoken word documentaries d) Asking students to repeat facts verbally 11) Research on instructional pace suggests that most teachers could: a) increase their pace of instruction considerably, even if that means that some students will not be able to be successful. b) slow down a moderate amount in their instruction. c) increase the pace of instruction as long as degree of understanding is not sacrificed. 77Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) slow down considerably. 12) Using humor in an introduction to a lesson is generally: a) negative, because it compromises the authority of the teacher. b) positive, because it adds lesson clarity. c) negative, because it gets students off task. d) positive, because it can establish a positive learning set. 13) Which is most often the appropriate amount of time for a teacher to pause after asking a question before restating the question or moving on? a) 1 second b) 3 seconds c) 10 seconds d) 20 seconds 14) The length of time a teacher allows a student to answer a question, before prompting or redirecting the question, is called: a) mental set. b) delay interval. c) wait time. d) attention span. 15) Mrs. Davis calls on a student who seems unprepared to answer the question. Mrs. Davis restates the question and stays with the student, who is having difficulty responding. How would your text author evaluate this approach? a) It is not a good approach because it places the student and teacher in a power struggle. b) It is not a good approach because it communicates negative expectations to the student. c) It is a good approach because it shows the teacher's authority. 78Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) It is a good approach because it communicates positive expectations to the student. 16) Which of the following is true about choral responding? a) It is overused by teachers. b) It is more effective for learning than individual questioning. c) It is recommended primarily for questions having only one correct answer. d) It should be oral and audible, not conveyed through gestures. 17) Mr. Grimshaw uses frequent questioning of students, calling on those who raise their hands to respond. Your textbook author would evaluate this procedure as: a) limited, because students who do not volunteer will escape having to respond. b) effective, because it avoids having to call on people and possibly embarrassing them. c) effective, because volunteers usually give correct responses. d) effective, because it treats all students equally across a wide range of ability. 18) In conducting learning probes, a drawback of factual questions is that they: a) require longer wait times than do conceptual questions. b) are not effective for developing conceptual skills. c) are unsuitable for use with choral response. d) have little effect on students' factual skills. 19) Which of the following recommendations regarding independent practice is most appropriate? a) Limit the amount of instructions and directions, to encourage student independence. b) Make the assignments highly challenging. c) Keep the assignments fairly short. d) Orient much of the assignment around new material that will soon be introduced. 79Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 20) A high success rate on independent practice work can be accomplished in two ways. First, assignments should be clear and self-explanatory covering content appropriate for the students. Second: a) assignments should be at least 30 minutes long, to allow students to get involved. b) students should rarely be given independent practice worksheets until the teacher has determined, through learning probes, that they can handle the material. c) students should be given independent practice worksheets so that the teacher can determine whether or not they have mastered the material. d) to minimize student anxiety, teachers should avoid such actions as walking around the room or evaluating students' work. 21) What changes in typical current practices are suggested by the direct teaching model described in your textbook? a) Increase the amount of independent practice. b) Increase the frequency of testing. c) Slow the instructional pace. d) Decrease the amount of feedback provided to students. 22) Retention of learned material is increased when practice is spaced over time. What implication does that statement have for teachers? a) When teachers plan lessons, they will have to set aside time for students to respond to questions. b) Reviewing and recapitulating important information from earlier lessons enhances learning. c) Reviewing and recapitulating important information from earlier lessons will not interest students. d) Students who are in year-round school programs will find homework to be difficult. 23) Studies of the Direct Instruction (DI) program have shown that it is: a) successful in raising math scores for females and reading scores for males. b) somewhat damaging for lower-ability students' self-esteem. 80Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) successful in teaching problem-solving strategies and in raising IQ scores. d) effective in increasing long-term success of students at risk for low achievement. 24) Outside of school, how are we most likely to learn concepts? a) From tutors b) Through television and magazines c) By observing how others name things. d) Through family members' help in interpreting formal (dictionary-like) definitions. 25) An important thing to know about the transfer of learning is that it: a) always occurs when the degree of similarity between concepts is low. b) never occurs when the degree of similarity between concepts is high. c) can be assumed to have occurred, as long as the teacher has presented the lesson clearly. d) cannot be assumed to have occurred. 26) The evaluation of an "explicit transfer" technique in third-grade math classes found that: a) only students above the third-grade level can learn the technique. b) students can be taught explicitly to transfer skills to new circumstances. c) students can be taught the transfer technique if their IQs are above average. d) students at this level cannot be taught to transfer learned skills to new circumstances. 27) Ms. LeBeau is planning to have a whole-class discussion on the effects of television violence on children. Before beginning the discussion, what should Ms. LeBeau do? a) Ms. LeBeau should question students about their understanding of the effects of television violence on children. b) Ms. LeBeau should take a position on this issue in order to set the tone for the discussion. c) Ms. LeBeau should give students the opportunity to choose members of their groups. 81Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) Ms. LeBeau should list the students to be called upon. 28) Mr. Witte has been using whole-class discussion but decides to try small-group discussion. What change will Mr. Witte need to make? a) With small-group discussion, the topics will have to be less controversial. b) Small-group discussion will require more direct teacher involvement. c) Mr. Witte will need to appoint group leaders. d) Mr. Witte will need less time to prepare students for the topic to be discussed. 29) In determining the sequence of events of the elements of effective instruction, what does the first step involve? a) Opportunity to practice the skill. b) Assessment of the skill. c) Introduction of the skills needed for the lesson. d) Providing students with visual aids. 30) “The Democrats were wrong on this issue, weren’t they?” is an example of which pitfall of questioning strategies? a) Leading questions b) Same level questioning c) Misdirection questioning d) Failure to use a random questioning pattern 31) Which of the following is transfer of learning that involves the application of items taught in isolation of the classroom to a day-to-day application? a) Initial learning b) Real-life transfer of learning c) Learning in context d) Explicit transfer 82Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 32) A whole-class discussion differs from the traditional lesson in that the teacher: a) plays a more enhanced role. b) plays a less dominant role. c) is responsible for the direction of the discussion. d) leads the question and answer period Essay Questions 1) Make a list of questions you need to answer before you teach a lesson. 2) A teacher has spent the week teaching about women's suffrage in the United States during the late 1800s. Below is an outline of a lesson for today. Read the lesson, then write a short description of a lesson that might have preceded this one and one that might follow. I. Women's Suffrage (late 19th century) A. National Women Suffrage Association worked to increase congressional support for a constitutional amendment. B. Suffragists attempted to cast ballots in elections and to test voting rights in the courts. 1. Susan B. Anthony attempted to vote (early 1870s) and sued when she was prevented from doing so, but lost. 2. Sojourner Truth was turned away before she could obtain a ballot. C. Congress did not seem to be moving toward support for an amendment. 3) Based on the text's discussion of direct instruction, develop a set of 3–5 guidelines for teachers, on presenting new material. For each guideline, explain how it will help students learn, and give an example of how a teacher would implement it. 83Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 4) In teaching by direct instruction, at what steps in the lesson will a teacher need to assess students' skills or knowledge? At each of these steps, what is the purpose of the assessment? 5) How well do findings from research support the effectiveness of the direct instruction approach? What research questions still need to be considered? 6) Classroom lessons often focus on teaching concepts—categories under which specific elements may be grouped—in two ways. What are the ways? Give an example of each. If you were teaching the concept of positive reinforcement, you would be selecting examples to aid student learning. Describe the sorts of examples you would use: to ease initial learning, and then to maximize students' ability to apply the concept to new situations. 7) A teacher is a firm believer in teaching for transfer. If the teacher is to teach a lesson on grammar for fifth graders, what activities might be included? 8) How is a whole-class discussion activity different from a typical (e.g., direction instruction) lesson? What type of information is learned best through discussion? 9) How is small-group discussion different from whole-class discussion? What is the role of the leader during a small-group discussion activity? 10) After three years of declining achievement test scores, the West Rockaway school board voted 12–1 in favor of adopting a standard direct instruction model for use by all teachers in the district. Their rationale was that if all teachers were trained and were required to use the model, student achievement would improve. During the fall inservice, teachers received training and were told to post the steps of the model in their classrooms, and use it for all their lessons. Dr. Feinman, an elementary principal in the district who attended the inservice, thought to herself, "This is a great idea. I can evaluate my teachers on how well they can follow the steps of the model. No more heated discussions with teachers who argue that a poor evaluation is just a difference of opinion in teaching philosophies." Across the table from Dr. Feinman sat Mr. Casey, a third-grade teacher at West Rockaway Elementary School where Dr. Feinman was principal. His thoughts were the opposite of his supervisor. "This is a sad day for teachers. First we're given curriculum guides from the state, lesson plans from textbook manufacturers, and now we're being told that we have to teach in one 84Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 way and one way only. What was the point of all those years of college to learn how to teach? Doesn't anyone trust me to be professional?" From what you have learned in the chapter, discuss the school board's plan. Do you think the plan will work? Why or why not? Discuss what the school might be like after six months, a year, and five years after implementation of the plan. 11) Rank in order the following steps of a direct instruction lesson. ________ present new material ________ provide independent practice ________ orient students to the lesson ________ assess performance and provide feedback ________ state learning objective ________ provide distributed practice and review ________ review prerequisites ________ conduct learning probes 12) An integral component of learning is readiness. Name the term for an "attitude of readiness," and describe ways that teachers can establish an attitude of readiness in students. When should this be done? 85Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 8 Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction Multiple Choice Questions 1) Constructivist theories of learning are based on the idea that learners: a) individually discover and transform complex information. b) participate in bottom-up instruction. c) are compliant recipients of knowledge. d) should be placed in constructive ability groups. 2) What role should the teacher play in the classroom when using a constructivist approach? a) Interested bystander b) Conveyer of knowledge c) Facilitator d) Remediator 3) Vygotsky's constructivist theories are characterized by four key concepts for classroom instruction: zone of proximal development; cognitive apprenticeship; scaffolding or mediated learning; and: a) social learning. b) shaping. c) receptive learning. d) schemata learning. 4) Which of the following teaching strategies would a constructivist be most likely to advocate? a) Direct instruction b) Timed tests c) Drill and practice d) Cooperative learning 86Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 5) Constructivist approaches to teaching typically make extensive use of cooperative learning. Why is this? a) Students understand concepts better if they can talk with each other. b) There is less need to challenge students' misconceptions. c) It allows teachers time to work individually with students. d) It gives the teacher opportunities to research other methods. 6) Which one of the following statements applies to discovery learning? a) Math and reading are the most suitable subjects for this approach. b) Knowledge is a product, not a process. c) Teachers encourage students to experiment and discover. d) No teacher input is permitted during a discovery lesson. 7) Eddie is a seventh grader who knows how to break complex problems into simpler steps, how and when to skim, and how and when to read for deep understanding. What key concept of constructivist theories of learning best describes Eddie? a) Reflective thinker b) Self-regulated learner c) Dependent learner d) Impulsive thinker 8) Which of the following statements best characterizes scaffolding? a) The teacher's role is consistent throughout a set of lessons. b) As a set of lessons progresses, students are given more and more structure. c) The teacher gradually assigns the students more responsibility for their learning. d) The teacher initially gives the students major responsibility for their learning, and then reduces it over time. 87Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 9) Discovery learning promotes the advantage of arousing student curiosity and motivation. Which of the following is the most commonly used form of discovery learning? a) regulated discovery learning where the teacher requires students to follow strict rules. b) approximate discovery learning where students theorize approximate details. c) guided discovery learning where the teacher gives clues and structures portions of an activity. d) self-discovery learning where students use their own schemata and perceptions. 10) Who is the primary cultural agent guiding instruction in assisted (or mediated) learning? a) A student b) The teacher c) An author d) An outside resource person (e.g., librarian) 11) Which of the following is the best example of reciprocal teaching? a) The teacher asks a small group of students questions about material they have just read. Later, the students model the teacher's behavior, generating their own questions for the group. b) After the teacher has presented a lesson, students work in teams, making sure that all team members learn the material. c) Each student from a group becomes an "expert" on a different segment of the overall assignment. Then they put the segments together, like a puzzle. d) Students discover principles by conducting experiments on their own. 12) Mr. Overby is initiating reciprocal teaching with a group of six students of high, average, and low ability. Who should be the teacher for the first segment of learning? a) Mr. Overby b) a student of low ability c) a student of high ability d) a student of average ability 88Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 13) Ms. Fannin is using a reciprocal teaching approach in reading. She assigns and passage for them to read. What is the next step? a) Predict what will happen. b) Complete a pretest. c) Develop a list of goals. d) Generate questions. 