*NURSING > Study Notes > Introduction to Nutrition: The Information you need for success in exam with less study time. Briefe (All)

Introduction to Nutrition: The Information you need for success in exam with less study time. Briefed and comprehensive.

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Introduction to Nutrition Proteins • What is protein • Functions of protein o Enzymes o Hormones o Immune function o Transport o Structure o Energy (4 calories per gram) • Protein need... s o Recommended protein intake: o O.8 g/kg body weight o 10-35% of total calories • Protein foods o Meat o Poultry o Fish and seafood o Dairy o Eggs o Beans and legumes o Soy o Nuts and seeds o Many foods contain protein – even grains • Structure of protein o Amino acid polymer (chain of amino acids) o Contains nitrogen o All have an amino group, carboxyl group, but different side chains o Twenty types of amino acids, essential and non-essential o Carboxy + amino = peptide bond o What aminos do we have and in what order is critical for protein to work efficiently • Nonessential o Synthesized by the body (usually from another AA) o We make • Essential o Body cannot create; must be provided in the diet • Protein quality: how well a protein gives us the amino acids we need • What do proteins do for us • How we digest proteins o Extremely efficient process o Goal: we absorb individual amino acids • Protein denaturation o Heat and acid unfold protein o Stomach acid o Enzymes in stomach and produced by pancreas break off individual amino acids for absorption • Protein absorption o Amino acids absorbed by cells lining the villi o Goes through the portal circulation to the liver for processing o Releases amino acids out to cells o Makes non-essential amino acids o Should get in protein post workout for optimum growth but have 24 hours • How we use protein o Create protein in cells through transcription and translation of DNA o Beta cells: insulin, glucagon o Muscle cells: myosin o Pancreas: pancreatic enzymes (lipase, amylase) • Liver o Excess dietary amino acids are deaminated o Carbon skeletons can:  Go to the TCA cycle to be used for energy  Be stored as fat o Produces ammonia (NH3) which is toxic  Ammonia converted to urea in the liver  Urea is eliminated by kidneys o Too much protein is hard on the liver and kidneys PROTEIN QUALITY AND VEGETARIANISM • Three components to each amino acid (contains nitrogen), amino group, carboxyl group, R side chain (diff for every protein, makes it fold). • Amino acids coded for by DNA’s order of base pairs • What protein makes a copy of DNA? RNA Polymerase • What translates RNA into amino acids? Transfer RNA (t RNA) • What two factors can denature a protein? Heat and acid • What happens to excess protein in the diet? Deamination in the liver, the amino group is broken down in the liver and excreted by kidneys, the carb backbone is broken down and used as energy or if in excess it is stored as fat. • We have 10 essential amino acids are ones we must consume in our diets, the 10 nonessential ones we can make on our own in our bodies. • Protein quality: how well a protein gives us the amino acids we need • Complete proteins: contain amounts of essential amino acids in proportion needed by the body when used as the sole source of proteins • All animal proteins ARE COMPLETE except gelatin (lacks tryptophan and lysine) o Eggs o Cheese o Milk o Meat/poultry o Fish • NO PLANT FOOD EXCEPT FOR SOY • Soy o IS A COMPLETE PROTEIN o Old measurement style using rats says incomplete but new science realized rats needed more methionine in the protein than us humans o Higher requirement methionine • Incomplete proteins: lacking one or more essential amino acids or having a poor balance of amino acids o Foods of vegetable origin except soy o Grains, nuts, and seeds lack lysine o Complementary proteins: the limited amino acids in sources are put together to make a complete protein pair. Beans and tortillas. PB and bread. One source legumes for example has one protein and grains have the other, making them complementary • Animal proteins o Meat/eggs  1-ounce meat = about 7 grams  Eggs = 7 grams o Dairy  1 cup milk = 8 grams  1 oz. cheese = about 8  1 oz. yogurt = about 8 grams • Plant proteins o Grains o Legumes and nuts o Soy products • Vegetarianism o Religion: Hindu, Buddhist, Seventh Day Adventist o Ethics: is it right to kill animals or use the for food? o Sustainability: much higher resources needed to produce animal protein vs. vegetable. o 100x more water required for the same protein o Cost benefit analysis o Health  Vegetarian diets contain • Less cholesterol, saturated fat • Higher fiber • Higher phytochemical, higher antioxidant content  Vegetarians have lower risk of: • Cancer • Type 2 diabetes • Hypertension (high blood pressure) • Obesity • BUT THEY ALSO TEND TO ADOPT OTHER HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS THAT COULD AFFECT HEALTH o Types of vegetarian  Semi vegetarian: generally, avoids meat  Pesco-vegetarians: do include fish but no meat or poultry  Lacto-ovo-vegetarian: no meat, poultry, fish. Eats milk and eggs  Ovo-vegetarians: nothing but eggs  Lacto-vegetarians: nothing but milk  Vegans: zero animal or meat stuffs. o Diet may be inadequate in micronutrients:  Calcium and vitamin D: diary, calcium-fortified dairy substitutes.  