Social Sciences > EXAM > SCI 115 Final Exam 2020 – Saint Leo University | SCI 115 Final Exam 2020 (All)

SCI 115 Final Exam 2020 – Saint Leo University | SCI 115 Final Exam 2020

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SCI 115 Final Exam 2020 – Saint Leo University One copy of a gene differs from another by two nucleotides.  The first copy codes for blue eyes; the other codes for brown eyes.  We call these di... fferent forms of a gene: A)  alleles. B)  homozygotes. C)  promoters. D)  interferons. Random Section 2 Question 2 2 / 2 points Adaptation cannot result in a progression to absolute perfection.  This is, in part, because: A)  adaptation favors species with the least offspring. B)  too many calories are consumed by perfect species. C)  future forms are based on previous forms and modifications leading to perfection may require imperfect intermediates; these are not favored by natural selection. D)  all of the above. Random Section 3 Question 3 2 / 2 points Sexual selection: A)  includes cases where males are more likely eaten by wolves than females. B)  includes cases where one gender selects mates of the opposite gender. C)  is oddly absent in birds. D)  is none of the above. Random Section 4 Question 4 0 / 2 points Which violation of Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium is best explained by immigrants into a population? A)  Mutation B)  Gene flow C)  Non-random mating D)  Natural selection Random Section 5 Question 5 0 / 2 points If an allele that is necessary for survival is not present in a population then: A)  the allele will arise via mutation because the population needs it. B)  the population will adapt to the environment without genes. C)  the population will likely go extinct. D)  the population will welcome immigrants who bring new alleles. Question 6 5 / 5 points Dr. Coyne describes an experiment in which dark mice have a higher survival rate than light mice on dark soil when owls are present.  We would expect that the mouse population would get darker over time.  Explain this phenomenon with reference to the relevant (and violated) Hardy Weinberg assumptions.
 Hardy Weinberg principle states that allele and gene frequencies remain constant from generation to generations in the absence of any evolutionary influences. But this never happens, as some or the other influence is always present in the environment that causes the deviation in gene frequencies. Here the owl present in the environment plays the major role in gene deviation of mice.
Dark mice survive better in the dark soil, where owl are present as they can camouflage and prevent themselves to be getting preyed by the owls. White mice will fall prey very easily, due to their contrasting color on the dark soil.
With time, directional selection operates favoring dark skin colored allele in mouse population and white skin color gets eliminated. The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Question 7 5 / 5 points Microevolution is in some ways random, while in other ways it is not.  Explain.  What does this mean in regards to the potential of a mutation saving a species facing extinction? Mechanisms of macroevolution include mutation, migration, genetic drift and natural selection. These mechanisms can occur randomly or not for example random mutation in a gene may occur changing the phenotypic characteristics of an organism and its adaptive mechanisms in a particular environment. 
Random mutations that result in enhancement of survival in a particular environment that had become inhabitable can save a species which is at the verge of extinction in that particular environment.
Natural selection ( a non-random process) of organisms with certain types of beneficial genes for survival in a given environment can also occur. The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Random Section 6 Question 8 0 / 2 points Which of the following best summarizes the Biological Species Concept? A)  Two groups of organisms that are easily distinguished visually B)  Two groups of organisms that are geographically isolated C)  Two groups of organisms that cannot interbreed with one another D)  Two groups of organisms that are polyploidy Random Section 7 Question 9 2 / 2 points Macroevolution: A)  is the process by which new species originate from existing species. B)  unlike microevolution never involves mutations. C)  is simply a change in the gene pool of a single species. D)  operates on species over 3 kg only. Random Section 8 Question 10 0 / 2 points You were introduced in a short video to several groups of salamanders that serve to illustrate macroevolution in action.  