14) Mr. Wright uses a constructive writing process in his class. In Mr. Wright’s class students work: a) with detailed outlines of expectations. b) in small groups or teams working together. c) individually on assigned lessons. d) with tutors who scaffold them. 15) The Student Teams-Achievement Division involves: a) cooperative learning within small mixed ability groups. b) competition between individuals, within their small homogenous groups. c) small-group preparation for standardized assessments. d) achievement division standards applied to grade level. 16) What component of STAD is designed to give each team member an equal opportunity to contribute to the team points? a) Points are based on improvement rather than absolute score. b) Students take the quizzes in groups. c) Teams are composed of like-ability members. d) Any student who passes earns the maximum number of points. 17) Which of the following type of objectives is most appropriate for cooperative learning methods such as STAD? 89Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) affective b) psychomotor c) well-defined d) unspecific 18) Ms. Eagen uses a Jigsaw II cooperative learning group activity in her language arts class. Each member of the group receives a topic on which to: a) write an essay. b) develop an outline. c) teach the whole class. d) become an expert. 19) In the Learning Together a model of cooperative learning, students work in: a) homogeneous groups. b) randomly-assigned groups. c) heterogeneous groups. d) self selected groups. 20) Cooperative learning methods fall into two broad categories. One category might be called group study methods. The second category is project-based learning or collaborative learning also known as: a) active learning. b) passive learning. c) observational learning. d) well-structured problem solving. 21) Research has favored cooperative learning in cases where two essential conditions are met. First, there must be some kind of recognition or small reward provided to groups that do well so that group members can see that it is in their interest to help their group-mates learn. What is the second essential condition? a) Whole-class accountability 90Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 b) Group accountability c) Teacher accountability d) Individual accountability 22) One study found that students in schools were a variety of cooperative learning methods in all subjects were used for a two-year period, differed from students in schools using traditional teaching approaches. How did they differ? a) High- and low-achieving students from cooperative learning schools were not helped by cooperative learning, but those with average achievement levels benefited dramatically. b) Students from cooperative learning schools achieved less in reading and math than students from traditional schools. c) Students from cooperative learning schools achieved significantly more than students from traditional schools. d) Students from cooperative learning schools achieved less than students from traditional schools. 23) In the general problem-solving strategy IDEAL, what does the A stand for? a) Anticipate outcomes and act. b) Argue the point. c) Analyze possible strategies. d) Answer the question. 24) Given a problem to solve, beginners tend to jump right into proposing solutions, while experts tend to spend time thinking about the underlying causes of the problem, and interpreting it from different perspectives. Which step in the IDEAL model are the beginners neglecting? a) Explore possible strategies. b) Anticipate outcomes and act. c) Look back and learn. d) Define goals and represent the problem. 91Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 25) The question "What is the difference between where I am now and where I want to be?" is a critical step in: a) inductive reasoning. b) means-ends analysis. c) expository learning. d) discovery learning. 26) In general, people who do well on tests of creative problem solving: a) resolve issues conceding to the group. b) are impulsive, quick thinkers. c) are reluctant to change. d) do not worry about making mistakes. 27) One important principle of creative problem solving is to: a) quickly find a solution. b) realize that the solution may be impossible. c) seek the expertise of those who have greater knowledge of the problem. d) avoid rushing to a solution. 28) What is the term for considering all possibilities before trying out a solution? a) Suspension of disbelief b) Suspension of judgment c) Ends-means analysis d) Means-ends analysis 29) During the incubation period of problem solving teachers must avoid: a) interacting with students. b) allowing students to work together. 92Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) putting time pressures on students. d) providing information that could foster in-depth thinking. 30) Which of the following is a motivational factor that enhances students' creative problem solving by affecting their feelings? a) Means-ends analysis b) Instrumental Enrichment c) Appropriate climate d) Incubation 31) Providing students with a great deal of practice on a wide variety of problem types is essential for skill development, but practice alone is not sufficient unless the practice includes: a) extensive direct instruction. b) an absence of teacher interference and feedback. c) feedback on their solutions, and on the process by which they arrived at the solutions. d) freedom from teacher analysis and coding. 32) Mr. Allen’s class is discussing potential solutions to world hunger. He has asked his students to come up with as many solutions to solving the world hunger problem as they can think of, no matter how seemingly unrealistic. What is this problem solving process called? a) brainstorming b) critical thinking c) feedback d) wasted time 33) During the incubation period teachers should value: a) ingenuity and careful thought. b) superficial responses. c) the speed at which students can finish problems. 93Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) individual accountability. 34) Studies of the Instrumental Enrichment treatment have found that the program has positive effects on: a) both achievement and tests of aptitude. b) tests of emotional intelligence. c) achievement, but not on tests of aptitude. d) tests of aptitude, but generally not on achievement. 35) Which of the following phrases best characterizes critical thinking? a) Focus on correct answer rather than reasons for an answer b) Tolerate misleading interpretations of facts c) Incubate irrational ideas d) Recognize logical inconsistencies 36) Ms. Hurteau’s eighth-grade class is using a cooperative learning strategy to discuss ramifications of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Which of the following is a specific skill Ms. Hurteau’s students will need in the cooperative learning setting? a) Active listening b) Self directed learning c) Metacognition d) Means-end analysis 37) In cooperative scripting, the greatest gains in student performance often occur when: a) the students serve as the teacher. b) the student serves as the listener. c) the student serves as the recorder. d) the teacher serves as the teacher. 38) Cooperative learning methods fall into which of these two broad categories? 94Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) Study method and visual learning b) Study method and active learning c) Passive learning and common assessments a) Individual learning and common assessments 39) In comparing cooperative learning to traditional teaching methods, most research consistently favors cooperative learning, provided that two essential conditions are met. According to our text, there should be some group recognition and there must also be: a) group assessment. b) extended learning duration. c) individual accountability. d) continuous instructor feedback. 40) An important goal of teaching critical thinking to students is to create: a) a critical spirit. b) a compliant student. c) a successful test taker. d) a gifted student. 41) One key to the teaching of problem solving is providing problems that: a) require students to learn from lecture and discussion. b) intrigue and engage students. c) instruct students about moral dilemmas. d) feel challenging. 42) Why is individual accountability such an essential component of cooperative learning? a) One student might do the work of others b) Students might argue over group roles c) The classroom may become chaotic and out of order d) The teacher will be free of the need to provide feedback 95Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Essay Questions 1) Explain how Vygotsky's theories of learning and development have influenced constructivism. 2) How do cooperative learning approaches fit a constructivist model? More specifically, identify features of cooperative learning that incorporate a constructivist view of the learner, and explain how those features reflect constructivism. 3) Give an example of a teacher's introduction to students of reciprocal teaching, to help them attend to what they are reading. 4) A teacher assigned each student in the class to a six-member group to work on a lesson. Each group is assigned to a section of the text chapter. The teacher then reassigns each group member to another group in which each student knows about the same section of the chapter. This group reviews together; then each member returns to her or his original group. What type of classroom activity is this? Explain how the characteristics of the scenario described above correspond to the defining features of the method you identified. Describe one change the teacher could make in this lesson while maintaining the same method. Indicate one way in which this lesson reflects a constructivist approach to learning. 5) A teacher wants to encourage team building in students. What type of cooperative learning method would you recommend the teacher use? Explain your choice. 6) What does the research say about the effectiveness of cooperative learning as compared with more traditional teaching methods? 7) Ms. Aretti likes her 7th graders this year, but there is one student, Mira, who is very shy. Mira never speaks up in class. Ms. Aretti can only get her to whisper an answer when called on. There are many ways that Ms. Aretti could try to help Mira, but the problem calls for creative problem solving—it is not well structured. 96Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Illustrate how two of the following might be helpful to Ms. Aretti's thinking, as she tries to solve her classroom problem: incubation; suspension of judgment; appropriate climates; analysis. Think of the two strategies you illustrated, as they relate to the IDEAL model of problem solving. For each strategy, explain why it would be relevant when performing one of the steps in IDEAL. 8) How is creative problem solving different from traditional, analytical problem solving? 9) How would you create a "culture of thinking" in your classroom? 10) Davis Brookline is the newly appointed chair of the history department at Cool Ridge High School, which is a large, underfunded, urban school. On the first day of the new academic year, Davis meets with his 10 history colleagues. Some of them are seasoned teachers, some are new to the district, and some are new to teaching. "We're going to do things differently this year, people," he tells his colleagues. "Over the summer, I attended a workshop about taking the classroom back from students. We talked about teachers' rights, teacher control, and assertive and firm discipline. Things have gotten out of control here at Cool Ridge—students have too much power—and I intend to regain control!" One of Davis Brookline's colleagues asks, "What do you mean you intend to regain control? You sound a little like a drill sergeant, Davis." "Exactly!" stated Davis. "This history department is going to be tough. Students will have to earn each and every grade they get the hard way—through drill and practice and weekly written tests, which we will grade on a curve. Those students who don't get in line will pay the consequences." "Don't we have any say about how we want to teach?" asked another colleague. "I don't agree that your method is the best way to reach students, especially some who have outside problems to deal with." "We're not helping students by letting them off the hook. Yes, some have problems, but getting tough is the only way to teach them to survive in this city." What are some of the issues raised in the above scenario? How do Davis Brookline's beliefs about teaching compare to constructivist approaches to instruction? 11) Ms. MacIver asked her senior math students to solve the following problem: 97Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Make three rows of three dots on a piece of paper. Without lifting your pencil, and using four straight lines, connect all of the dots. The students tried to solve the problem, but could not. Ms. MacIver then said to her students, "I'll show you how to connect the dots." She then drew the following solution on the overhead. "You have to go outside the boundaries of the dots in order to solve the problem," explained Ms. MacIver. How did the students initially represent the problem? In other words, state how the students described the problem to themselves—how they pictured it, interpreted it or defined it? Explain how the students' representation of the problem interfered with finding the solution. What could students learn from this experience that might help in solving problems in the future? 98Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 9 Grouping, Differentiation, and Technology Multiple Choice Questions 1) Mr. Clements is a returning fifth-grade teacher who plans creative lessons based on grade level expectations and his students’ current level of readiness. He is careful to plan the lessons in ways which appeal to his students and encourages participation using carefully thought out questions and prompts. Mr. Clements is surprised when this year’s students are not mastering the content. Which area of Slavin’s QAIT model should Mr. Clements address? a) Quality of instruction b) Appropriate level of instruction c) Incentive d) Time 2) The amount of time you schedule for instruction and then actually use to teach is referred to as: a) Engaged time b) Allocated time c) Plan time d) Time on task 3) According to our text, which of the following is the most important aspect of quality of instruction? a) The degree to which the lesson makes sense to students b) Advanced technology that is available to all students and bridges the Digital Gap c) The extrinsic rewards provided by the instructor d) Sufficient allocated time 4) Educational psychologists have proposed models of effective instruction that help explain the critical features of high quality. One of these models is called the QAIT model. Identify the four elements of QAIT: a) Quick, Alternative, Instruction, Time b) Quiet, Achievement, Intelligence, Test c) Quality, Appropriateness, Incentive, Time 99Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) Quality, Authentic, Instruction, Task 5) When planning her lessons for the week, Mrs. Garcia keeps in mind Carroll's model of school learning. Which one of the following would she NOT consider when planning the TIME NEEDED for a particular lesson?" a) How much time students spend in out-of-classroom activities, such as physical education and library time b) What her students already know from prior lessons c) How quickly her students learn new material d) The degree to which the lesson draws on common knowledge that the students probably have learned outside the classroom 6) Quality of instruction refers to the set of activities most people first picture when they think of teaching: lecturing, calling on students, discussion and so on. Which of the following may add to the quality of instruction? a) Involving peers as peer tutors or cooperative learning partners b) Allocated time c) Incentive d) Intrinsic motivation 7) When instruction is high in quality, the information presented makes sense to students, interests them and: a) is quickly and easily mastered. b) is challenging to apply. c) is within the Zone of Proximal Development. d) is easy to remember and apply. 