NEUR 1203 Mock Midterm Part 1: MC Questions A collection of blood between the dura matter and the skull is a(n) a) Subdural Hematoma b) Epidural Hematoma c) Thrombosis d) Embolism The in... side of a neuron is ____________ charged relative to the outside due to: a) Negatively charged. Large negatively charged proteins (A-) – inside; Sodium ions (Na+) – outside; Potassium ions (K+) - inside; Chloride ions (Cl-) – outside. b) Positively charged. Large negatively charged proteins (A-) – inside; Sodium ions (Na+) – outside; Potassium ions (K+) - inside; Chloride ions (Cl-) – outside. c) Negatively charged. Large negatively charged proteins (A-) – inside; Sodium ions (Na+) – inside; Potassium ions (K+) - outside; Chloride ions (Cl-) – outside. d) Negatively charged. Large negatively charged proteins (A-) – inside; Sodium ions (Na+) – outside; Potassium ions (K+) - outside; Chloride ions (Cl-) – inside. The brain is protected by the meninges. The layer that is a thin sheet of delicate connective tissue and follows the brain’s contour is: a) The subarachnoid space b) The arachnoid layer c) The dura mater d) The pia mater Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by __________ cells that line the ______________ a) Oligodendrocytes. White matter. b) Astrocytes. Ventricles. c) Schwann. Corpus Callosum. d) Ependymal. Ventricles. A person is having difficulty with using scissors (something that requires fine motor skills). Based on this, you can assume that this person may have problems with this region of the brain: a) Substantia Nigra b) Basal Ganglia c) Tectum d) Cerebellum Several axon fibers form a __________ inside the CNS a) Tract b) Nerve c) Nerves and tracts are interchangeable terms in the CNS d) Bundles GABA falls under this class of neurotransmitter a) Inhibitory b) Excitatory c) Monoamines NT’s d) Amino Acid NT’s The cylinder space in the neural tube gives rise to: a) The ventricles b) The spinal canal c) The sulci in the brain d) Both the ventricles and the spinal canal Gene expression can be turned off via a) DNA methylation where a methyl group is added to the mRNA after transcription b) DNA acetylation where an acetyl group is added to DNA c) DNA methylation where a methyl group is added to DNA d) None of the above ____________ are the bumps and ridges in the cerebral cortex and _________ are the cracks and valleys. Together they create a ________ surface area for the brain and allow for greater cognitive function. a) Sulci. Gyri. Smaller b) Sulci. Gyri. Larger c) Gyri. Sulci. Larger d) Gyri. Sulci. Smaller In the somatic nervous system, _________ information comes into the spinal cord via dorsal fibers. This side is ____________. ______________ information leaves the spinal cord via ventral fibers. This side is _____________. a) Efferent. Motor. Afferent. Sensory. b) Sensory. Efferent. Afferent. Sensory. c) Afferent. Sensory. Efferent. Motor. d) Afferent. Motor. Efferent. Sensory. e) None of the above. Neural stem cells in adults line the ventricles forming the ___________ and give rise to _________ cells. a) Neural tube, multipotential cells b) Third ventricle, progenitor cells c) Sub ventricular zone, progenitor cells d) 4th ventricle, multipotential cells The basal ganglia consists of these four structures: a) The dorsal striatum, the pons, the Globus Pallidus and the Substantia Nigra b) The Substantia Nigra, the hippocampus, the dorsal ventral nucleus of the hypothalamus and the ventral tegmental area. c) The Substantia Nigra, the Globus Pallidus, the Subthalamic Nucleus and the Dorsal Stiatum d) The Subthalamic Nucleus, the Substantia Nigra, the cerebellum and the putamen. These two cells repair damaged neurons in the _________. a) Oligodendrocytes and astrocytes repair damaged neurons in the CNS b) Microglia and Schwann cells repair damaged neuron in the PNS c) Astrocytes and Microglia repair damaged neurons in both the CNS and PNS d) Only microglia repair damaged neurons in the PNS Growth cones respond to a) Cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs) only b) Trophic molecules only c) Tropic molecules only d) Both a and b e) Both a and c The degree of impairment in Fragile X syndrome patients varies in males vs females: a) Correlates with the size of amplification in males. Correlates with the activation ratio in females. b) Correlates with the size of amplification in females. Correlates with the activation ratio in males. c) Correlates with the degree of methylation in males. Correlates with the activation ratio in females. d) Correlates with the size of amplification in males. Correlates with the degree of methylation in females. The basic fibroblast growth factor stimulates a) Stem cells to produce progenitor cells b) Progenitor cells