Which of the following statements about their story is true? A)  When the subpopulations reunited south of the isolating barrier, they could not produce offspring together that were able to avoid predators. B)  The salamanders slowly evolved into desert lizards. C)  Although the salamanders didn’t experience microevolution, macroevolution occurred in just a few generations. D)  None of the above is true. Random Section 9 Question 11 2 / 2 points Which of the following is not a prezygotic barrier to reproduction? A)  Gametic isolation B)  Temporal isolation C)  Geographic isolation D)  All of the above are prezygotic isolating mechanisms Random Section 10 Question 12 2 / 2 points Species continue to arise through macroevolution because: A)  if species didn’t evolve, then they would go extinct. B)  species evolve because they strive to be the fittest. C)  mutations continue to occur, some of which lead to reproductive isolation. D)  All of the above are true. Question 13 5 / 5 points Explain how microevolution can lead to macroevolution.  Provide a hypothetical example to illustrate your explanation. Microevolution is defined as changes within a species that aren't drastic enough to create an entirely new species. Changes that result in a new species are part of macroevolution. Often microevolution can lead to macroevolution as changes become more pronounced and two distinct species emerge. Both are caused by mutation, genetic drift, gene flow or natural selection.Imagine you have a family ancestry portfolio with a picture of each generation you at one end and then your father or mother, in the next picture your grandparents, and so on. In only a few inches you have gone back hundreds of years and not much change. But this family picture album goes on for not just a few inches, but many miles and at the far end, is a tiny, primitive, single cell organism the first reproducing cell. If you go back a couple of feet you might run into ancestors that were far different enough that you would not be able to reproduce. Walk back further you find more ape-like ancestors--eventually you reach the common ancestor of men and apes. Go back much further walk back a mile or so, and perhaps you've reached the place where primitive mammals first appeared perhaps a mutation in a rat-like creature that allowed it to produce milk to feed it's young a spectacularly successful mutation.   The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Question 14 5 / 5 points Jerry Coyne poses a question, “At what point are the differences between populations large enough to make us call them different species?”  Please answer his question and defend your answer. Species : In terms of biology, it is the basic principal taxonomic unit, which clubing the living organisms in terms of of their same habitat, interbreeding, similar morphological or genetic features etc.
Therefore, a large population can be differentiated or divided into various species by means of their habitat, morphological or genetic features etc. Scientists have consensus that the living organisms which do not inter mate are consider to be a different species. The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Random Section 11 Question 15 2 / 2 points Our closest living relatives are the: A)  chimpanzees. B)  monkeys. C)  orangutans. D)  rodents. Random Section 12 Question 16 0 / 2 points The position of the foramen magnum is important to those searching for fossil evidence of man’s ancestors because: A)  it indicates the diet of the proto-human. B)  it is often on the side of the femur in early humans. C)  it can indicate if the fossilized animal was bipedal. D)  it is usually the richest rock layer. Random Section 13 Question 17 2 / 2 points Which of the following is an incorrect description of the “direction” of the evolution of man? A)  Teeth row became more parabolic. B)  Brain size generally increased. C)  Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas of the brain became enlarged. D)  none of the above; all are correct. Random Section 14 Question 18 2 / 2 points Hiccups are a sign of our evolutionary history.  They are a relic of: A)  our shared ancestry with amphibians. B)  sexual selection. C)  a vestigial appendix. D)  pseudogenes. Random Section 15 Question 19 2 / 2 points Homo sapiens shared Europe with: A)  Homo habilis B)  Homo neanderthalensis C)  Homo floresiensis D)  Australopithicus boisei. Question 20 5 / 5 points Describe two competing theories to explain the rise and spread of Homo sapiens.  Which theory is most supported by the evidence?  Briefly outline the evidence. Two competing theories to explain the rise and spread of Homo sapiens.
Out of Africa theory is most supported by the evidence.
Multiregional : The Multiregional Theory states that after the departure of Homo erectus from Africa and spread into other parts of the World, local populations slowly developed into modern humans.
Out of Africa: Out of Africa theory states that modern humans developed recently in Africa,shifted to Eurasia and took the place of all populations which had originated from Homo erectus.
The remains of   modern-like humans are discovered in Africa.
The discovery of tools made of stone and other instruments support the Out of Africa theory .
DNA tests also support   the Out of Africa theory . The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Question 21 5 / 5 points How are modern humans distinct from Paranthropus robustus?  Was P. robustus a human?  Why or why not?