8) Engaging students with lesson content through methods such as cooperative activities, simulations, games or technology can: a) help make lesson concepts understandable and memorable for students. b) create allocated time for learning. c) help close the Digital Gap in learning. d) allow alignment of instructional plans with academic standards. 100Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 9) A teacher can use which element of the QAIT model to adapt the pace of instruction to meet individual student needs? a) Appropriate level of instruction b) Quality of instruction c) Incentive d) Time 10) Using the QAIT model, which would be an appropriate level of instruction? a) A level that is based on the curriculum mandated by the state or district b) A level that is intrinsically motivating for students c) A level that is neither too difficult nor too easy for students d) A level that is requested by the person or guardian 11) Ms. Rodriguez wants to provide an incentive for her students to learn. Which of the following could be considered an incentive or motivator for students? a) Ms. Rodriguez has a great deal of knowledge about the content of the lesson b) The material being taught has interest for the students c) The lesson presentation is well organized d) Students are given allocated time to complete all aspects of the assignment 12) An elementary teacher suggests between-class ability grouping for her fifth-grade team. Which of the following is an example of this type of grouping? a) Students are placed in mixed ability cooperative learning groups b) Students of high socioeconomic status mentor students of low socioeconomic status c) Students are separated into reading ability groups within the home room d) Gifted students from the fifth grade receive separate instruction 13) Although between-class ability grouping is commonly used in many schools, research suggests: a) parents prefer within-class ability grouping. b) high-track students become isolated from the other students due to low numbers of high achievers. 101Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) instruction is less effective and damaging effects have been noted for students in low track classes. d) there is greater opportunity for students to be truant in between class ability groupings. 14) According to our text, which of the following is a major disadvantage of tracking? a) African American and Latino students are disproportionately placed in less-effective, low-track classes. b) The number of low-ability students is increasing so rapidly that only the lowest-ability students are able to receive low-ability tracked instruction. c) School resources are strained as schools must purchase textbooks and materials for each ability group. d) Teachers of low-track students often give extra credit which results in grade inflation for students performing below grade level. 15) Miss Menard wants to accommodate student differences in her mixed-ability classes. Which of the following is an effective means of doing so? a) Reducing higher level thinking activities for low-ability students b) Requiring the high-ability students to complete more challenging work for comparable grading c) Establishing cooperative learning groups where students teach each other d) Establishing peer teaching where high ability student leaders provide direct instruction to low-track learners 16) Research on the achievement effects of within-class ability groupings of elementary mathematics classes shows: a) Results are inconclusive due to the infrequent employment of these methods b) Students in ability-grouped classes learned at levels comparable to students in classes without ability grouping c) Students in ability-grouped classes demonstrated lower achievement gains than did students in classes without ability grouping d) Students in ability-grouped classes demonstrated greater achievement gains than did students in classes that did not use grouping 17) What is the Joplin Plan? 102Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) A plan of instruction that enable all students to achieve instructional objective by varying allocated time b) A regrouping methods in which students are grouped across grade levels for reading instruction c) A focus on providing adequate social interaction between mixed-ability groups to improve academic achievement d) Tailoring instruction precisely to a student’s needs 18) In order for untracking to be successful, the mixed ability group should be: a) composed of different aged children with similar abilities. b) expected to achieve at different levels and graded accordingly. c) held to high standards and provided many ways to reach those standards. d) provided text and materials equivalent to their level. 19) Despite the many examples of situations where untracking is successful for the school community, opposition exists. According to our text, who typically opposes untracking? a) Teachers who are required to develop multiple lesson plans to accommodate student differences b) District administrators who will not allocate the extra funding required for untracking success c) Parents of low achievers d) Parents of high achievers 20) Several studies have shown that the quality of instruction is lower for some students when this type of grouping is practiced: a) untracking b) tracking c) The Joplin Plan d) regrouping 21) Which of the follow programs is an example of a compensatory program? a) A work-study program b) Vocational/technical program 103Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) Problem-solving programs d) Title I 22) Which results can be achieved with early intervention programs for children placed at risk of school failure? a) Long-term effects which are comparable to remediation programs b) Fewer long-term effects than remediation programs c) More long-term effects than remediation programs d) No long-term effects 23) A multimedia approach has been found to enhance student learning only if: a) The students are familiar with multimedia b) The students have computers at home c) The text and visuals directly support each other d) The students are entertained 24) Which of the following is the most common use of computers in schools? a) Skill games b) Simulations/exploratory software c) Database use d) Word processing 25) What is the primary advantage of word processing over paper-and-pencil composition? a) Students write more and take greater pride in their writing b) Students are able to improve their keyboarding skills c) It is easier to read and grade d) Word processing files are easy to save and e-mail to parents 26) A major revolution is taking place in technology applications in education. One of these approaches is blended learning. Blending learning strategies: a) mix ability groups of students from other classes b) combine ordinary teaching with a broad range of Internet applications 104Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) are effective approaches in compensatory education d) combine mastery learning and direct instruction 27) What is the related information called that appears when a computer user clicks on a word or picture? a) Hyper media b) Databases c) Computer assisted instruction d) Tutorial instruction 28) What type of computer program holds an encyclopedia? a) Computer-assisted instruction program b) Spreadsheet c) Hypertext d) Database 29) Which of the following would be considered a simulation? a) creating instructions for a computer to perform specific functions b) creating graphs from a spreadsheet c) a computer program that models real-life phenomena to promote learning d) a computer program that simulates and motivates the student to learn 30) What is an advantage of drill and practice computer programs over seatwork? a) students can work at a constant pace. b) students can get immediate feedback c) students can learn new material d) students can develop critical thinking skills. Essay Questions 1) Your text shares the story of Mr. Arbuthnot. List all of the ways in which Mr. Arbuthnot was ineffective in addressing individual student differences. 105Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 2) Your text tells the story of a fourth-grade teacher presenting a lesson on long division. List all the ways in which he was effective in addressing the learning needs of his students. 3) Your author presents a model that builds upon the work of John Carroll. This model has four elements. Please list each element, define each element and provide an example of classroom practice that illustrates that element. 4) Our book asserts that if only the quality of lectures mattered in terms of effective instruction, we could probably find the best lecturers in the world, record their lessons, and show the videos to students. Why would video lessons alone not work very well? 5) Discuss the impact of time on the quality of instruction. Name two factors that impact the amount of time available for learning. Discuss the factors that negatively impact time for learning. How can you address these factors in a proactive manner? What are some steps you can take to protect instruction time? 106Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 10 Motivating Students to Learning Multiple Choice Questions 1) According to our text, what is one of the most important ingredients of effective instruction? a) Good presentation skills b) Motivation c) A structured lesson plan d) Classroom resources 2) Ms. Davis is a first year teacher with a lot of enthusiasm. Which of the following strategies should she adopt to best enhance student motivation? a) Provide extrinsic rewards to motivate student participation. b) Motivate students to attend classes. c) Discover and sustain students' motivation to learn. d) Create a climate conducive to learning for unmotivated students. 3) According to behavioral learning theory, a person's motivation to engage in a particular activity is a function of: a) the perceived difficulty of the activity. b) the type of attributions the person has made in response to past failures. c) an individual's self-esteem needs. d) the degree to which the activity was reinforced in the past. 4) Mr. Reid has been trying to improve Mark’s participation in class. He has been rewarding Mark with praise, but Mark’s behavior has not improved. Mr. Reid needs to consider that: a) praise will be effective only after any other reinforcers are removed from the situation. b) the consensus from research is that praise is not effective as a reward. c) praise is not a primary reinforcer. d) praise may not be a reinforcer for Mark in this situation. 107Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 5) According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs: a) maintaining a positive self-concept is the most basic need. b) each need functions independently of all others. c) safety needs must be satisfied before a person can seek to satisfy higher needs. d) reinforcement is more important than avoiding punishment during early childhood, while avoiding punishment is more important during middle childhood. 6) According to Maslow, self-actualization can be described as: a) a deficiency need. b) the motivation to avoid failure in relationships with others. c) a need requiring adequate satisfaction of all other needs. d) the need most critical to good adjustment in academic situations. 7) Nicole was kept awake half the night because her brother and parents were fighting. Nicole's motivation to perform school tasks will be low today, not only because she is upset about her family, but because one of her needs has not been met. Which need? a) Physiological b) Esteem c) Growth d) Higher 8) Maslow's deficiency needs are those that are critical to physical and psychological well-being. When they are satisfied: a) a student will be unable to focus on school work. b) the individual's motivation to satisfy them increases. c) motivation to satisfy them diminishes. d) the individual has achieved self-actualization. 108Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 9) Which of the following is a correct implication of Maslow's hierarchy of needs? a) Students who are self-actualized must be taught to have respect for their fellow students. b) Educators should design lessons that teach students to suppress unmet deficiency needs, and concentrate on higher needs. c) Students who have skipped a need level on the hierarchy must be assisted to meet it. d) A student who is feeling ill or unsafe may show little interest in academic performance. 10) According to attribution theory, people are most likely to attribute: a) both successes and failures to their own abilities. b) successes to luck and failures to their own inadequacies. c) successes to their own abilities and failures to (bad) luck. d) both successes and failures to luck. 11) Which one of the follow category of attributions is internal and stable? a) Effort b) Luck c) Ability d) Task difficulty 12) A student says, "I did well because of some lucky guessing." The type of attribution being demonstrated is: a) external, unstable. b) internal, stable. c) internal, unstable. d) external, stable. 109Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 13) A student believes that her reason for success in reading is the effort put into the task. The student's locus of control is: a) external. b) luck-based. c) internal. d) dimensional. 14) A student with an internal locus of control is likely to blame poor performance on: a) lack of effort. b) parents' pressures to succeed. c) bad luck. d) the teacher's difficult tests. 15) Ice skating was a new experience for Leonard. He found that he had trouble keeping up with his friends, who had skated many times. After his first evening on the ice a friend invited him to go skating again. Leonard flatly refused, insisting that "It's not for me—I stink at skating." Which of the following best describes the attribution Leonard is making to explain his failure at skating? a) Internal, unstable b) External, stable c) Internal, stable d) External, unstable 16) Studies have shown that the most successful students: a) correctly estimate the degree to which their success is due to their own effort. b) are not affected by the difficulty of a task. c) tend to overestimate the degree to which their own behavior leads to success. d) have an external locus of control. 110Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 17) Expectancy theory supports the idea that grading systems should be: a) fairly easy so that most students earn the highest grade. b) challenging, but not extremely difficult. c) bimodal, such that half the students receive low grades and half receive high grades. d) extremely difficult so that only a small percentage earns the highest grade. 18) Compared to those with performance goals, students with learning goals: a) demonstrate inconsistent effort. b) persist in the face of obstacles. c) perceive themselves as more intelligent. d) continue to seek peer approval for performance. 19) Which of the following statements would a student suffering from learned helplessness be likely to make? a) I need to adjust my strategy for taking my next driver's test. b) If I try harder, I can succeed. c) It doesn't matter what I do. d) I failed the quiz because I didn't study enough. 20) According to our text, the main source of anxiety in school is: a) being late to class. b) highly structured instruction. c) fear of failure. d) gangs. 21) Mr. Green is making a special effort to help Steve. When he plans lessons he checks the instructions for learning tasks to make sure they are clear and specific. Mr. Green also avoids time pressure, gives students a chance to correct errors on their work and fosters an accepting, 111Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 noncompetitive classroom climate. His emphasis on these strategies for helping Steve suggests that Steve has been having difficulty with: a) the incentive value of success. b) anxiety. c) self-actualization. d) following classroom rules. 22) In a study explained in our text, students who expected and then received an award for drawing with felt-tipped markers: a) later spent less time drawing with the markers than did students who were not rewarded. b) later spent more time drawing with the markers than did students who were not rewarded. c) drew pictures that were judged higher in quality than did students who were not rewarded. d) drew pictures that were judged lower in quality than did students who were not rewarded. 23) Recent research on classroom rewards, using older students and school-like tasks: a) provides unequivocal support for the idea of offering extrinsic rewards on most school tasks. b) suggests that extrinsic rewards do not necessarily decrease intrinsic motivation. c) clearly supports the earlier finding that material rewards decrease intrinsic motivation. d) suggests that by the time students reach high school, extrinsic rewards are no longer influential. 