Vitamin B12: any animal food  Zinc: fortified cereals and beans • Not absorbed as well as animal foods  Iron: fortified cereals, bean, and seeds, cooking in cast iron skillet • Not absorbed as well as animal foods • Females may need a supplement  Requires careful planning, especially for vegan diets  Guidelines on making healthy choices still apply • High fiber, low sugar • Low saturated fats Review: Amino acids are essential when they are amino acids that our bodies cannot make All animal except for gelatin are complete all plants are incomplete except for soy Acid lacking in grains nuts and seeds? Lysine Amino acid lacking in legumes? Methionine What vitamins may be deficient in a vegan diets? Calcium, vitamin D, b12, zinc and iron. PROTEIN CARBS AND SPORTS NUTRITION • Goals of sports nutrition o Provide energy sources  Maximize glycogen  Adequate calories o Adequate fluid/hydration o Repair after exercise  Replete glycogen  Protein • Training o Increases  Muscle mass through damage and recovery  Ability of cell to create and store energy (ATP, glycogen)  Efficient use of energy (fat stores) o Decreases  Use of glycogen for energy (glycogen lasts longer) • Protein o Repair exercise-induced damage to muscle o Energy source is secondary • Athletes o RDA: 0.8 grams/kg o 2002 DRI: “no compelling evidence that additional protein is needed by exercising adults” o 2016 academy of Nutrition and dietetics/American College of Sports Medicine position paper:  1.2-2.0 grams/kg • Why no more protein? o No advantages of more protein  Body will not make more muscle from excess protein o Disadvantages  Use of protein for energy • Liver makes urea, must be eliminated by kidneys • Increased volume of urine = more likely to get dehydrated  Under-eat carbs  Long-term effects • Osteoporosis • Heart disease • Liver/kidney disease • What about carbs? o Carbs are necessary to allow protein to be used for muscle repair and maintenance, not as an energy source. • Water o Single most important nutrient for athletes o Sweating is good  Critical for temperature regulation • Heat exhaustion, heat cramps when temp regulation fails o Lose about 1 pint for every 300 kcal of exercise o Thirst is not a good indicator of need for fluid; athletes MUST consciously consume more fluid o Urine is a better indicator: need frequent urination, light lemonade color • Fluid needs o Sedentary: 8 cups/day o Athletes: 1 quart/1000 kcal o Symptoms of dehydration  Fatigue  Headaches o One cup of fluid every 15 min o DRINK MORE WATER • Sports drinks o Contain carbs and electrolytes  Sodium increases fluid and thirst  Sodium and potassium replace sweat losses  CHO provide energy and replace glycogen • 30-60 grams per hour, consumed early in activity • Glucose is preferred • Sports drinks or gel and water  Recommended for activity lasting over an hour or bursts of high intensity • After exercise: o Most finish exercise dehydrated but will replete fluid and electrolyte losses with normal food and fluid intake o Excessive dehydration: o Minimum 16-24 oz fluid for every pound lost during exercise o Preferably rehydration beverages and salty foods • GI distress o Common during exercise: athletes should consume familiar foods before events o Caused by rapid transit time due to movement of food in intestines  Bouncing around of food increases motility  Transit time also reduced by psychological stress  Rapid transit of food, inadequate absorption of food.  Increased by caffeine  Eat what is comfortable: some athletes may need liquid meals  Pre-workout meal should be small-ish, lower in fat, lower in fiber, high in carb to make sure stomach is not overly full. • Steady state o Energy metabolism:  Use fat for energy over glycogen (need glycogen to maintain blood glucose) o Cardiac output, heart rate, blood pressure increases to take nutrients and oxygen to cells • Respiration rate increases, and muscles push out more air o Not enough oxygen = inefficient energy production • If dehydrated cannot get adequate blood flow to tissue • Fatigue o Caused by 3 factors:  Depletion of glycogen  Hypoglycemia, hypoxia, inadequate blood flow, pain  Psychological factors (poorly understand/ o All these increase desire to stop exercising • Recovery • Drinking fluid without electrolytes o Can get water intoxication, which is not good • Post workout o Consume carbs within 30 mins of completion o High GI foods replete glycogen better than low o Protein promotes repair of muscle  Too much protein actually slows glycogen repletion • Lowers glycemic index  Want about 2x more carbs than protein: chocolate milk – carbs and a little protein – restores body quickly • Things for athletes to remember o Maximize glycogen stores  Carbs before exercise, after to replace  Adequate fluid during exercise (sports drinks if intense)  CHO (carbs) and protein immediately after exercise • Replace electrolytes if intense  Very high calorie intakes must be reduced when stopping competition, bc no longer as active. Sports nutrition review What is the RDA recommended dietary allowance for protein? 0.8 grams per kg of body weight For athletes 1.2-2 grams are recommended Starting with endurance athletes and ending in strength athletes Protein supplements are not necessary. Why metabolically speaking do we need to warm up before an activity? Allows time for muscles to start burning fat as fuel, allows to store glycogen Athletes need to consciously be hydrating bc when thirsty you are already dehydrated Weighing yourself pre and post workout will tell how much water you lose, “a pints a pound the world around” 3 factors causing fatigue during exercise Depletion of glycogen Systemic factors: hypoglycemia, hypoxia, inadequate blood flow, pain Psychological factors. For post workout we need carbs to replenish glycogen and protein to repair muscle Protein Malnutrition and eating disorders We want to stay in nitrogen balance aka protein balance, nitrogen intake via protein matches output in urine Normal healthy adults in nitrogen balance When in excess intake weight gain, pregnancy, growth in children happens Negative balance usually caused by injury/illness or starvation • Protein malnutrition • Protein rarely deficient without total cals being deficient • Two types classic types o Kwashiorkor  African word: the disease of the first child once the second child is born  First child weaned from breast milk onto starchy cereal diet  Very poor protein quality during need for protein intake  Characterized by edema - swelling  Often accompanied by infection o Marasmus  Simple starvation  Loss of body fat and body protein • Causes of malnutrition in the US o Poverty o Substance abuse o Chronic disease (cancer, AIDS, heart failure) o Eating disorders ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::CONTENT CONTINUED IN THE ATTACHMENT::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: [Show More]

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