  Paranthropus robustus belongs to a group that represents a side branch of the human family tree.  The paranthropines are a group of three species that range in time from c. 2.6 mya up to c. 1.2 mya.  P. robustus is known from South Africa, while the other two species in the group (P. aethiopicus and P. boisei) are known from East Africa.  The parathropines as a group are clearly very specialized, being characterized by cranial adaptations for extreme chewing abilities.  The name Paranthropus means "beside man" and was intended to highlight the interpretation  members of this group were not directly ancestral to modern humans.  The cranial anatomy of P. robustus is distinctive for the large, dished face, the prominent cheek bones, the small front teeth, the very large cheek teeth, and the large, deep mandible.  Males are larger than females and have a sagittal crest running along the top of their skull.  These traits are interpreted as indicating a chewing apparatus that is adapted for eating tough, hard foods.  
Very little is known about the postcranial skeleton of P. robustus, because few fossil bones can be unambiguously attributed to this species.  Habitat reconstructions of Swartkrans indicate wooded grassland and edaphic grasslands, supporting the suggestion that Paranthropus might have exploited resources in wet grasslands. The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Random Section 16 Question 22 2 / 2 points Which of the following is not a step of the scientific method? A)  Make observations B)  Formulate a hypothesis C)  Make predictions D)  Guess how predictions would play out, theoretically Random Section 17 Question 23 2 / 2 points Which of the following was at play in the evolution of the peppered moth following the Industrial Revolution? A)  Migration (gene flow) B)  Founder effect C)  Bottleneck event D)  Natural selection Random Section 18 Question 24 2 / 2 points Overuse of antibiotics has led to which of the following? A)  Antibiotic resistance due to gene flow B)  Antibiotic resistance due to natural selection and fast mutation rates C)  Eradication of common bacterial illness due to sound evolutionary science D)  None of the above Random Section 19 Question 25 0 / 2 points Some rare genetic diseases become common in small populations due to which of the following? A)  Bottleneck events B)  Gene flow C)  Natural selection D)  Nonrandom mating Random Section 20 Question 26 2 / 2 points Intelligent Design has been excluded from classrooms because: A)  it is too complex for most young students to grasp. B)  to some it was an obvious vehicle for a religious explanation of biological diversity. C)  it does not explain the ultimate origin of life. D)  all of the above. Question 27 5 / 5 points Select an aspect of evolution that has been subjected to the scientific method. Detail the steps of the scientific method and how it was applied to your particular example of evolutionary theory. There is a contradiction between Darwin's methodology and how he described it for public consumption. Darwin claimed that he proceeded "on true Baconian [inductive] principles and without any theory collected facts on a wholesale scale." He also wrote, "How odd it is that anyone should not see that all observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any service!" The scientific method includes 2 episodes. The first consists of formulating hypotheses; the second consists of experimentally testing them. What differentiates science from other knowledge is the second episode: subjecting hypotheses to empirical testing by observing whether or not predictions derived from a hypothesis are the case in relevant observations and experiments. A hypothesis is scientific only if it is consistent with some but not other possible states of affairs not yet observed, so that it is subject to the possibility of falsification by reference to experience. Darwin occupies an exalted place in the history of Western thought, deservedly receiving credit for the theory of evolution. In The Origin of Species, he laid out the evidence demonstrating the evolution of organisms. More important yet is that he discovered natural selection, the process that accounts for the adaptations of organisms and their complexity and diversification. Natural selection and other causal processes of evolution are investigated by formulating and testing hypotheses. Darwin advanced hypotheses in multiple fields, including geology, plant morphology and physiology, psychology, and evolution, and subjected them to severe empirical tests. The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Question 28 5 / 5 points Provide an example where knowledge of evolution has informed the field of modern medicine. Be sure to include specific details of what aspect of evolution is at play. Medical science is continually making rapid advances: new medications and treatments are developed and introduced at a rapid pace, but we can better take advantage of these advances by taking evolution into account.

Like all biological systems, both disease-causing organisms and their victims evolve. Understanding evolution can make a big difference in how we treat disease. The evolution of disease-causing organisms may outpace our ability to invent new treatments, but studying the evolution of drug resistance can help us slow it. Learning about the evolutionary origins of diseases may provide clues about how to treat them. And considering the basic processes of evolution can help us understand the roots of genetic diseases. Evolutionary biology is a necessary basic science for medication, however few doctors and medical researchers aracquainted with its most relevant principles. Most medical colleges have geneticists UN agency perceive evolution, however few have even one biological process man of science to counsel different attainable applications. The ravine between biological process biology and medication is wide.

Some biological process technologies, like population biological science, serial transfer production of live vaccines, and phyletic analysis, are wide applied. different areas, like communicable disease and aging analysis, illustrate the dramatic recent progress created attainable by biological process insights. In still different areas, likemedicine, psychiatry, and understanding the regulation of bodily defenses, applying biological process principles remains The correct answer is not displayed for Written Response type questions. Attempt Score: / - 82.5 % Overall Grade (highest attempt): / - 82.5 % [Show More]

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