24) Which of the following statements of how to use extrinsic rewards is supported by our text? a) Use them on most tasks, regardless of their intrinsic interest. b) Use primary, not secondary, extrinsic reinforcers. c) Do not use them in classroom situations. 112Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) Use them mainly for subjects that have low intrinsic interest. 25) Teachers can enhance intrinsic motivation by: a) withholding feedback. b) giving constant praise. c) personalizing lesson material. d) giving tokens. 26) One way to enhance students' intrinsic interest is to: a) give them some choice over what they will study. b) allow the teacher to make all the decisions. c) provide material rewards over a long period of time. d) avoid surprises. 27) The advantage of simulations is that they allow students to learn about a subject: a) without the help of peers. b) without interference. c) from the inside. d) from the outside. 28) When assigning material that is not interesting to all students, the teacher must try to enhance student motivation to learn. To prevent student confusion, teachers must: a) assign simple projects. b) read aloud as students follow in texts. c) express clear expectations. d) never assign uninteresting topics. 29) A student has done well on a test. Which of the following feedback statements from the teacher would be best, based on the discussion in your text? 113Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) "You did so well—you really lucked out." b) "Your definitions were very clear." c) "Good work, you are still one of the best students." d) "You're so smart!" 30) Research on feedback would support the practice of: a) giving feedback that leads students to make external attributions as they try to understand their success or failure. b) delaying feedback by a few days after an activity is completed. c) writing only positive comments on returned reports or tests. d) giving many brief quizzes rather than a few long tests. 31) Research on feedback has found that providing information on the results of someone's actions: a) needs to be accompanied by a material motivator to be useful. b) can be an adequate reward if it is specific, clear, and prompt. c) is most often ineffective as a reward. d) is most effective when used infrequently. 32) Praise is effective as a student motivator to the extent that it is specific, credible, and: a) emotionally neutral. b) contingent on the desired behavior. c) given to all students in the same words. d) focused on performance of easy tasks. 33) A teacher praises a student for good work, but frowns and looks displeased at the same time. By these actions, the teacher is failing to make the praise seem: a) contingent. 114Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 b) specific. c) credible. d) interesting. 34) Students can learn to mentally give themselves a pat on the back when they finish a task or stop at regular intervals to assess what they have done. What is this called? a) self-regulated learning b) integrated learning c) egocentrism d) external attribution 35) A deficiency need has been defined by Maslow as: a) the need to know and understand. b) critical to physical and psychological well-being. c) an understanding of the world around us. d) a need to be satisfied by a peer. 36) The feeling that an individual will not be successful regardless of actual ability has been identified as: a) learning goal. b) performance goal. c) expectancy theory. d) learned helplessness. 37) A student who needs a reward from a teacher to complete a task at hand is exhibiting the need for what type of motivation? a) extrinsic b) intrinsic c) authentic d) intangible 115Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 38) Aidan believes that his success on the final was out of pure luck because he did not put forth any effort into studying. Aidan’s locus of control is: a) internal. b) intrinsic. c) external. d) extrinsic. 39) Which of the following strategies is a key component to self-regulated learning? a) Self-praise b) Peer praise c) Teacher praise d) Administrative praise Essay Questions 1) How would a behavioral theorist explain motivation? Briefly explain the relevance of the schedules-of-reinforcement concept to motivation. Write a brief explanation of a concept that theorists such as Maslow and Weiner would include in their theories, but that a behavioral theorist would not. On what grounds would the behavioral theorist object to this concept? 2) Jim Grover's eighth graders are engaged in a cooperative learning task. He expected a high level of interest, but the students are restless. Jim's observations are puzzling. In the "wolves" group, Mick and Rick are whispering with their backs to the group. In the "manatees," Ginger is looking out the window, and she is very pale. The "hyenas" are discussing the topic, but keep getting sidetracked in arguments over who came up with the good ideas. Finally, two of the three "otters" who are not absent today are sitting staring at Marty, the third, who keeps standing up and then sitting down, at a rapid pace. Jim's students may have current needs that are getting priority over his learning objectives. Identify four of those needs, based on the students' behavior. Using at least two levels of Maslow's hierarchy, explain how the students’ needs affect their motivation to be on-task in Jim's lesson. 116Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 For one of Jim's groups, suggest a motivational strategy that would address the problem, and explain why Maslow would expect it to work. 3) Using the attribution theory of motivation, describe a situation in which a person attributes success to each of the following: ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck. For each of these situations, quote the specific attribution made, and indicate the attribution's locus of control, and whether it is stable or unstable. 4) Suzanne and Pedro got D’s on their quizzes. To Suzanne, Mr. Banister says "What happened to you? Did you forget to study?" To Pedro he says "Okay, that's a pretty good score for you." The two students then make attributions: influenced by the teacher's comments, they explain their poor performance to themselves. Which student is more likely to make an ability attribution? An effort attribution? For each of the students, explain how the teacher's comment influenced the type of attribution made. Then explain how the type of attribution made will influence the student's expectations for success in the future. 5) How might students who are motivated by learning goals behave differently from students who are motivated by performance goals? 6) What is learned helplessness? What are its causes? How can teachers alleviate it? 7) Mr. Joon, a middle school health teacher, heard many horror stories about Stuart from his colleagues over the years. "Just wait until you get Stuart!" they said. It has finally happened. Stuart's name appears on Mr. Joon's class roster for the fall term. As Mr. Joon makes out the seating chart for his first period health class, he puts Stuart in the front center row where he can keep close watch. How might Mr. Joon's behavior create the discipline problem he is trying to avoid? 8) List ways teachers can enhance intrinsic motivation. Illustrate three of your strategies with specific classroom examples. 117Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 9) One principle of providing incentives to learn is to provide clear and specific feedback. Make a list of feedback statements that would fit the definition of clear and specific feedback. For each item on the list write a contrasting example, illustrating feedback that is not clear and specific. 10) What is contingent praise? Give an example of how it might be used to increase student motivation. 11) Mary Resnick is teaching creative writing as part of her first teaching assignment. She wonders how her students will react to this being her first year of teaching, but not her first year as a working adult (she decided to become a teacher after raising her own children). Because her daughters had teachers who Mary considered weak, she decided she was going to be firm, but fair. "This is not a popularity contest," Mary reasons. "All students should work hard and if they do, I'll reward them with good grades." Mrs. Resnick stands by the door as her first period students enter. When they are settled into their desks, she says that she expects them to write well by the end of the school year. She also tells them that if they don't, they will fail her class. Each week, as the school year progresses, Mrs. Resnick reviews her students' essays. As a motivational technique, she writes comments such as "below average work" or "unacceptable" on the top of their papers. "This will get them to try harder," she rationalizes. However, while the writing skills of some of the students improve, most seem to be giving up. "This is not what I expected to happen," Mary tells her mentor teacher, Annie Jasperson. "Maybe I can explain how your students might be feeling," replies Annie. Using the motivational theories from the chapter (e.g., behavioral, human needs, attribution, and expectancy theory), write Annie's response. 12) Below is a student’s erroneous portrayal of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Study it, then make changes so that it is correct. safety needs esteem needs aesthetic needs physiological needs belongingness needs 118Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 self-actualization needs need to know and understand 119Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 11 Effective Learning Environments Multiple Choice Questions 1) Research indicates that the greatest time variable affecting student learning is the: a) allocated time. b) amount of time students actually spend learning. c) number of school days districts add, above and beyond state requirements. d) length of the school day. 2) Mr. Sterling wants to improve student achievement by increasing the time that students spend learning. Which type of time would be most valuable to increase for that purpose? a) Time spent on procedures (e.g., distributing materials) throughout the year b) Engaged time c) Allocated time d) Seatwork time 3) Our book tells us about a third-grade teacher who continued to work with students instead of merely waiting in the hallway to use the library. This teacher helped students develop the perception that: a) patience is a virtue and that schools need to help teach it. b) school is for learning, not for marking time. c) learning need not be organized. d) teachers need to manage their time better. 4) A great deal of allocated instructional time is lost because the teacher does not start teaching at the beginning of the period. This can be a problem in self-contained elementary classes, especially, because: a) the teachers lack "withitness." b) waiting for everyone to fill a seat is time consuming. 120Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) there are no bells or fixed schedules to structure the period. d) the class may be out of control. 5) Mrs. Barr wants to increase students learning. The most effective strategy would be to: a) increase the amount of independent practice assigned. b) maintain a rapid pace of instruction. c) increase the length of lectures by five minutes per lesson. d) have classroom rules clearly posted. 6) Ms. Watkins notices how listless and bored students seem when they enter class after lunch. Misbehavior seems to increase as a result. Based on the discussion in our text, the best strategy for reducing such misbehavior is likely to be: a) making the lessons more interesting to students. b) using a daily report card system. c) using moderate punishment such as time-out or a verbal reminder. d) discussing the problem with individual students. 7) Which strategy does calling on students at random exemplify? a) withitness b) transition management c) maintaining momentum d) group alerting 8) What is the term used to describe the degree to which the teacher is vigilant, and continuously responsive to student behavior? a) withitness b) momentum c) skill at managing transitions d) smoothness 121Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 9) Management in a student-centered classroom is: a) unlikely to involve students in setting standards of behavior. b) more directed at individual work than cooperative projects. c) oriented toward few choices for the students. d) more participatory than in a traditional classroom. 10) A study of teachers' actions at the beginning of the school year was correlated with students' behaviors later in the year. The study found that effective teachers expected students to: a) work in small groups the first day of school. b) do their most difficult assignments within the first few days, so that the rest of the year would seem easy. c) already know classroom procedures, from experience in previous years. d) get right to work on the first day of school. 11) In the research on teachers as effective managers, it was found that during the first days of school effective teachers: a) work with the whole class. b) divide the class into groups. c) separate the class into high, average, and low achievers. d) work with individual students as much as possible. 12) The research indicates that effective managers teach students specific procedures in the first days of school. For example, some had students: a) practice jigsaw, rehearsing the transition from expert groups to regular groups. b) take tests. c) help the teacher prepare teaching materials that would be used in the first few weeks. d) learn the meaning of signals, by responding to stimuli like the flick of a light switch. 13) There are three principles that govern the process of setting class rules. First, they should be few in number; second, they should make sense and be seen as fair; and third, they should: 122Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) be specific enough that each rule covers only one or two behaviors. b) be clearly explained and deliberately taught to students. c) be in alphabetical order for easier recall. d) always be the same as the previous year's rules, for continuity. 14) A teacher has developed a class rule that covers: listening when the teacher or other students are talking, working on seatwork, continuing to work during any interruptions, staying in one's seat and following directions. Which of the following would be the best wording for this rule? a) "Stay on task." b) "Don't get off task." c) "Never get out of your seat." d) "Always listen." 15) Which of the following is one of the most important classroom management principles? a) Three strikes and you are out. b) Drastic misbehaviors call for drastic measures. c) Refer to the administration. d) Use the simplest intervention that will work. 16) In classroom management, boredom-caused behavior problems need to be addressed using: a) a little frustration. b) extinction. c) mock participation. d) prevention. 17) According to the principle of least intervention, which of the following strategies would normally be tried sooner than the others, following minor misbehavior? a) apply consequences b) verbal reminder 123Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) repeated reminders d) nonverbal cues 18) A student who frequently taps a pencil loudly during seatwork stops the tapping behavior. The teacher praises the quiet behavior. Which intervention strategy is being used? a) nonverbal cues b) praise of incompatible, correct behavior c) simple verbal reminder d) repeated reminder 19) A student who usually behaves well is not paying attention during class. Which of the following management strategies would be most effective? a) deprive the student of privileges b) praise other students c) implement a daily report card system d) time out 20) In applying consequences for routine misbehavior, the teacher should present the consequence: a) after a sufficient delay b) with another adult present c) as soon as possible d) for a long duration 21) The most common reinforcer for misbehavior in the classroom is: a) removal from the learning setting. b) attention. c) escape from cooperative groups. d) tangible rewards. 124Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 22) Our book discusses seven principles for the effective and humane use of punishment. According to our book along with giving punishment, you should reinforce the student for: a) stating a reasonable excuse. b) behaviors incompatible with those you wish to reduce. c) mock participation. d) behaviors compatible with those you wish to reduce. 