Social Sciences > EXAM > SCI 115 Evolution Final Exam (updated 2020) – Saint Leo University | SCI 115 Evolution Final Exam (All)
SCI 115 Evolution Final Exam (updated 2020) – Saint Leo University Top of Form When a mutation changes the sequence of a gene, it forms a new: A) homozygote. B) allele. ... C) nucleophyte. D) none of the above. Random Section 2 Question 2 2 / 2 points Adaptation cannot result in a progression to absolute perfection. This is, in part, because: A) adaptation favors species with the least offspring. B) too many calories are consumed by perfect species. C) future forms are based on previous forms and modifications leading to perfection may require imperfect intermediates; these are not favored by natural selection. D) all of the above. Random Section 3 Question 3 2 / 2 points In the animal world, sexual selection: A) generally results in extreme features in males rather than females. B) is the choice between sexual and asexual reproduction. C) usually is less costly than asexual reproduction. D) favors females that are the most colorful. Random Section 4 Question 4 2 / 2 points Which violation of Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium is best explained by small population size? A) Mutation B) Natural selection C) Gene flow D) Genetic drift Random Section 5 Question 5 0 / 2 points Which of the following statements is false? A) When insect populations are attacked with pesticides, the populations increase their mutation rates so that they can develop pesticide-resistant alleles. B) Small populations have smaller gene pools than larger populations. C) The fittest members of a population leave more offspring than less-fit individuals. D) Natural selection is responsible for most adaptive changes in populations. Question 6 0 / 5 points Dr. Coyne describes an experiment in which dark mice have a higher survival rate than light mice on dark soil when owls are present. We would expect that the mouse population would get darker over time. Explain this phenomenon with reference to the relevant (and violated) Hardy Weinberg assumptions. According to Hardy Weinberg principle, allele and gene frequencies remain constant from generation to generations in the absence of evolutionary influences. however, this does not occur, as some or the other influence is constantly present in the environment causing the deviation in gene frequencies. In this scenario, the owl present in the environment influences gene deviation of mice. Dark mice thrive in the dark soil, where owl are present as they can camouflage reducing chances of getting preyed on by the owls. White mice on the contrary will fall prey very easily, due to their contrasting color on the dark soil. Over time, directional selection operates favoring dark skin colored allele in the mouse population and white skin color gets eliminated. This question has not been graded. The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Question 7 0 / 5 points Microevolution is in some ways random, while in other ways it is not. Explain. What does this mean in regards to the potential of a mutation saving a species facing extinction? Mechanisms of macroevolution include mutation, migration, genetic drift and natural selection. These mechanisms can occur randomly or not for example random mutation in a gene may occur changing the phenotypic characteristics of an organism and its adaptive mechanisms in a particular environment. Random mutations that result in enhancement of survival in a particular environment that had become inhabitable can save a species which is at the verge of extinction in that particular environment. Natural selection (a non-random process) of organisms with certain types of beneficial genes for survival in a given environment can also occur. This question has not been graded. The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Random Section 6 Question 8 2 / 2 points The Biological Species Concept does not apply well to: A) mammals. B) sexually reproducing animals. C) any plants. D) asexual organisms. Random Section 7 Question 9 0 / 2 points Which of the following statements about macroevolution is true? A) Darwin was the first to understand how macroevolution occurred. B) Macroevolution can happen quickly. C) It is the same thing as microevolution. D) It is widely considered more controversial than the concept of microevolution. Random Section 8 Question 10 2 / 2 points You were introduced in a short video to several groups of salamanders that serve to illustrate macroevolution in action. Which of the following statements about their story is true? A) When the subpopulations reunited south of the isolating barrier, they could not produce offspring together that were able to avoid predators. B) The salamanders slowly evolved into desert lizards. C) Although the salamanders didn’t experience microevolution, macroevolution occurred in just a few generations. D) None of the above is true. Random Section 9 Question 11 0 / 2 points Which of the following is not a postzygotic isolating mechanism? A) Hybrid breakdown B) Reduced hybrid vigor C) Gametic isolation D) Reduced