to produce glioblasts c) Progenitor cells to produce neuroblasts d) Stem cells to begin synaptic pruning FMRP function to a) Bind the other FMRPs and transport them to the nucleus of cells in the testes b) Bind to rRNA and transport them to the cytoplasm c) Bind to mRNA and transport them to the cell membrane d) Bind to mRNA and transport them to the synapse e) None of the above Which method of inactivation stops chemical communication between neurons? a) Glia cell uptake b) Diffusion c) Reuptake d) Enzymatic degradation e) All of the above. Glutamate is capable of binding to this receptor: a) AMPA receptors b) NMDA receptors c) Kainate receptors d) All of the above e) Only A and B The tectum receives sensory information from which two areas? Allows for the production of what? a) Ears and Eyes. Oriented movement. b) Ears and Eyes. Fine motor movement. c) Ears and Nose. Voluntary movement. d) Eyes and mouth. Oriented movement. Secondary injuries following a concussion include blood brain permeability to outside toxins. This is the result of overproduced ___________ resulting in _____________. a) Glutamate, anaerobic metabolism b) Lactic acid, acidosis c) GABA, acidosis d) Lactic acid, anaerobic metabolism Neurons that are deprived of nerve growth factors a) Don’t grow peripheral nerves b) Will undergo apoptosis c) Will have stunted neuron growth d) Will not be myelinated Olfactory bulbs send sensory information directly to the ___________ for processing: a) The hippocampus b) The pyriform cortex c) The prefrontal cortex d) The cerebellum e) All of the above Amyloid plaques can form ion channels in lipid membranes that are permeable to a) Sodium ions. Influx of too much sodium is associated with extreme excitation and the production of hydroxyl radicals b) Potassium ions. Efflux of too much potassium puts the brain in an energy crisis. c) Calcium ions. Dysregulation is associated with mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. d) Chloride ions. Dysregulation is associated with mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Fragile X Syndrome is caused by: a) A loss of function mutation in the FMR-1 gene b) Increased levels of FMR-1 protein c) Hyper methylation of the FMR-1 gene d) Both A and B e) Both A and C In glutamate excitotoxicity, there is an over activation of _______________ and massive influx of _______ into the cell. a) AMPA receptors, Cl- b) NMDA receptors, K+ c) NMDA receptors, Ca2+ d) AMPA receptors, Ca2+ e) None of the above Which statement is false of Fragile X Syndrome? a) CGG expansion leads to methylation-coupled silencing b) Caused by a decrease in the FMR protein. c) >200 repeats of CGG in permutation. 50-200 repeats in full mutation. d) Females have milder phenotypes due to variability in X-inactivation. The neuron membrane potential is kept in balance by a) Astrocytes. They exchange 2 Na+ (outbound) for 1 K+ (inbound). b) Sodium-Potassium Pumps. Pump 3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in. c) Sodium-Potassium Pumps. Pump 2 Na+ out and 3 K+ in. d) Voltage gated channels. They pump Na+ out, K+ in and Cl- in. During Neural Development, what path do progenitor cells follow? a) Line the subventricular zone in a perpendicular fashion from one end of the brain to the other. b) Attach onto to already differentiated neuroblasts and differentiate alongside them. c) Attach onto cell adhesion molecules and the remaining progenitor cells follow d) Follow path made by radial glial cells extending from the subventricular zone to the surface of the cortex. Following a concussion, there is an energy crisis. During this time, cerebral blood flow is ________ and ___________ are dysfunctional. a) Increased, nucleus b) Reduced, nucleus c) Increased, mitochondria d) Reduced, mitochondria Part 2: Short Answer Explain the importance of experience in development and cortical organization. Support your answer using studies that have illustrated this. Tactile stimulation has been shown to increase growth rate of premature babies in an incubator. Experience changes structure of neurons especially cortical neurons. Processing sensory information increases number of synapses and astrocytes. Experience influences intelligence in some way. Donald Hebb experiment cage rats vs house rats. House rats out performed cage rats on intelligence tests. Label and define: Name What is it? A B C Name and describe two ways cells die. What is an action potential? Describe the process in detail. Be sure to include movement of charged ions and specific channels. What is glutamate excitotoxicity? What can be the result of glutamate excitotoxicity? . There are 7 neurodevelopmental stages. List them. [Show More]
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