23) A student plays the role of the class clown. The teacher isolates the student from peers using time out. Which of the following statements about this practice is true? a) The strategy is inappropriate because the student will receive sympathy from the class. b) The strategy is appropriate because it deprives the student of an audience. c) The strategy is appropriate because it directly applies the Premack principle. d) The strategy is inappropriate because the student will continue to misbehave out of class. 24) A teacher starts a home-based reinforcement program. Over time, the student responds positively with increased frequency of good behavior. Given this result, the reinforcement should now be: a) reduced gradually. b) kept at the same level indefinitely. c) terminated. d) gradually increased. 25) Which of the following types of rewards are recommended for home-based reinforcement programs? a) Change of a grade b) Receiving a special gift or privilege c) Release from a homework assignment d) Extra credit points 125Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 26) In discussing the ethics of behavior modification techniques, your text author suggests that these methods: a) should only be used under supervision of a clinical or school psychologist. b) are ethical, but not powerful enough to use with disruptive students. c) can lead to overcontrol of student behavior. d) frequently injure students' self-esteem through excessive use of punishment. 27) Applied behavior analysis strategies use rewards in a systematic way and: a) use punishers for prevention of discipline problems. b) avoid punishers as much as possible. c) use punishers for routine classroom misbehavior. d) use punishers for being off-task. 28) In a survey conducted in 2011 on bullying, what percent of high school students admitted to participating in bullying? a) less than 10 % b) 30% c) 50% d) 90% 29) Studies of truancy among delinquents have shown that: a) truancy and delinquency are strongly related. b) attendance prizes have little impact on decreasing truancy. c) once truancy becomes habitual there is little that will impact it. d) behavioral consequences for excessive absences have been successful at increasing school attendance. 30) Group contingencies can be especially effective with predelinquent students because: a) they involve the students' families. b) these students need to be singled out for special treatment. 126Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) they reverse the effects of tracking. d) they can deprive students of peer support for misbehavior. 31) If misbehavior persists, parents should be: a) instructed to punish the student at home. b) contacted by letter. c) involved in establishing a program to decrease the problem. d) notified after the third misbehavior. 32) The number of minutes actually spent on learning is defined as: a) allocated time. b) lost time. c) time on task. d) planned time. 33) Which one of the following principles is effective in setting a list of classroom rules? a) There should be a large number of well-defined rules. b) They should be worded in instructional vocabulary. c) They should be deliberately taught. d) They should be individualized to each student. 34) Moving closer to a student who is talking and disrupting class is a prime example of a(n): a) nonverbal cue. b) verbal cue. c) repeated reminder. d) application of consequence. 35) Tamika is a sixth-grade student who mocks the teacher when her back is turned. Tamika is seeking: a) the teacher’s attention. 127Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 b) the attention of peers. c) the attention of parents. d) the attention of an administrative official. 36) A group contingency seeks to: a) reward an individual. b) reward a select group of students. c) reward the entire class. d) punish the entire class. 37) Keeping students interested in various activities is an example of which procedure from the principles of least intervention? a) Prevention b) Praise of correct behavior c) Repeated reminders d) Consequences 38) When a student has completed his/her consequence for misbehavior, he/she must be: a) reminded about past behavior and told that trust must be earned again. b) fully accepted as a member of the class again. c) gradually given back some classroom privileges until trust has been regained. d) trained to monitor classroom misbehavior of others. 39) Research has indicated that the length of a school year is not as important as: a) how time is managed in the classroom. b) students’ scores on standardized tests. c) students’ behavior in the classroom. d) student-teacher rapport. 40) What should always be used as a last option when reinforcement strategies are ineffective? 128Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) Discipline b) Rewards c) Praise d) Punishment Essay Questions 1) Having completed your first year of teaching, with its ups and downs, you are planning for great success in your second year. You want to prevent behavior problems by doing what effective teachers do, so you take a second look at Kounin's findings, and come up with four resolutions to follow in your classroom. These are four rules for yourself, not for students. You will monitor your teaching daily to make sure you implement these resolutions. Describe your set of four "rules for teachers" based on the strategies Kounin derived from observations of effective teachers. Explain why a teacher should follow each directive. What challenges do you think you would encounter in following your plan? 2) How do management strategies differ between student-centered and traditional classrooms? 3) Make a list of rules (for students) you will include in your classroom and explain why you believe they are necessary. How does your set of rules reflect the principles for setting rules described in the textbook? For two of your rules write a less effective version of the rule, and explain why you consider it less effective. 4) You are a teacher who is in the middle of a short lecture when you notice two students whispering at the back of the room. Using the principle of least intervention, what would you do? The principle of least intervention has been described as the Ladder of Discipline. Teachers start at the lowest rung, and reserve the highest rungs for the most extreme behaviors. Describe a ladder of discipline with at least six rungs. Make each rung one very concrete, specific action. Explain how each rung works. Briefly compare the implementation of your ladder by an experienced teacher, to how it might go for a new, unpracticed teacher. 129Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 5) Explain what this statement means: When applying consequences, certainty is more important than severity. 6) Derek, in his first year of teaching, is having difficulties with his German 3 class. The students are very capable, but don't seem to buy into Derek's goals and standards of behavior. Derek is puzzled because what he remembers from Behavioral Theory is that responses that are reinforced grow more common, and responses that are not reinforced, extinguish. He has been ignoring some undesirable behaviors, but they've gotten even worse! Using behavioral concepts that address how student misbehavior is maintained, develop some advice for Derek. In particular, explain why misbehavior in Derek's class is escalating, and make two specific suggestions that he could implement. Explain why your suggestions should work. Finally, use your imagination to anticipate what might go wrong when Derek gives your suggestions a try; briefly describe two difficulties he might encounter. 7) You have a student who has difficulty getting to your class on time, which you find unacceptable. Using principles from applied behavior analysis, explain how you would set up a program for the student. Use concrete examples to illustrate each step of analysis. 8) Give an example of each of the following applied behavior analysis programs: home-based reinforcement, individual daily report card, and group contingency. For each example, state an advantage or benefit of using the technique. Then, state one difficulty a teacher might encounter in implementing the technique (in other words, what could go wrong?). 9) "A quiet class is a learning class." This is a fallacy, according to your text author. Explain how this viewpoint relates to applied behavioral analysis. In other words, in what ways is the use of this behavioral technique subject to the "quiet class" fallacy? 10) Why do students misbehave? 11) What strategies are useful for preventing serious behavior problems? 130Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 12) Given what he had heard about last year's fourth graders, Mr. Christenson expected to have a tough time this year in fifth grade. But, little did he imagine how bad it would get. Thirty seconds into the science lesson, noticing Tim looking lost, he shouts, "Tim, where is your textbook? You know you're supposed to have it." Tim shrugs. Mr. Christenson looks down at his notes. "Okay, now let's pick up with Mercury." Just then laughter erupts in the back of the room. Glaring at the offenders, Mr. Christenson asks, "Maria, really, is Mercury humorous? Write 25 times 'Mercury is the closest planet to the sun.'" Mr. Christenson glances at his notes to remember his place, but is distracted by Billy leaning on his arms. "Billy, what is our rule about the proper way of sitting? Explain to the class how posture affects our attentiveness." Billy mumbles something inaudible about not feeling well. Mr. Christenson walks over to Billy's desk so that he can hear the explanation better. Meanwhile, Alicia and Marti, at the front, start giggling. They will be visited by Mr. Christenson next. Discuss the origins of Mr. Christenson's management problems and their probable impact on learning. 131Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 12 Learners with Exceptionalities Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of the following is the best example of people-first language? a) "I have one of those intellectually disabled people in my class." b) "In my class I have one student with an intellectual disability." c) "I have one of the disabled in my class." d) "In my class I have one intellectually disabled student." 2) Dave took an intelligence test and received an IQ score of 62. He was classified as intellectually disabled. Of the following, which is the best-informed reaction to Dave's classification? a) It will be important to look also at Dave’s adaptive skills. b) Dave was correctly classified. c) The classification is incorrect because Dave's IQ is in the normal range. d) The classification is invalid because measurement of IQ is irrelevant. 3) According to our text, to determine the severity of cognitive impairment, educational professionals should: a) interview the student's parents only, and in private. b) consider other test scores and cultural background. c) also take into account the student's age and grade level. d) never use an IQ test to determine cognitive impairment. 4) Mrs. Troy has a student in her classroom, Mark, who has been diagnosed with an intellectual disability at the age of seven. It is most likely Mark’s disability is: a) profound b) severe c) mild 132Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) moderate 5) Sheila is in fourth grade but is still reading at the first-grade level. She has normal intelligence and is able to understand concepts and contribute to class discussions. When Sheila is given a written quiz, however, she hands in a blank paper. Which of the following best describes Sheila's underlying difficulty? a) Sheila has autism. b) Sheila has an intellectual disability. c) Sheila has a behavioral disorder. d) Sheila has a learning disability. 6) Definitions of learning disabilities have recently been significantly changed by: a) differences in ability subscales. b) response to intervention. c) IQ-performance discrepancies. d) high-quality instruction. 7) Mr. Welch understands that Tommy sometimes means to obey, but fails to control his behavior. Tommy loves to play with his peers, but tends to annoy them with impulsive actions. Mr. Welch avoids using long time-outs at recess to discipline Tommy, because he wants Tommy to have a chance to be active. Mr. Welch helps Tommy by making rules extra clear, adjusting seating arrangements as needed, and sending home daily report cards. Which of the following disabilities best fits Tommy's characteristics? a) Withdrawn behavior b) Autism c) ADHD d) Hearing impairment 8) A student is classified as having ADHD. Which of the following is true? a) The student will have difficulty attending to the teacher. b) The student will qualify for special education services because he or she has ADHD. 133Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) The student is probably female. d) The student's IQ will probably be in the 80–95 range. 9) A child has difficulty pronouncing the "r" sound and also says "tham" instead of "Sam." The child probably has a(n) ________ disorder. a) incurable b) stuttering c) voice d) articulation 10) Which of the following statements concerning speech disorders is correct? a) Teachers should help students with speech disorders by calling on other students to help them finish sentences more quickly. b) Language and speech disorders are really the same. c) Therapy should always be delayed until the secondary grades. d) Most mild speech disorders improve with time. 11) To help a student with a mild speech disorder, a teacher should: a) avoid finishing the student's sentences when he or she is having difficulty pronouncing words. b) accentuate the way a word that is often mispronounced by the student should sound. c) call on the student less frequently than others, to avoid embarrassment. d) ask the student to write instead of speak. 12) Adriana seems anxious and depressed and stays home with a stomachache when her class does group projects. Adriana may be diagnosed as having an emotional disorder if: a) these symptoms have grown steadily worse over the past year. b) she is found to have an IQ lower than 100. c) she also has poor motor coordination and difficulty solving problems. d) these symptoms are new and are accompanied by mispronunciations of certain words. 134Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 13) A student is withdrawn and immature. In general, the most appropriate treatment approach to use is: a) suspension from school. b) group contingencies. c) teaching of social skills. d) drug therapy. 14) Students exhibiting socialized-aggressive behaviors such as fighting, stealing, destroying property, and refusal to obey teachers may benefit from: a) rigorous academic programs. b) home-based reinforcement. c) aversive academic strategies. d) behavior management strategies. 15) Which of the following statements regarding visual impairments is true? a) When a vision loss is correctable it is still a disability. b) A person whose field of vision is significantly narrower than a normal person's could be considered legally blind. c) Individuals who are labeled legally blind have no sight. d) Partially sighted people must use Braille in order to read. 16) Parents of a child who is gifted are wondering what the child will be like as an adult. Based on Terman's classic study, they might expect their grown child to be: a) less athletic than other adults. b) better adjusted than other adults. c) less socially skilled than other adults. d) about the same as other adults. 135Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 17) Our text suggests an emphasis on three types of activities for enrichment programs. One is exploratory activities, the second is individual and small group investigations of real problems, and the third type of activity is: a) individualized seatwork assignments. b) teacher-focused activities. c) group training activities. d) programmed instruction. 18) Research on the effects of gifted programs on achievement has indicated that: a) acceleration programs are more effective than enrichment programs. b) acceleration outcomes are too difficult to measure, making comparisons to enrichment invalid. c) neither acceleration nor enrichment is effective. d) enrichment programs are more effective than acceleration programs. 19) One criticism of programs aimed at enriching the educational experience of students who are gifted is that: a) an enriched educational experience will inhibit their ability to get along with their peers. b) these students already receive too much attention from their teachers. c) all students could benefit from an enriched educational experience. d) students who are gifted do not take advantage of such programs. 