hybrid viability Random Section 10 Question 12 2 / 2 points Species continue to arise through macroevolution because: A) mutations continue to occur, eventually resulting in reproductive isolation. B) niches need to be filled. C) changing can help species exploit new food sources. D) species try to change to avoid predators. Question 13 0 / 5 points Explain how microevolution can lead to macroevolution. Provide a hypothetical example to illustrate your explanation. Microevolution is defined as changes within a species that aren't drastic enough to create an entirely new species. Changes that result in a new species are part of macroevolution. Often microevolution can lead to macroevolution as changes become more pronounced and two distinct species emerge. Both are caused by mutation, genetic drift, gene flow or natural selection. For instance, Science has recorded numerous cases of the development of resistance — of bugs to pesticides, weeds to herbicides, and pathogens to medications — all of which are instances of microevolution by regular choice. On account of anti-infection resistance, for instance, a bacterial strain's colossal populace size and short era time imply that characteristic determination acts rapidly. In each bacterial era, new changes and quality blends are created. On the off chance that any of these give imperviousness to a medication to which the microscopic organisms are uncovered, regular choice will support those quality renditions. Through the span of numerous bacterial eras (a little portion of a solitary human lifetime), the microbes adjust to our safeguards, developing ideal out from under our endeavors to free ourselves of them. This question has not been graded. The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Question 14 0 / 5 points Jerry Coyne poses a question, “At what point are the differences between populations large enough to make us call them different species?” Please answer his question and defend your answer. This can occur when members of the same species are separated for a long time such as each of them how's through a separate evolutionary path. Humans have a lot of differences in physical characteristics but can still interbreed to produce viable offsprings and are therefore not considered members of the same species while horses and donkeys look morphologically similar but cannot interbreed to produce viable offsprings and are therefore considered members of different species. This question has not been graded. The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Random Section 11 Question 15 2 / 2 points It has been demonstrated that, genetically, humans most closely resemble: A) gorillas. B) chimpanzees. C) platypus. D) marsupials. Random Section 12 Question 16 2 / 2 points The position of the foramen magnum is important to those searching for fossil evidence of man’s ancestors because: A) it indicates the diet of the proto-human. B) it is often on the side of the femur in early humans. C) it can indicate if the fossilized animal was bipedal. D) it is usually the richest rock layer. Random Section 13 Question 17 0 / 2 points Lucy, a female Australopithecus afarensis, was different from modern humans in that she: A) had a larger brain. B) had teeth arrayed in a more parabolic row. C) had a larger Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area. D) has none of the above. Random Section 14 Question 18 2 / 2 points A central message of the book Your Inner Fish is: A) that evolution is a troubled theory. B) that our bodies provide much evidence of evolution. C) that we are really fish. D) none of the above. Random Section 15 Question 19 2 / 2 points Which of the following is the “hobbit” found in Southeast Asia? A) Homo habilis B) Homo erectus C) Homo floresiensis D) Australopithicus boisei Question 20 0 / 5 points Describe two competing theories to explain the rise and spread of Homo sapiens. Which theory is most supported by the evidence? Briefly outline the evidence. The Multi-Regional Evolution Hypothesis. In this model, modern "racial" differences have deep evolutionary roots, although gene flow maintains reproductive and anatomical similarity. Fossils from Asia and Australia are interpreted as showing regional continuity. The hypothesis predicts that modern human fossils should appear at broadly the same time throughout the Old World; that transitional fossils between Homo ergaster or H. heidelbergensis and modern humans should be found; and that continuity should also occur. Genetically, modern human genes should have a deep ancestry, and genetic variability should be similar across the Old World, reflecting similar rates of change. The Out of Africa Hypothesis. This hypothesis assumes that modern humans dispersed from a single center of origin, but also that they completely replaced older, indigenous forms of Homo, with some possible interbreeding. The hypothesis predicts that the earliest transitional and then modern human fossils will be found only in Africa. It also suggests that modern-day humans outside of Africa will not share heritage with earlier populations in the same region. Only