20) Which of the following is an effect of the extension of P.L. 94-142 beyond its original focus? a) Mainstreaming has been eliminated. b) IEPs are now the sole responsibility of the regular education teachers of those needing special services. c) Preschool children needing special services can receive them more readily. d) Students with special needs are now labeled "children with handicaps." 136Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 21) The "least restrictive environment" provision of P.L. 94-142 provides a direct legal basis for: a) full inclusion. b) each student who needs special education being entitled to it. c) parents having a right to file a grievance if they are dissatisfied with the services their children are receiving. d) inclusion of individuals with disabilities in regular classes. 22) The concept that provides a legal (Student Teams-Achievement Divisions), is referred to as: a) least restrictive environment. b) cooperative learning. c) integration. d) grouping. 23) Which of the following is the least restrictive environment? a) Special-education class placement with part-time inclusion b) Special day school c) Self-contained special-education classroom d) Resource room placement 24) Which of the following educational services is most restrictive? a) Self-contained special education b) Itinerant services c) Resource room placement d) Consultation 25) An Individualized Education Program (IEP) is usually written by: a) the school principal. b) the district special education department. 137Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) a special services committee made up of teachers, psychologists, and other concerned staff members. d) the regular education teacher. 26) Individualized Transition Plans are written for which of the following groups of students with disabilities? a) Infants b) Adolescents before their 17th birthdays c) Children in elementary school d) Preschool children between the ages of two and five 27) Students with learning disabilities are likely to spend most of the school day in a: a) general education class. b) special class. c) one-to-one tutoring situation. d) special school. 28) Research finds that well-designed consulting models can be effective in assisting teachers to keep disabled students in general education classes. To which group of students does this finding best apply? a) Students with severe emotional problems b) Students with cerebral palsy c) Students with mild disabilities d) Students with severe disabilities 29) A student who is assigned to a general education class for most of the day works away from that classroom for an hour each day on reading and mathematics, in a small group, with a special education teacher. This type of placement is called: a) consultation. b) special-education class placement. c) resource room placement. 138Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) special-education class placement with part-time inclusion. 30) An itinerant (or traveling) teacher would be most likely to provide help for a student with: a) a speech disorder. b) a learning disability. c) cerebral palsy. d) a hyperactivity problem. 31) Many students with disabilities are assigned to special classes taught by a special education teacher but are mainstreamed with nondisabled students part of the day. Most often these students join other students for music, art, and: a) science. b) writing. c) reading. d) physical education. 32) Someone who supports full inclusion would advocate: a) mainstreaming without pull-out. b) hiring only teachers who are certified in special education. c) use of pull-out strategies as the primary intervention. d) keeping students with disabilities in separate classes for an entire day. 33) Research shows that individuals with intellectual disabilities who are placed in regular classrooms: a) learn about the same as they would if placed in special classrooms. b) perform at the same level as the typical student. c) learn less than they would if placed in special classrooms. d) learn more than they would if placed in special classrooms. 139Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 34) According to research, what effect do techniques such as STAD have in inclusive classrooms? a) Achievement of nondisabled students drops. b) Social acceptance of students with learning disabilities increases. c) Achievement of students with disabilities drops. d) Students with disabilities are unable to function as team players. 35) A special education teacher suggests that an extra step be added to instructions for a science task, to make the task clearer to a student with a learning disability. This modification is an example of: a) an adaptation in modes of communication. b) a content adaptation. c) a format adaptation. d) full inclusion. 36) You are told that two students with mild disabilities will attend your class. Which action would probably best further their social integration into your class? a) Suspend classroom rules concerning social interaction in class, allowing the students with disabilities to communicate with their peers at any time. b) Use peer tutoring on occasion to help them with learning problems. c) Ignore the differences between them and the rest of your class, and allow them to be accepted at their own speed. d) Use within-class ability grouping in most subjects. 37) Children with Asperger Syndrome may exhibit which of the following? a) normal social relationships b) some difficulty with social relationships c) maintaining eye contact often d) understanding basic social cues 38) Tier 1 of the three-tier model for intervention is prevention that has been defined as: 140Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) whole-class strategies designed to help all children succeed. b) targeted assistance to a student. c) long-lasting intervention to keep a student on track. d) 1 time intervention as prevention 39) Research on the gifted and talented student supports which of the following conclusions? a) More can be gained through enrichment. b) More can be gained through acceleration. c) More can be gained from isolation. d) More can be gained from peer interaction. 40) A teacher can help a student with disabilities succeed in the regular classroom by adapting instruction to the student’s individual needs. There are three instructional adaptations discussed in our text. Isolating concepts within new material typifies which type of adaptation? a) Communication b) Time c) Content d) Placement Essay Questions 1) What physical, emotional, or cognitive conditions must exist before a student can receive special education services? 2) Define the terms disability and handicap, and explain the difference. Are they synonymous? 3) Incorporating the text author's viewpoint on labeling, write a response to the following statement "Labels are harmful and should be eliminated from schools." 4) Distinguish speech disorders from language disorders. Use specific examples to illustrate your explanation. 141Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 5) Manisha makes no trouble in class, but she has an emotional disorder. Describe the disorder she might have; indicate how her teacher would know that she has the disorder; and explain how it would be decided that her symptoms reflect a disorder, not a normal emotional problem. 6) Some students with hearing loss can be accommodated by an advantageous seating assignment. Describe three other classroom or teaching modifications that could benefit a student with hearing disability. Use specific examples in describing how you would implement your suggestions. 7) A teacher wants to start a gifted and talented program. According to the 1978 Gifted and Talented Act, who could be included in such a program? On what grounds might someone argue against the teacher's plan? How can the teacher respond to a taxpayer who says "Gifted students are emotionally unstable kids with high IQs that need more social contact." 8) Why was Public Law 94-142 passed? Describe how historical events led to its adoption. 9) Every school district offers students with special needs an array of services. Make a list of these services beginning with the least restrictive, and ending with the most restrictive. Illustrate each service with a concrete example, specifying a child's grade level, disability, placement, and specifics of where and with whom the child spends the day. 10) A student in your third-grade class participates actively in class, and is a class leader in mathematics. As the year goes on, you have noticed this student checking fewer books out of the school library and his grades slowly falling in subjects heavily dependent on reading such as social studies. Tell what approach you would take to help this student, and if, as his educator, you have any particular responsibility. 11) According to the text, there are four advantages to using computers for students with disabilities. What are the advantages? Describe two ways that you think problems or disadvantages might arise when students with disabilities are using computers (a disadvantage could be a specific problem that might occur when use of computers is implemented). 142Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 12) Give three examples of how a buddy system involving a student with disabilities and a student without disabilities might work. 13) You are a teacher who will have a student with learning disabilities in your class. How are teaching responsibilities divided between you and the special education teacher? In other words, what responsibilities do you have to the student and others in your class? What responsibilities does the special education teacher have to the student? 14) How will you help to foster the social integration of students with disabilities into your classroom? 15) Lee Thurston, a fifth-grade teacher at Washington Elementary School, has had seven very successful years of teaching. His students love him and parents of students who are in the fourth-grade classes request that their children be placed with him during their fifth-grade experience. Last year Lee was voted "Teacher of the Year" by the faculty in the district. In the spring of the year, Lee is told that, because he is such a good teacher, he will be getting David Spears as a student in next year's class. David, during his fourth-grade year, had been identified as having a behavior disorder after confronting another student with a knife. Lee had some concerns about David, but decided he was willing to try to help. He would come up with some ideas for working with David as he attended graduate school over the summer. A week before school started, Lee met with Ellen Lansing, Washington School's principal. "It's been a busy summer," remarked Ellen. "I'm afraid some of your students' parents have requested to have another teacher since you will have David Spears in your class. They are worried that you won't be able to control him or that at some point you won't be available to help if things get out of hand." "With inclusion, situations are going to come up like this more and more," replied Lee. "What do you think we should do?" Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to full inclusion, mainstreaming, and other options related to student placement. What would you do to solve Lee's problem? 143Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 13 Assessing Student Learning Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of the following terms refers to a statement of the skills or concepts that students are expected to have mastered by the end of some period of instruction? a) Taxonomy b) Instructional objective c) Assessment d) Course prerequisite 2) Which of the following words would be most acceptable, to Mager, for expressing an instructional objective? a) Appreciate b) Sort c) Enjoy d) Discuss 3) A teacher uses task analysis in designing a lesson. A benefit that the teacher is likely to realize from this process is: a) encouraging students to work and learn independently. b) allowing students to make important decisions about what they should and should not attend to. c) gaining increased awareness of the subskills students need for mastering more complex skills. d) discovering creative ways to make a subject relate to students' lives. 4) What is the first step in the process of planning a task analysis? a) Find adequate means to measure the attainment of the desired skills. b) Identify what skills students should have before the new lesson is taught. 144Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) Discover what portions of the lessons are likely to interest students. d) Assemble the subskills into a hierarchy. 5) A teacher uses a backward-planning strategy in designing a course. The teacher should plan individual lessons: a) after establishing course and unit objectives. b) as the first step. c) after establishing course objectives but before establishing unit objectives. d) after constructing the final exam. 6) Increasingly, states are establishing standards for subjects and assessments. These standards should: a) guide teachers' planning of objectives and lessons. b) guide teachers and parents during conferences. c) guide parents in selecting schools for their children. d) guide school boards in hiring new staff members. 7) Which of the following is a recommended use of testing in conjunction with backward planning? a) Be sure that each objective used in developing the unit test is covered by the same number of items. b) If you construct a test as part of backward planning, use exactly the same items when you give the test at the end of your actual course unit. c) Construct a preliminary version of the unit test before the unit has been taught. d) Base your course objectives on ready-made unit tests that are provided by textbook publishers. 8) The final step in backward planning is to: a) write objectives for large units of instruction. b) estimate the amount of class time to spend on each unit objective. 145Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) plan daily lessons. d) establish long-term course objectives. 9) A measure of the degree to which instructional objectives have been attained is called: a) comprehension. b) task analysis. c) backward planning. d) assessment. 10) Because objectives are stated in terms of how they will be measured, it is clear that objectives are closely linked to: a) comprehension. b) knowledge. c) analysis. d) assessment. 11) Which of the following statements is a critical principle of assessment? a) Assessment and objectives must be clearly linked. b) Affective objectives must be assessed. c) Everything that is taught must be assessed. d) Standardized tests should be used to measure general classroom learning. 12) Which of the following is the lowest level of objectives in Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives? a) Knowledge b) Application c) Synthesis d) Comprehension 146Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 13) Ms. Dickson observes that after reading a research report, her students can use principles of good experimental design to point out flaws in the researchers' procedures and conclusions. What is the highest-level objective from Bloom's taxonomy that Ms. Dickson's students have met? a) Knowledge b) Comprehension c) Application d) Evaluation 14) The purpose of a behavior content matrix is to: a) show the levels of learning that each part of a lesson addresses. b) organize a lesson presentation. c) identify affective outcome levels. d) facilitate the collection of reinforcement data. 15) The key idea that Bloom's taxonomy offers to teachers is that: a) assessment is an exact process. b) lower-level skills should be replaced by higher-order skills. c) higher-order skills should be reserved for college-level classes. d) in planning a lesson on a given topic, there are many levels of skills to consider. 16) Which of the following is true regarding evaluation as feedback? a) It should not be critical of a student's work. b) It should be as specific as possible. c) It should consist of a letter grade. d) It should encourage the student to make external attributions. 17) The purpose of evaluation that provides data for judging teachers, schools, districts, or states, is called: a) feedback. 147Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 b) information for certification. c) information for accountability. d) incentives to increase student effort. 18) Mrs. Rubeo will be giving a unit test in three weeks. At present she is giving students daily problem sets to find out which material needs reteaching before the unit test. Mrs. Rubeo's use of the problem sets is an example of: a) evaluation as incentive. b) task analysis. c) summative evaluation. d) formative evaluation. 19) Which of the following descriptors best characterizes the results of a norm-referenced test? a) yields a list of remediation strategies to help low achievers b) shows the achievement differences between students c) gives teacher feedback on how well students can perform a set of skills d) helps teacher revise lessons covered on the test 20) Which of the following practices illustrates norm-referenced evaluations? a) The five highest-scoring students receive A’s, the next five receive B’s, and so on. b) Students are given the average of their five tests as a final grade. c) Different letter grades are awarded on the basis of students reaching specific cutoff scores. d) Students' lowest test grade is omitted and the other grades are averaged to obtain a final grade. 21) Criterion-referenced evaluations focus on: a) assessing student mastery of specific skills. b) selected-response test items. c) comparisons of a student's scores to those of other students. 148Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) affective and psychomotor objectives. 22) After considering the goals and strategies of evaluation, the text author concludes that teachers must choose different types of evaluation for different purposes. At a minimum, how many types of evaluations should be used to assess student learning? a) One b) Two c) Three d) Four 23) A teacher wants to use evaluations to increase student effort. Which of the following strategies would be desirable? a) Keep students guessing about what they have to do to get a good grade. b) Reduce the difficulty of the test so that 90 percent of the students reach mastery quickly. c) Evaluations should be given frequently, with clear criteria. d) Employ different grading standards for different students, based on ability levels. 24) A teacher is discouraged by students' lack of interest in class. If the teacher decides to use grades as motivators, which of the following strategies would be most useful? a) Use clear criteria so that students can understand how grades are earned. b) Give students a few weeks to get a test off their minds, before giving them test feedback. c) Reduce the number of tests given. d) Use comparative standards for grading. 25) Which of the following statements concerning comparative grading is correct? a) The grading of comparative evaluations on course content should make some provision for effort. b) Comparative evaluations are currently considered unnecessary. 149Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) Comparative evaluations must emphasize fair, reliable assessment of student performance. d) Comparative evaluations must be conducted frequently. 26) In designing an achievement test for students, a teacher's major concern should be that the test: a) measures what students are capable of doing rather than what they have done. b) includes both objective questions and essay questions. c) matches the instructional objectives for the material covered. d) include items for each of the six levels of Bloom's taxonomy. 27) A teacher wanting to increase the reliability of a test should try which of the following strategies? a) Use more items that none of the students can answer correctly. b) Increase the number of test items. c) Add more easy test items. d) Increase the proportion of items that are marginally related to the objectives being taught. 28) Which of the following is one of Gronlund's principles regarding the preparation of achievement tests? a) Achievement tests should define clearly measured values. b) Achievement tests should include corresponding desired outcomes of learning. c) Achievement tests should be broad enough to fit many uses. d) Achievement tests should be as reliable as possible and interpreted with caution. 29) A teacher's goal is for students to solve real-life problems. What does the text author say about the use of multiple-choice items to measure this goal? a) Multiple-choice items are appropriate because they involve selected response, not constructed response. b) Multiple-choice questions are appropriate as long as they are well written. 150Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) Multiple-choice questions are inappropriate because they do not provide specific feedback. d) Multiple-choice questions are inappropriate because they are not similar enough to real-life problems. 30) Which of the following statements is true about using a table of specifications? a) A table of specifications is useful for increasing reliability when scoring essay questions. b) Teachers use a table of specifications to distribute test items across different instructional objectives. c) A table of specifications helps teachers keep track of student progress. d) It is unnecessary to construct a table of specifications if the teacher knows the subject matter well. 31) The opening statement of a multiple-choice item, which may be a question or partial sentence, is referred to as the: a) stem. b) participle. c) consequence. d) antecedent. 32) A main goal in writing multiple-choice test questions is to: a) make the distractors appear as reasonable as the correct answer to students who do not know the material. b) make the distractors tricky enough to fool about half of the students in a class. c) include at least one distractor that a knowledgeable student is likely to regard as correct. d) make the average difficulty index .60 (60 percent). 33) A recommended procedure for writing multiple-choice items is to: a) list alternatives horizontally rather than vertically. 151Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 b) make the stem as short as possible. c) include at least one implausible choice for each item. d) use letters rather than numbers to identify choices. 34) Which of the following statements about matching items is correct? a) It is inappropriate to allow the alternatives in List B to be used for more than one item in list A. b) Matching items can be used to cover a large number of concepts. c) Directions on how to respond can be eliminated or made very short. d) Possibilities for guessing are virtually eliminated. 35) A teacher wants to determine how well students can discuss ways in which related concepts differ. Based on the text author's discussion of item types, which of the following is most appropriate for this objective? a) True-false b) Multiple choice c) Matching d) Short essay 36) Some teachers count grammar, spelling, and other technical features when evaluating essays. Is this practice appropriate? a) Yes, evaluation of essays should be based on rules of grammar. b) If this practice is used, the teacher should also grade the essays on effort. c) Yes, if two separate grades (one for content and one for writing mechanics) are given. d) No, evaluation should be based on content knowledge only. 37) Why would a teacher who was planning to evaluate student problem-solving be interested in the following steps: understanding the problem to be solved, attacking the problem systematically, and arriving at a reasonable answer? a) Each of the steps should be assessed with a different type of test. b) The steps illuminate the affective objectives of problem-solving tasks. 152Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) The steps will be useful assessment tools because they are components of problem-solving tasks that apply to varied subject matter. d) The steps show that problem solving should be assessed at levels 1 and 2 of Bloom's taxonomy. 38) Mr. Romanowski gives an essay a C. Then he realizes that the essay is not Michael's— it is Michelle's. A grade of C is not what Mr. Romanowski expects of Michelle, so he takes another look and finds some ideas in the essay that he didn't notice before. Now he sees it as a B essay and assigns Michelle a B. Michelle is benefitting from: a) formative evaluation. b) backward planning. c) clang. d) a halo effect. 39) What is the term used for evaluations that simulate the use of abilities in real-life situations? a) Goal setting b) Authentic assessment c) Formative evaluation d) Standardized tests 40) Which of the following best describes what portfolios should contain? a) A set of required items selected by the student without teacher input b) A set of required items selected by the teacher with minimal student input c) A thoughtfully selected collection of core and optional items d) A randomly selected set of items chosen by either the student or the teacher 41) According to your text, when does portfolio assessment not have important uses? a) When teachers want to evaluate students for reports to parents b) When teachers want to show improvement over time c) When teachers want to evaluate students for school accountability 153Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) When combined with consistent and public rubrics 42) Which of the following is true about using portfolios for evaluation? a) Authentic testing advocates criticize their use. b) Each item selected should address only one objective. c) Student journals should not be included as selected items. d) Students should have input in determining what will be included. 43) According to researchers, one of the most important criticisms of traditional standardized testing is that it: a) can focus teachers on a narrow range of skills that happen to be on a test. b) uses items that lack reliability. c) relies on the judgments of many different scorers, who may produce a wide range of ratings for work of the same quality. d) gives students too much input into which content is assessed. 44) One of the observations made by researchers (Shavelson, et al., 1992) regarding how well science performance assessments work, is that student scores from the performance assessments were: a) more closely related to student aptitude than to what students were actually taught. b) too low for educators to make a valid interpretation. c) not found to be reliable based on multiple administrations. d) consistently related more to what had been taught previously than to aptitude. 45) Which of the following is a problem that might arise in using relative grading standards? a) Although the students did not learn very much, they nearly all got A’s because the teacher's newly developed tests were so easy. b) Students avoid one teacher's course because she never gives an A—her unrealistically high expectations for student learning are reflected on all of her assessment tasks. c) Most of the students in a class received very low quarter grades because their tests did not reflect the teacher's use of class time. 154Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) A student whose performance is excellent cannot get an A because he is outscored by too many (for instance, 20%) of his classmates. 46) Which grading practice involves the use of work samples and rubrics, to convey to parents an understanding of what students have learned? a) Performance grading b) Mastery grading c) Contract grading d) Relative grading standards 47) Combining scores for grading (such as grades given for homework assignments) causes the important issue of: a) how to treat extra credit work. b) how to treat overachievers. c) how to treat missing work. d) how to treat work obviously done by a parent. 48) Martin gets A’s (95–100) on all of the writing assignments that he does, but he has skipped half of the writing assignments. In discussing his grades with a friend, he says "I must have a C in writing, because I have A’s on half the assignments, and F’s on the other half." But Martin is worse off than he thinks. He actually has an F in writing. His grade is F because: a) the teacher was using absolute grading standards. b) the teacher used a system of scoring that is unreliable. c) the teacher assigned a zero for every missing assignment. d) each student's highest and lowest score were dropped. 49) Which level of Bloom’s taxonomy exhibits the most complex level of understanding? a) Analysis b) Comprehension c) Application 155Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) Synthesis 50) Research suggests that the new three R’s ought to be defined by which of the following traits? a) Responsibility b) Revenue c) Rationale d) Replacement 51) During norm-referenced testing, the content coverage most likely consists of: a) focus on a limited number of learning tasks. b) focus on a broad area of coverage. c) focus on a single topic. d) Lack of focus on pertinent topics 52) Performance standards for criterion-referenced testing are commonly determined by: a) relative position. b) class rank. c) peer group responses. d) absolute standards. Essay Questions 1) An instructional objective has three basic parts. What are they? Create two instructional objectives for lessons you could teach, incorporating the three basic parts. For each objective, identify the three parts and explain how they will help in designing assessments. 2) Identify the highest level of Bloom's taxonomy represented by each of the following objectives. a) Students will critique a piece of artwork. b) Using a map of the United States, students will label all state capitals. c) Given a calculator, students will compute the area of rectangles. 156Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 For objective "a," above, name any additional levels of Bloom's taxonomy that the task incorporates. In other words, although the task is classified at a certain level, a student who performs the task may, in the process, meet some lower-level objectives. An informal task analysis will lead you to aspects of the task that address lower-level objectives. Using objective "a," illustrate how one lower-level objective is met by this task (which is focused on a higher level). 3) Student evaluations serve six purposes. What are they? Using an example, illustrate how two or more of these six functions can be at cross purposes. In other words, illustrate how two of these purposes could call for conflicting evaluation strategies. 4) How do summative evaluations and formative evaluations differ? 5) Drawing on Gronlund's six principles, describe three points that need to be considered when preparing achievement tests. For each of your three points, illustrate a problem that would result if Gronlund's principle were not observed. 6) What is a table of specifications? How is it used in evaluating student achievement? 7) Select a familiar topic. On scrap paper, list several learning objectives you would use in teaching this topic. Be sure your objectives represent a variety of levels from Bloom's taxonomy. Design three multiple-choice items to assess some of your objectives. For each question, state the objective, and identify the level at which Bloom would classify it. Design your multiple-choice questions so that each reflects a different level of Bloom's taxonomy. 8) Mr. Zhou has given his unit test in Social Studies, and his students obtained the following scores (in percentages): 38 38 59 62 67 67 71 72 74 74 77 78 78 80 82 82 87 86 87 89 Mr. Zhou's absolute grading standards apply a 90% cutoff for an A, an 80% cutoff for a B, etc. 157Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Mr. Zhou is questioning his grading system after examining these grades. Describe the problem he faces. Describe Mr. Zhou's alternative for interpreting these test scores. In other words, what other basic approach to grading standards could he apply to the test results? How would the letter grades be affected? Describe one drawback to this change in grading standards. 9) Ms. Frisch is feeling despondent and frustrated as she looks at the chemistry mid-term exam results. The average score was only 68 percent, less than the C cutoff. Only four students scored in the 80 percent range, and just two in the 90 percent range—only four B’s and two A’s out of 28 students. "Maybe I made the exam too hard," she thinks. "I'm sure the students will be deflated when they see their grades." If Ms. Frisch came to you to discuss her problem, what would you tell her? 10) For each of the behavioral objectives listed below, circle the behavior, underline the condition, if applicable, and place parentheses around the criterion, if applicable. Using the appropriate tools and materials, create a piece of art. Select, read, and interpret a piece of poetry. Calculate the diameter of circles. Without error, perform each step of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Identify the planets of the solar system. 11) Describe the advantages and disadvantages of relative grading standards. 158Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Chapter 14 Standardized Tests and Accountability Multiple Choice Questions 1) The SAT and the ACT are categorized as which of the following types of tests? a) Criterion-referenced b) Knowledge c) Standardized d) Diagnostic 2) Typically, standardized tests are carefully constructed to provide accurate information reflecting: a) the highest achieving students' abilities clearly to set goals for all other students. b) clear demarcation between ability levels to define tracking levels. c) each student's intelligence quotient. d) each student's level of performance. 