in Africa will great genetic diversity be found, reflecting a longer period of random mutation. This question has not been graded. The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Question 21 0 / 5 points How are modern humans distinct from Paranthropus robustus? Was P. robustus a human? Why or why not? Paranthropus robustus belongs to a group that represents a side branch of the human family tree. The paranthropines are a group of three species that range in time from c. 2.6 mya up to c. 1.2 mya. Paranthropus robustus (or Australopithecus robustus) is an early hominin, initially discovered in Southern Africa in 1938. Particularly regarding cranial features, the development of P. robustus seemed to be in the direction of a "heavy-chewing complex." P. robustus was a human. This is because several related bones and teeth have been collected in the Kromdraai, South Africa. Their skulls and teeth bear a resemblance to that of humans. The cranial anatomy of P. robustus is distinctive for the broad, dished face, the prominent cheekbones, the small front teeth, the large cheek teeth, and the large, deep mandible. Males are more extensive than females and have a sagittal crest running along the top of their skull. These traits are interpreted as indicating a chewing apparatus that is adapted for eating tough, hard foods. Modern humans are distinct in that; they have a taller average height. The P. robustus was short and had an average male height of 3 ft 9 inches. They have smaller cheek teeth. P. robustus had very large teeth and robust cheeks. Smaller sagittal crest. This question has not been graded. The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Random Section 16 Question 22 0 / 2 points Which of the following statements about the scientific method is true? A) The scientific method can prove a hypothesis to be true. B) If a hypothesis is demonstrated to be incorrect, the entire theory must be thrown out. C) A hypothesis that cannot be tested is still acceptable, as long as current observations support it. D) A good hypothesis should have testable predictions. Random Section 17 Question 23 2 / 2 points Which of the following was at play in the evolution of the peppered moth following the Industrial Revolution? A) Migration (gene flow) B) Founder effect C) Bottleneck event D) Natural selection Random Section 18 Question 24 2 / 2 points Overuse of antibiotics has led to which of the following? A) Antibiotic resistance due to gene flow B) Antibiotic resistance due to natural selection and fast mutation rates C) Eradication of common bacterial illness due to sound evolutionary science D) None of the above Random Section 19 Question 25 0 / 2 points Some rare genetic diseases become common in small populations due to which of the following? A) Bottleneck events B) Gene flow C) Natural selection D) Nonrandom mating Random Section 20 Question 26 2 / 2 points The Intelligent Design concept proposes: A) that an intelligent force, not natural selection, guided the development of biological diversity. B) that natural selection is the most important force shaping species. C) that all life appeared immediately after the big bang. D) none of the above. Question 27 0 / 5 points Select an aspect of evolution that has been subjected to the scientific method. Detail the steps of the scientific method and how it was applied to your particular example of evolutionary theory. The aspect of "the origin of species" is subjected to the scientific method. Darwin laid out the evidence demonstrating the evolution of organisms. However, he accomplished something much more important than showing evolution. Indeed, accumulating evidence for common descent with diversification may very well have been a secondary objective of Darwin's masterpiece. Darwin's "Origin of Species" is a sustained argument to solve the problem of how to account scientifically for the "design" of organisms. Darwin seeks to explain the adaptations of organisms, their complexity, diversity, and marvelous contrivances as the result of natural processes. Darwin brings about the evidence for evolution because evolution is a necessary consequence of his theory of natural selection. He explains how natural selection works and the role of hereditary variation and he considers possible objections to his theory. The evolution of organisms was commonly accepted by naturalists in the middle decades of the 19th century. The distribution of exotic species in South America, in the Galápagos Islands and elsewhere, and the observation of fossil remains of long-extinguished animals during his voyage on the Beagle would contribute to confirming the reality of evolution in Darwin's mind. The intellectual challenge after his return to Britain was not merely to accumulate evidence showing that species evolve. Instead, the fundamental problem was to explain the origin of distinct species of organisms and how they adapted to their environments, that "mystery of mysteries," as it had been labeled by Darwin's older contemporary, the prominent scientist and philosopher Sir John Herschel. Darwin wrote in his Autobiography that