3) Which of the following descriptions is most characteristic of norm-referenced tests? a) Scores are compared to a representative group of prior test takers. b) They have a high difficulty level. c) Students are not expected to finish the entire test. d) The content assessed is curriculum-specific. 4) Which of the following is true regarding norm-referenced achievement tests? a) They provide little information on which to rank students according to their knowledge of a given subject. b) They evaluate students on all the content areas they have covered. d) They cannot be highly curriculum-specific because educational programs vary between states. 159Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 d) They are typically given only in high school, not elementary. 5) A criterion-referenced achievement test is designed to measure the degree to which a student: a) compares to his or her peers. b) has improved. c) performs simple tasks. d) has mastered well-specified skills. 6) When would it be most appropriate for a school psychologist to employ an aptitude test rather than an achievement test? a) to suggest ways to remediate specific deficits in knowledge b) to yield information on how well a student has learned a skill c) to identify or assess students for possible placement in special programs d) to identify styles of cognition and learning 7) An achievement test is primarily designed to assess: a) vocational and academic interests. b) general learning potential. c) specific academic deficits, for diagnosis of disabilities. d) skills or abilities that have traditionally been taught in schools. 8) What is the term for a test that is designed to measure general learning potential? a) Summative test b) Norm-referenced achievement test c) Criterion-referenced achievement test d) Aptitude test 9) A training department wants to know whether prospective plant employees can operate different types of heavy machinery that are now available. What would be the best type of test to give? 160Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 a) Norm-referenced achievement b) Criterion-referenced aptitude d) Criterion-referenced achievement d) Norm-referenced aptitude 10) Eighty-three percent of the students in a class can name five countries in South America. Such a statement is probably based on the results of: a) a diagnostic test. b) a criterion-referenced achievement test. c) an aptitude test. d) a norm-referenced achievement test. 11) The establishment of cutoff scores for criterion-referenced tests: a) is at a point above which 50 percent of the norming sample fall. b) employs an 80 percent criterion for difficult objectives and a 90 percent criterion for easy ones. c) relies on the professional judgment of teachers and other school personnel. d) is set by the school psychologist. 12) Which of the following questions can be best answered by a criterion-referenced test? a) How do children at a particular elementary school compare with the national norm in reading? b) How many students can multiple 2 digit by 2 digit numbers? c) What is the cause of a student's difficulties in mathematics? d) Which drivers education students are in the top 20%? 13) The scoring reports for a criterion-referenced achievement test would show: a) a student's normal curve equivalent score on each test item. b) the number of test items a student answered correctly for each objective. 161Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 c) students' confidence ratings of their performance on each test item. d) students' rankings compared to all students who took the test. 14) A fourth-grade student earns a grade-equivalent score of 6.1 in reading comprehension. One can conclude that the student: a) is in need of special services. b) should be moved to the sixth grade. c) is performing about two years above grade level. d) has a percentile rank of 61. 15) Which of the following is true regarding a grade-equivalent score? a) It compares a particular student's score to the average scores of norming groups at different grade levels. b) It tells a teacher how many students scored above and below the mean score. c) It tells a teacher the grade at which a particular student belongs. d) It compares a particular student's score to the stanine scores of other students. 16) A grade-equivalent score should be interpreted as a(n): a) accurate reflection of a student's raw score. b) rough approximation. c) accurate measure of the student's knowledge of the curriculum of more advanced grade levels. d) predictor of how quickly a student will progress through the year's curriculum . 17) The average amount that scores in a distribution differ from the mean is indicated by the: a) stanine score. b) standard error of measurement. c) standard deviation. d) median. 162Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 18) Julie scores 115 on an IQ test. IQ scores are normed so there is a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. It can be concluded that, on this particular test, the Julie’s score is a) 15 points higher than the top scoring student. b) has a stanine score greater than 7. c) has a raw score higher than 85. d) one standard deviation about the norm. 19) A particular test has a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of five. A student who scores one standard deviation above the mean will have a score of: a) 50. b) 55. c) 10. d) 75. 20) A z-score is a standard score that has a mean of ________ and a standard deviation of ________. a) 0; 1 b) 50; 5 c) 100; 10 d) 500; 100 21) A measure of the match between the information on a test and the information taught in a lesson is referred to as: a) reliability. b) convergent evidence of validity. c) content evidence of validity. d) predictive evidence of validity. 163Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 22) The validity of test results would be best reflected in response to which one of the following questions? a) Are the test results consistent? b) Does the test measure what has been taught? c) Is there enough similarity among the items? d) Is the test long enough? 23) Ms. Snodgrass designs a survey to assess students' test anxiety. In field-testing the survey, the teacher finds that students score the same from one testing to the next, and that scores correlate with dropout rates, although the test scores do not correlate with those of three standardized tests on test anxiety. The teacher's test is most DEFICIENT in: a) discriminant evidence of validity. b) predictive evidence of validity. c) concurrent evidence of validity. d) content evidence of validity. 24) A class is given a test of mechanical ability. Results show that those who scored high performed well in a previous industrial technology course while those who scored low did poorly in the course. The test can be said to have high: a) internal reliability. b) predictive evidence of validity. c) content evidence of validity. d) discriminant evidence of validity. 25) Which of the following can be inferred from the text author's description of validity and reliability? a) Test results cannot have validity without reliability. b) Test results can have validity without reliability. c) Test results can be useful without validity or reliability. d) Validity and reliability are synonymous terms. 164Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 26) How can the reliability of test results best be increased? a) Make items difficult. b) Increase the length of the test. c) Make items easy. d) Replace multiple-choice items with essay questions. 27) Vera's old mechanical bathroom scale used to tell her weights that always agreed with the scale at the doctor's office. Then one day the dial on her old scale was damaged and the numbers got scrambled. The scale still operates the same way—it gives her the same weight from day to day. But the weight it gives her now is 27 pounds. Vera's scale is now: a) reliable, but not valid. b) valid, but not reliable. c) both reliable and valid. d) neither reliable nor valid. 28) Mr. Bono's seventh graders complain that they studied the class material, but that material wasn't on the test. Mr. Bono should examine his test for evidence of: a) content validity. b) gender bias. c) concurrent validity. d) test reliability. 29) Mr. Parikh is giving quizzes on current events. A quiz has five questions about what's been in the news. Carly got 100% on one quiz (0 wrong) and 60% on the next quiz (2 wrong). Performance seems to be inconsistent throughout the class. What would help most to improve the reliability of these quizzes? a) rephrasing the questions b) increasing the number of questions c) comparing the content of questions to what was discussed in class d) use computer administration 165Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 30) What innovation does computer-adaptive testing offer? a) Reliability coefficients are computed at the completion of each test. b) Ability to tailor the selection of items to performance of student. c) Authentic assessments of student portfolios. d) Adaptive measures of innovation in learning. 31) A current problem with standardized achievement testing used for accountability is that: a) the public has limited interest in standardized test scores. b) the tests have low reliability. c) there are no real consequences for teachers with poor test scores. d) districts may adopt policies which artificially inflate scores. 32) A problem for standardized testing that is especially prevalent in lower socioeconomic status urban area schools is: a) high student mobility. b) low child measurability. c) high infant mortality. d) low student mobility. 33) An advantage of holding schools accountable for students' success in learning is that: a) states are decreasingly reporting "disaggregated" scores. b) schools can refuse to use outside innovative techniques. c) students of all ethnic groups may be excluded from testing. d) teachers are pressured to pay attention to students who might otherwise fall through the cracks. 34) The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation passed by Congress requires all "subgroups" of students in all schools to make: a) adequate yearly progress. 166Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 b) significant quarterly progress. c) significant yearly progress. d) adequate weekly progress. 35) The Obama administration is continuing many of the policies of NCLB. Elements of the current administration’s policies maintain: a) pressure for standardized assessments as second in importance to state independence. b) limited acceptance for the value of charter schools in the public sector. c) strong accountability for student test scores. d) historical context for state-level assessment issues. 36) Generally speaking, the biggest change as a result of wide spread adoption of the Common Score State Standards: a) is related to standards and the assessments based on them. b) will be the new procedures for the hiring of teachers c) is the emphasis on social sciences and science instruction d) is the that all 50 states are now in agreement on standard objectives 37) A driving force in the creation of the Educational Value-Added system is: a) schools serving disadvantaged students face greater difficulties in reaching standards. b) different assessments were needed to assess the arts. c) there needed to be standardized accountability. d) the implementation of No Child Left Behind. 38) This type of reform examines the root cause of problems within the educational setting. a) assessment reform b) no child left behind c) data-driven reform d) administrative reform Essay Questions 167Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 1) In what ways are standardized tests used to select and place students into special groups, classes, or institutions? 2) Using specific examples, illustrate how standardized tests are used for purposes of diagnosis, and of accountability. 3) Distinguish aptitude tests from achievement tests, comparing their general purposes, describing an example of each (identify a specific test) and indicating an advantage of each in a specific context. 4) Norm-referenced achievement tests fall into several categories: achievement batteries; diagnostic tests; and subject area achievement tests. Describe and give an example of each. 5) Explain how criterion-referenced achievement tests are different from norm-referenced achievement tests. 6) A student completes a series of standardized tests. On one test, the student scores at the 50th percentile. On another test, the student scores at the 5.0 grade equivalent. And, on yet another, the student's stanine score is 5. What do you know about this student? 7) Mrs. Espadas' classes scored as follows on her first unit biology test: 1st period: 73 80 80 80 82 82 85 86 86 87 88 88 88 89 90 mean = 84.3 standard deviation = 4.7 8th period: 56 60 75 75 80 84 87 88 88 92 95 96 96 99 100 mean = 84.7 standard deviation =13.4 Explain why the 8th period scores produce a larger standard deviation. Describe three characteristics of students or situations that could be underlying causes of these differences in standard deviations. 168Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 Mrs. Espadas is planning lessons for her next unit in biology, which depends heavily on prerequisite skills from the first unit. What problems might arise if Mrs. Espadas planned her next unit for these two classes on the basis of their average performance, but ignored the difference in standard deviations? 8) Why are reliability and validity important issues in standardized testing? Considering the issues of reliability and validity, criticize three of the following claims: "My test has a very large number of items; it must have strong evidence of content validity." "This is a highly reliable test, so it is unquestionably valuable for measuring our students' achievement." "This student cannot be considered for the gifted program—his IQ is not above 135." "The scores on these art assessments are identical every year—the test must be valid." "We screen all of our chefs using an elaborate test of their knowledge of recipes. This test is valid, even though many chefs who score high on it make awful food, and those who score low on it sometimes make the best dishes." 9) Criticisms of standardized tests often center on bias. Describe two specific examples of test bias. 10) Jim Bagley, principal of West High School, opened the morning paper before starting to work for the day. He read that East High School, the other secondary school in a large suburban community, scored higher on the Pre-Scholastic Achievement Test (Pre-SAT) than did West high. The story Jim read noted that East High scored third in the state while West High scored seventh. The principal from East High was quoted as saying, "We're very pleased with our test scores. They certainly show the public that we're doing a good job." Jim was concerned about the public's reaction to such a story and vowed to find a way to improve standardized test scores at West High. As test time rolled around again, Mr. Bagley had a plan. In past years, all of West High students were notified of and allowed to take the Pre-SAT, and many of them did. This time Mr. Bagley and the school counselor went to all of the advanced placement classes to announce that the test would be offered. No one else was told about the test. Mr. Bagley was pleased on test day as most of the school's "best and brightest" were there, but few others. Today, Jim Bagley opens the paper and reads the headlines: “West High Is Best In 169Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 State.” Discuss some of the issues brought forth in the case, including reporting and interpreting standardized test scores. 11) Emily took a standardized test of individual ability differences in 8th grade. The test assessed aptitude for a wide range of skills, classified according to career paths. Emily's parents were eager to find out what careers Emily was best suited for. When the results arrived, they were reported in stanine scores. Emily's parents anxiously studied the scores, but found that they were all sevens, from mechanical aptitude, to artistic ability, to language skills, to math computation. Emily's reaction was "I guess I can be anything I want, but that doesn't really help much." What could you tell Emily's parents that might help them make sense of Emily's scores? Is Emily very talented in all areas? How could a different scoring system shed light on Emily's profile of abilities? 170Slavin, Educational Psychology, Test Bank Chapter 1 [Show More]
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