he had always been much struck by such adaptations and until these could be explained it seemed to him almost useless to endeavor to prove by indirect evidence that species have been modified. The advances of physical science accomplished by the "Copernican Revolution" of the 16th and 17th centuries brought about the workings of the universe under the domain of science. Explanation by natural laws that can be tested by observation and experiment. The fundamental commitment was to the postulate that the world consists of matter in motion governed by natural laws. All physical phenomena could be accounted for as long as the causes became adequately known. Darwin's theory of natural selection brought the adaptations of organisms within the realm of explanation by natural laws. He completed the Copernican Revolution by drawing out for biology the notion of nature as a lawful system of matter in motion that human reason can explain without recourse to supernatural or extramural agencies. The origin and adaptations of organisms in their profusion and wondrous variations were thus brought into the realm of science. Scientific method Research question Ask a question on what you want to research about. Research Conduct background research. You should write down your sources so you can cite your references. Hypothesis Propose a hypothesis. This is a sort of educated guess about what you expect. Experimentation Design and experiment to test your hypothesis. An experiment has an independent and dependent variable. You change or control the independent variable and record the effect it has on the dependent variable. Data analysis Record observations and analyze what the data means. Often, you'll prepare a table or graph of the data. Conclusion Conclude whether to accept or reject your hypothesis. Communicate your results. In the origin of species, Darwin used the scientific method which had two episodes. The first consists of formulating hypotheses; the second consists of experimentally testing them. What differentiates science from other knowledge is the second episode: subjecting hypotheses to empirical testing by observing whether or not predictions derived from a hypothesis are the case in relevant observations and experiments. A hypothesis is scientific only if it is consistent with some but not other possible states of affairs not yet observed so that it is subject to the possibility of falsification by reference to experience. Darwin occupies an exalted place in the history of Western thought, deservedly receiving credit for the theory of evolution. In The Origin of Species, he laid out the evidence demonstrating the evolution of organisms. Darwin used scientific methods to explain the origin of species. It is therefore clear that he used scientific methods to come up with the evidence. This question has not been graded. The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Question 28 0 / 5 points Provide an example where knowledge of evolution has informed the field of modern medicine. Be sure to include specific details of what aspect of evolution is at play. Evolution, theory in biology postulating that the various types of plants, animals, and other living things on Earth have their origin in different preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modifications in successive generations. A naturalist Charles Darwin argued that organisms come about by evolution, and he provided a scientific explanation, factually correct but incomplete, of how evolution occurs and why it is that organisms have features—such as wings, eyes, and kidneys—clearly structured to serve specific functions. He also talked about the origin of different species, e.g., the evolution of man to the modern man. This has provided a sequence on how a particular thing evolved and came into being. This knowledge has informed the field of medicine in a manner that, the scientists have been able to discover the origin of HIV and other medicinally-important viruses and bacteria entirely due to the theory of evolution, which gave them a logical framework in which to construct the phylogenies that lead to the information. That also points to the cure for such things - evolution and phylogenies allow us to see which areas are conserved in the biology of these viruses and bacteria, which gives us prime targets to disrupt. It has been thought that data derived from animals about a particular disease can be used in humans. For instance, it has been widely thought that the response of mice to cancer is nearly similar to that of humans. However, the knowledge of interspecific variation has influenced the use of mice as model organisms for man. Studies have shown that mice are more susceptible to sarcomas and leukemias while humans are more vulnerable to carcinomas. Furthermore, in cancer treatment, the impact of evolution plays out in hardy cells which are resistant to chemotherapy. Patients with cancer cells that have undergone adaptive evolution have forced oncologists to try out new agents for treatment. This question has not been graded. 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